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2.
Zootaxa ; 4890(4): zootaxa.4890.4.3, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311105

RESUMO

Within the pollinator family Syrphidae, Eumerus Meigen, 1822 is a diverse genus with over 70 species recorded in the Afrotropical Region. A new species is described here from Namibia and South Africa. Adults are small to medium size flies, with spur-like expansions in the metatarsomeres 2 and 3. DNA sequences of the Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene were obtained from Namibian specimens. This is only the second Eumerus species documented from Namibia, where it was recorded from The National Botanic Garden, Windhoek. The new species is compared with similar species such as Eumerus vestitus Bezzi, 1912, for which a lectotype is designated. In addition, a new and preliminary morphological concept of the Eumerus obliquus group is proposed and a key to its African species is provided.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Jardins , Namíbia , Plantas , África do Sul
3.
J Water Health ; 18(6): 867-878, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328359

RESUMO

There are increasing concerns about wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) acting as hotspots for antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). However, their role largely depends upon the treatment methods and antibiotics in the wastewater. To better understand these influences, we compared the occurrence and fate of ARG between a pond system in a developing country (Namibia) and an advanced WWTP (activated sludge system) in a developed country (Germany). A targeted metagenomic approach was used to investigate the wide-spectrum profiles of ARGs and their co-occurrence patterns at both locations. In total, 93 ARG subtypes were found in the German influent wastewater, 277 in the Namibian influent wastewater. The abundant ARG types found in Namibia and Germany differed, especially for multidrug resistance genes. The differences in occurrence and reduction can help to understand the performance of simple WWTP such as pond systems common in Namibia, where direct contact with wastewater is a potential risk for contamination.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Águas Residuárias , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Alemanha , Namíbia , Tanques
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008948, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370285

RESUMO

Domestic dogs are responsible for 99% of all cases of human rabies and thus, mass dog vaccination has been demonstrated to be the most effective approach towards the elimination of dog-mediated human rabies. Namibia demonstrated the feasibility of this approach by applying government-led strategic rabies vaccination campaigns to reduce both human and dog rabies incidences in the Northern Communal Areas of Namibia since 2016. The lessons learnt using paper-based form for data capturing and management of mass dog vaccination campaign during the pilot and roll out phase of the project (2016-2018) led to the implementation of a simple and accurate data collection tool in the second phase (2019-2022) of the rabies elimination program. In this paper, we describe the implementation of such custom-developed vaccination tracking device, i.e. the Global Alliance for Rabies Control (GARC) Data Logger (GDL), and the integration of the collected data into a website-based rabies surveillance system (Rabies Epidemiological Bulletin-REB) during 2019 and 2020 campaigns. A total of 10,037 dogs and 520 cats were vaccinated during the 2019 campaign and 13,219 dogs and 1,044 cats during the 2020 campaign. The vaccination data were recorded with the GDL and visualized via REB. Subsequent GIS-analysis using gridded population data revealed a suboptimal vaccination coverage in the great majority of grid cells (82%) with a vaccination coverage below 50%. Spatial regression analysis identified the number of schools, estimated human density, and adult dog population were associated with the vaccination performance. However, there was an inverse correlation to human densities. Nonetheless, the use of the GDL improved data capturing and monitoring capacity of the campaign, enabling the Namibian government to improve strategies for the vaccination of at-risk areas towards achieving adequate vaccination coverage which would effectively break the transmission of rabies.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Vacinação em Massa/veterinária , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Namíbia/epidemiologia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/veterinária , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243749, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to help the Namibian government understand the impact of Treat All implementation (started on April 1, 2017) on key antiretroviral therapy (ART) outcomes, and how this transition impacts progress toward the UNAIDS's 90-90-90 HIV targets. METHODS: We collected clinical records from two separate cohorts (before and after treat-all) of ART patients in 10 high- and medium-volume facilities in 6 northern Namibia districts. Each cohort contains 12-month data on patients' scheduled appointments and visits, health status, and viral load results. We also measured patients' wait time and perceptions of service quality using exit interviews with 300 randomly selected patients (per round). We compared ART outcomes of the two cohorts: ART initiation within 7 days from diagnosis, loss to follow-up (LTFU), missed scheduled appointments for at least 30 days, and viral suppression using unadjusted and adjusted analyses. RESULTS: Among new ART clients (on ART for less than 3 months or had not yet initiated treatment as of the start date for the ART record review period), rapid ART initiation (within 7 days from diagnosis) was 5.2 times higher after Treat All than that among clients assessed before the policy took effect [AOR: 5.2 (3.8-6.9)]. However, LTFU was higher after Treat All roll-out compared to before Treat All [AOR: 1.9 (1.3-2.8)]. Established ART clients (on ART treatment for at least three months at the start date of the ART record review period) had over 3 times greater odds of achieving viral suppression after Treat All roll-out compared to established ART clients assessed before Treat All [AOR: 3.1 (1.6-5.9)]. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: The findings indicate positive effect of the "Treat All" implementation on ART initiation and viral suppression, and negative effect on LTFU. Additionally, by April 2018, Namibia seems to have reached the UNAIDS's 90-90-90 targets.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Erradicação de Doenças/normas , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Perda de Seguimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Namíbia/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339456

RESUMO

Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF) occurred in Namibia in 2010 and 2011. Complete genome characterization was obtained from virus isolates collected during disease outbreaks in southern Namibia in 2010 and from wildlife in Etosha National Park in 2011, close to the area where RVF outbreaks occurred in domestic livestock. The virus strains were sequenced using Sanger sequencing (Namibia_2010) or next generation sequencing (Namibia_2011). A sequence-independent, single-primer amplification (SISPA) protocol was used in combination with the Illumina Next 500 sequencer. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of the small (S), medium (M), and large (L) genome segments of RVF virus (RVFV) provided evidence that two distinct RVFV strains circulated in the country. The strain collected in Namibia in 2010 is genetically similar to RVFV strains circulating in South Africa in 2009 and 2010, confirming that the outbreaks reported in the southern part of Namibia in 2010 were caused by possible dissemination of the infection from South Africa. Isolates collected in 2011 were close to RVFV isolates from 2010 collected in humans in Sudan and which belong to the large lineage containing RVFV strains that caused an outbreak in 2006-2008 in eastern Africa. This investigation showed that the RVFV strains circulating in Namibia in 2010 and 2011 were from two different introductions and that RVFV has the ability to move across regions. This supports the need for risk-based surveillance and monitoring.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Febre do Vale de Rift/epidemiologia , Febre do Vale de Rift/virologia , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/genética , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Genoma Viral , Genômica/métodos , História do Século XXI , Itália/epidemiologia , Gado , Namíbia , Filogenia , Febre do Vale de Rift/história
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(42): 1549-1551, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090979

RESUMO

Namibia is an upper-middle income country in southern Africa, with a population of approximately 2.5 million (1). On March 13, 2020, the first two cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Namibia were identified among recently arrived international travelers. On March 17, Namibia's president declared a state of emergency, which introduced measures such as closing of all international borders, enactment of regional travel restrictions, closing of schools, suspension of gatherings, and implementation of physical distancing measures across the country. As of October 19, 2020, Namibia had reported 12,326 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases and 131 COVID-19-associated deaths. CDC, through its Namibia country office, as part of ongoing assistance from the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) provided technical assistance to the Ministry of Health and Social Services (MoHSS) for rapid coordination of the national human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment program with the national COVID-19 response.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Namíbia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
8.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 19(3): 198-205, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892709

RESUMO

In sub-Saharan Africa, HIV-positive older adults aged 50 years and older experience complex psychosocial issues in addition to dealing with their HIV status and the ageing process. This study focused on the association between HIV stigma, resilience, and depressive symptoms among 147 older adults from the Oshana and Ohangwena health facilities in rural Namibia. The study used the hierarchical multivariate regression analysis method to reveal that there was a positive association between HIV stigma (negative self-perceptions) and depression as well as a negative relationship between resilience and depression. In addition, being female and higher education were protective factors, and disclosure of HIV status was a risk factor to predict depressive symptoms among the target population. In order to reduce HIV stigma and enhance resilience among older adults living with HIV in Africa, this study suggests the need to develop evidence-based interventions to increase coping strategies and resilience.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Estigma Social , Adaptação Psicológica , Idoso , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Namíbia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , População Rural
9.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 12(1): e1-e11, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea remains a public health problem and an important cause of morbidity and mortality amongst children, mainly in low- and middle-income countries. In Namibia, the national prevalence of diarrhoea was 17%; it was responsible for 5% of all deaths in children under 5 years old and is the second leading cause of death. AIM: The purpose of this study was to assess the epidemiology and factors associated with acute diarrhoea amongst children less than 5 years of age in Engela district in the Ohangwena region, Namibia. SETTING: The study was conducted in Ohangwena Region in Namibia which extends east to west along the borders of the southern part of Angola. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. A structured questionnaire was administered through face-to-face interviews. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the socio-demographic and epidemiological data of diarrhoea and logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with the prevalence of diarrhoea. RESULTS: The study found a prevalence of 23.8% for diarrhoea in the 2 weeks period preceding the survey amongst children aged under 5 years. The prevalence of diarrhoea was statistically significantly associated with children (p 0.05). The strongest predictor of the prevalence of diarrhoea was the residential area 'informal settlement', with an odds ratio of 36.42. This implies that children living in the informal settlement are 36.42 times at risk of contracting diarrhoea as compared to those living in other residential areas. CONCLUSION: epidemiology; factors; diarrhoea; under-5 years children; Engela district; Ohangwena region; Namibia.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Namíbia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238839, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915862

RESUMO

In patients who are HIV infected, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an important co-morbidity. However, antiretroviral options for HIV/HBV co-infected children are limited and, at the time of this study, only included lamivudine. These children may remain on this regimen for many years until late adolescence. They are at high risk of developing HBV drug resistance and uncontrolled HBV disease. The aim of this study was to characterize HBV infection in HIV/HBV co-infected children. Known HIV-infected/HBsAg-positive children, previously exposed to lamivudine monotherapy against HBV, and their mothers were recruited at the Katutura Hospital paediatric HIV clinic in Windhoek, Namibia. Dried blood spot and serum samples were collected for HBV characterization and serological testing, respectively. Fifteen children and six mothers participated in the study. Eight of the 15 children (53.3%) tested HBV DNA positive; all eight children were on lamivudine-based ART. Lamivudine-associated resistance variants, together with immune escape mutants in the surface gene, were identified in all eight children. Resistance mutations included rtL80I, rtV173L, rtL180M, rtM204I/V and the overlapping sE164D, sW182*, sI195M and sW196LS variants. HBV strains belonged to genotypes E (6/8, 75%) and D3 (2/8, 25%). Further analysis of the HBV core promoter region revealed mutations associated with reduced expression of HBeAg protein and hepatocarcinogenesis. All six mothers, on HBV-active ART containing tenofovir and lamivudine, tested HBV DNA negative. This study confirms the importance of screening HIV-infected children for HBV and ensuring equity of drug access to effective HBV treatment if co-infected.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Mutação , Proteínas do Core Viral/genética , Carga Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Coinfecção/genética , Coinfecção/virologia , Estudos Transversais , DNA Viral/análise , Feminino , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Namíbia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239167, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915915

RESUMO

Understanding the spread of invasive species in many regions is difficult because surveys are rare. Here, historical records of the invasive marine mussel, Semimytilus algosus, on the shores of Angola and Namibia are synthesised to re-construct its invasive history. Since this mussel was first discovered in Namibia about 90 years ago, it has spread throughout the western coast of southern Africa. By the late 1960s, the species was well established across a range of 1005 km of coastline in southern Angola and northern Namibia. Although only coarse spatial resolution data are available since the 1990s, the distribution of S. algosus clearly increased substantially over the subsequent decades. Today, the species is distributed over 2785 km of coastline, appearing in southern Namibia in 2014, whence it spread across the border to northern South Africa in 2017, and in northern Angola in 2015. Conspicuously, its current range appears to be relatively contiguous across at least 810 km of shore in southern Angola and throughout Namibia, with isolated, spatially disjunct occurrences towards the southern and northern limits of its distribution. Despite there being few occurrence records that are unevenly distributed spatially and temporally, data for the distributional patterns of S. algosus in Angola and Namibia provide invaluable insights into how marine invasive species spread in developing regions that are infrequently monitored.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Bivalves/fisiologia , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Espécies Introduzidas/tendências , Angola , Animais , Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Namíbia , Análise Espaço-Temporal
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238982, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931518

RESUMO

Over the past decade, pastoralists in Kunene Region, Namibia, have endured recurrent drought and flood events that have culminated in the loss of their primary form of livelihood-pastoralism. Most pastoralists are finding it difficult to sustain their livelihoods, and their communities have fallen into extreme poverty. Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) approaches are increasingly acknowledged as having the potential to enhance the adaptive capacity of vulnerable communities. The first step is to develop an understanding of how affected communities live, their perceptions of and how they respond to climate change and the biophysical impacts of climate change in their communities. This study aims to collect this information in order to explore the use of EbA to help pastoralists adapt to climate change. We examined an isolated pastoral Himba community, to understand their perceptions, experiences and understanding of climate change and its related impacts on their livelihoods. A nested mixed-methods approach using structured interviews was employed to address the study objectives. Interview results revealed that pastoralists lack scientific knowledge of climate change, and they have no access to climate change information. Though pastoralists have coping and adaptation approaches at the community level (such as making gardens, fishing, etc.), these have become ineffective as climatic uncertainty and change persist. Furthermore, pastoralists no longer get benefits from the environment, such as food and fodder. Despite this, there are currently no biodiversity interventions at the community level to address the impacts of climate change. Pastoralists have indicated their adaptation needs, particularly the provision of water supply to grow food. This is an open avenue to explore EbA approaches, specifically ecological restoration, while still addressing the need of the pastoralists. There is an urgent need to develop new practical adaptation strategies, including restoration options that will strengthen their adaptive capacity.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/tendências , Aclimatação , Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Secas , Ecossistema , Inundações , Humanos , Conhecimento , Namíbia
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e21661, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925712

RESUMO

To support optimal third-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) selection in Namibia, we investigated the prevalence of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) at time of failure of second-line ART. A cross-sectional study was conducted between August 2016 and February 2017. HIV-infected people ≥15 years of age with confirmed virological failure while receiving ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r)-based second-line ART were identified at 15 high-volume ART clinics representing over >70% of the total population receiving second-line ART. HIVDR genotyping of dried blood spots obtained from these individuals was performed using standard population sequencing methods. The Stanford HIVDR algorithm was used to identify sequences with predicted resistance; genotypic susceptibility scores for potential third-line regimens were calculated. Two hundred thirty-eight individuals were enrolled; 57.6% were female. The median age and duration on PI/r-based ART at time of enrolment were 37 years and 3.46 years, respectively. 97.5% received lopinavir/ritonavir-based regimens. The prevalence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), and PI/r resistance was 50.6%, 63.1%, and 13.1%, respectively. No significant association was observed between HIVDR prevalence and age or sex. This study demonstrates high levels of NRTI and NNRTI resistance and moderate levels of PI resistance in people receiving PI/r-based second-line ART in Namibia. Findings underscore the need for objective and inexpensive measures of adherence to identify those in need of intensive adherence counselling, routine viral load monitoring to promptly detect virological failure, and HIVDR genotyping to optimize selection of third-line drugs in Namibia.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Namíbia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Falha de Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Ecol ; 20(1): 45, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this multidisciplinary study we present soil chemical, phytochemical and GIS spatial patterning evidence that fairy circles studied in three separate locations of Namibia may be caused by Euphorbia species. RESULTS: We show that matrix sand coated with E. damarana latex resulted in faster water-infiltration rates. GC-MS analyses revealed that soil from fairy circles and from under decomposing E. damarana plants are very similar in phytochemistry. E. damarana and E. gummifera extracts have a detrimental effect on bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of Stipagrostis uniplumis and inhibit grass seed germination. Several compounds previously identified with antimicrobial and phytotoxic activity were also identified in E. gummifera. GIS analyses showed that perimeter sizes and spatial characteristics (Voronoi tessellations, distance to nearest neighbour ratio, pair correlation function and L-function) of fairy circles are similar to those of fairy circles co-occurring with E. damarana (northern Namibia), and with E. gummifera (southern Namibia). Historical aerial imagery showed that in a population of 406 E. gummifera plants, 134 were replaced by fairy circles over a 50-year period. And finally, by integrating rainfall, altitude and landcover in a GIS-based site suitability model, we predict where fairy circles should occur. The model largely agreed with the distribution of three Euphorbia species and resulted in the discovery of new locations of fairy circles, in the far southeast of Namibia and part of the Kalahari Desert of South Africa. CONCLUSIONS: It is proposed that the allelopathic, adhesive, hydrophobic and toxic latex of E. damarana, E. gummifera, and possibly other species like E. gregaria, is the cause of the fairy circles of Namibia in the areas investigated and possibly in all other areas as well.


Assuntos
Euphorbia , Adesivos , Látex , Namíbia , Solo
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 19760-19766, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747528

RESUMO

Strata from the Ediacaran Period (635 million to 538 million years ago [Ma]) contain several examples of enigmatic, putative shell-building metazoan fossils. These fossils may provide insight into the evolution and environmental impact of biomineralization on Earth, especially if their biological affinities and modern analogs can be identified. Recently, apparent morphological similarities with extant coralline demosponges have been used to assign a poriferan affinity to Namapoikia rietoogensis, a modular encrusting construction that is found growing between (and on) microbial buildups in Namibia. Here, we present three-dimensional reconstructions of Namapoikia that we use to assess the organism's proposed affinity. Our morphological analyses, which comprise quantitative measurements of thickness, spacing, and connectivity, reveal that Namapoikia produced approximately millimeter-thick meandering and branching/merging sheets. We evaluate this reconstructed morphology in the context of poriferan biology and determine that Namapoikia likely is not a sponge-grade organism.


Assuntos
Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Planeta Terra , Meio Ambiente , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Imageamento Tridimensional , Namíbia
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(36): 22572-22579, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839329

RESUMO

Humans can impact the spatial transmission dynamics of infectious diseases by introducing pathogens into susceptible environments. The rate at which this occurs depends in part on human-mobility patterns. Increasingly, mobile-phone usage data are used to quantify human mobility and investigate the impact on disease dynamics. Although the number of trips between locations and the duration of those trips could both affect infectious-disease dynamics, there has been limited work to quantify and model the duration of travel in the context of disease transmission. Using mobility data inferred from mobile-phone calling records in Namibia, we calculated both the number of trips between districts and the duration of these trips from 2010 to 2014. We fit hierarchical Bayesian models to these data to describe both the mean trip number and duration. Results indicate that trip duration is positively related to trip distance, but negatively related to the destination population density. The highest volume of trips and shortest trip durations were among high-density districts, whereas trips among low-density districts had lower volume with longer duration. We also analyzed the impact of including trip duration in spatial-transmission models for a range of pathogens and introduction locations. We found that inclusion of trip duration generally delays the rate of introduction, regardless of pathogen, and that the variance and uncertainty around spatial spread increases proportionally with pathogen-generation time. These results enhance our understanding of disease-dispersal dynamics driven by human mobility, which has potential to elucidate optimal spatial and temporal scales for epidemic interventions.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Epidemias , Viagem , Uso do Telefone Celular , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/transmissão , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Namíbia , Análise Espaço-Temporal
17.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 91(0): e1-e3, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501016

RESUMO

Sixty-four individuals of a macronyssid mite, Parasteatonyssus nyctinomi (Zumpt, Patterson 1951), were identified from Egyptian free-tailed bats Tadarida aegyptiaca (É. Geoffroy 1818) (Chiroptera: Molossidae) captured in the Kunene region of Namibia (southern Africa). This is the first report on P. nyctinomi in the country.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Quirópteros/parasitologia , Ácaros/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Masculino , Ácaros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Namíbia , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/fisiologia
18.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 91(0): e1-e8, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370533

RESUMO

This study analysed the demographics, spatial distribution, ownership and naming patterns of dogs and cats presented to the University of Namibia's veterinary mobile clinic for sterilisation from small underserved towns around Namibia. The proportional distribution of pets was determined based on species, sex, age, owner gender, town of origin and naming categories. Overall, 84.4% (n = 2909) of the animals presented for sterilisation were dogs and the remainder were cats (15.6%, n = 539). Of the dogs presented for sterilisation, 51.9% (n = 1509) were male and 48.1% (n = 1400) were female. In cats, 51.4% (n = 277) were male, whilst 48.6% (n = 262) were female. Overall, the majority of pets (68.2%) were presented for sterilisation from urban areas than rural areas (31.8%). About 49.8% of men and 24.2% of women that presented pets for sterilisation came from urban areas, whilst 20.1% of the women and 11.7% of the men that presented pets for sterilisation were from rural areas. Of all the pets presented for sterilisation, the majority were male-owned (64%, n = 2206). Pets were mainly presented for sterilisation at 2 years (41.1%), 2 to 4 years (32.4%) and 4 to 6 years (15.4%). The naming of pets was mainly after people (42.4%), circumstances (20.6%) and appearance (15.5%). This community engagement exercise yielded valuable demographic data indicating that pet origin, sex and species and owner gender were important factors in determining the voluntary presentation of pets for sterilisation in the study area.


Assuntos
Gatos , Demografia , Cães , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Esterilização Reprodutiva/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Namíbia , Esterilização Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Arch Virol ; 165(8): 1887-1889, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447622

RESUMO

This is the first description of the complete genome sequence of a new monopartite begomovirus isolated from tomato with symptoms of tomato (yellow) leaf curl disease collected in northwestern Namibia, which we provisionally name "tomato leaf curl Kunene virus". The DNA-A-like nucleotide sequence shares the highest nucleotide sequence identity (82.8%) with tobacco leaf curl Zimbabwe virus (ToLCZWV). Phylogenetic analysis confirmed its affiliation with Old World monopartite begomoviruses. The discovery of a new begomovirus in a vegetable plant in Namibia highlights the importance of maintaining epidemiological surveillance in southern Africa.


Assuntos
Begomovirus/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/virologia , Sequência de Bases/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Namíbia , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
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