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1.
Poult Sci ; 98(8): 3114-3118, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115461

RESUMO

The blue-eggshell and dwarf traits have an important economic value in poultry production. Using a genetic aggregation-based strategy, the molecular marker-assisted selection technology was jointly used to provide a rapid breeding method for pure strain chickens simultaneously with hens exhibiting the blue-eggshell and dwarf traits. Overall, 80 male dwarf chickens and 1,000 hybrid blue-eggshell hens (F0) were used for the hybridization experiment. Subsequently, the crossing of F1 or F2 chicks was performed in succession. The F1 and F2 chicks were respectively detected by the joint molecular markers of the solute carrier organic anion transporter family, namely, 1B3 (SLCO1B3) and the growth hormone receptor (GHR) genes, which relate to blue-eggshell and dwarf traits. Meanwhile, the selection of blue-eggshell and dwarf phenotypes was used to validate the data obtained by the molecular markers. The results showed that F1 chicks included the heterozygous and wild-type of SLCO1B3, as well as the homozygous (hens) and heterozygous (roosters) of GHR. However, F2 chicks included 3 different genotypes of both SLCO1B3 and GHR. Ultimately, 196 F1 roosters (concurrently with heterozygous genotype of SLCO1B3 and GHR) and 1,073 F1 hens (concurrently with heterozygous genotype of SLCO1B3 and homozygous genotype of GHR) were obtained from the initial 10,040 F1 chicks. Further, 27 F2 roosters and 345 F2 hens, which simultaneously carried the homozygous genotype of SLCO1B3 and GHR, were screened from the initial 6,000 F2 chicks. Data obtained on the blue-eggshell and dwarf phenotypes were consistent with the results by molecular markers. Similarly, the purity verification of the strain obtained through 2 crossing experiments (F0♂ × F2♀ and F2♂ × F2♀) revealed that all chickens had the blue-eggshell and dwarf traits, supporting that the obtained F2 strain was pure. In summary, for the first time, we successfully bred a pure strain chicken with blue-eggshell and dwarf traits by jointly using the molecular markers of the SLCO1B3 and GHR genes. Our study provides a new method for the rapid cultivation of new chicken strains.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Nanismo/genética , Casca de Ovo , Hibridização Genética , Animais , Cruzamento/métodos , Cor , Feminino , Masculino , Receptores da Somatotropina/genética , Membro 1B3 da Família de Transportadores de Ânion Orgânico Carreador de Soluto/genética
2.
J Genet ; 982019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945686

RESUMO

This study evaluates a family with two siblings having severe growth retardation and facial dysmorphism, born to consanguineous normal healthy parents. Affymetrix CytoScan 750K microarray showed a 34-Mb pericentric homozygous region on chromosome 6 for both siblings. CUL7 was one of the 141 genes present in this region. Sanger sequencing of CUL7 gene detected a 2-bp novel deletion in the 15th exon (c.2943_2944delCT of the cDNA). This deletion leads to a frameshift and a premature termination signal much upstream of the wild-type termination signal, leading to a nonsense mediated decay of the mRNA. CUL7 protein plays an important role in formation of 3M complex, ubiquitination, microtubule dynamics and cell cycle regulation. Mutations in CUL7 gene is known to cause a rare 3M syndrome. Information about the novel mutation has been accepted in the ClinVar database with rs1064792895.


Assuntos
Proteínas Culina/genética , Nanismo/genética , Nanismo/patologia , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/patologia , Mutação , Coluna Vertebral/anormalidades , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Consanguinidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Irmãos , Coluna Vertebral/patologia
3.
J Genet ; 982019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945690

RESUMO

Insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) deficiency is a rare form of short stature, and is difficult to clinically diagnose. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) allows for the rapid and inexpensive assessment of short stature. We identified mutations in the pedigree of a Chinese boy with severe short stature using targeted NGS; we then assessed the clinical characteristicsand evaluated the efficacy of growth hormone therapy. NGS analysis revealed a novel heterozygous missense mutation in exon3 (c.926C>T, p.S309L) of the type-I IGF-1R gene in the proband, which was inherited from the mother. The proband, mother and grandfather suffered from severe growth failure. After recombinant human growth hormone therapy, the patient's growth rate increased. The novel missensemutation in IGF-1R (c.926C > T, p.S309L) is associated with severe short stature in Chinese individuals. Targeted NGS may enable efficient diagnosis and genetic consultation of children with short stature.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Nanismo/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Receptores de Somatomedina/genética , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Prognóstico
4.
PLoS Genet ; 15(4): e1008088, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034465

RESUMO

PIK3C2A is a class II member of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) family that catalyzes the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol (PI) into PI(3)P and the phosphorylation of PI(4)P into PI(3,4)P2. At the cellular level, PIK3C2A is critical for the formation of cilia and for receptor mediated endocytosis, among other biological functions. We identified homozygous loss-of-function mutations in PIK3C2A in children from three independent consanguineous families with short stature, coarse facial features, cataracts with secondary glaucoma, multiple skeletal abnormalities, neurological manifestations, among other findings. Cellular studies of patient-derived fibroblasts found that they lacked PIK3C2A protein, had impaired cilia formation and function, and demonstrated reduced proliferative capacity. Collectively, the genetic and molecular data implicate mutations in PIK3C2A in a new Mendelian disorder of PI metabolism, thereby shedding light on the critical role of a class II PI3K in growth, vision, skeletal formation and neurological development. In particular, the considerable phenotypic overlap, yet distinct features, between this syndrome and Lowe's syndrome, which is caused by mutations in the PI-5-phosphatase OCRL, highlight the key role of PI metabolizing enzymes in specific developmental processes and demonstrate the unique non-redundant functions of each enzyme. This discovery expands what is known about disorders of PI metabolism and helps unravel the role of PIK3C2A and class II PI3Ks in health and disease.


Assuntos
Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Catarata/genética , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/genética , Nanismo/genética , Mutação , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Consanguinidade , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(5)2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813547

RESUMO

The gene encoding the proteoglycan aggrecan (Agc1) is abundantly expressed in cartilage during development and adulthood, and the loss or diminished deposition of the protein results in a wide range of skeletal malformations. Furthermore, aggrecan degradation is a hallmark of cartilage degeneration occurring in osteoarthritis. In the present study, we investigated the consequences of a partial loss of aggrecan in the postnatal skeleton and in the articular cartilage of adult mice. We took advantage of the previously described Agc1tm(IRES-CreERT2) mouse line, which allows for conditional and timely-regulated deletion of floxed, cartilage-expressed genes. As previously reported, the introduction of the CreERT2 cassette in the 3'UTR causes a disruption of the normal expression of Agc1 resulting in a hypomorphic deposition of the protein. In homozygous mice, we observed a dwarf phenotype, which persisted throughout adulthood supporting the evidence that reduced aggrecan amount impairs skeletal growth. Homozygous mice exhibited reduced proteoglycan staining of the articular cartilage at 6 and 12 months of age, increased stiffening of the extracellular matrix at six months, and developed severe cartilage erosion by 12 months. The osteoarthritis in the hypomorph mice was not accompanied by increased expression of catabolic enzymes and matrix degradation neoepitopes. These findings suggest that the degeneration found in homozygous mice is likely due to the compromised mechanical properties of the cartilage tissue upon aggrecan reduction.


Assuntos
Agrecanas/metabolismo , Cartilagem Articular/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite/epidemiologia , Osteoartrite/fisiopatologia , Envelhecimento/patologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Nanismo/genética , Incidência , Camundongos , Fenótipo
6.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(5): e634, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycogen storage disease type III (GSDIII) is caused by mutations of AGL gene with debranching enzyme deficiency. Patients with GSDIII manifest fasting hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, hepatopathy, myopathy, and cardiomyopathy. We report on an 18-year-old boy with a profound growth retardation (<3 SD) besides typical clinical features of GSDIII, whereby endocrinological studies were negative. METHODS AND RESULTS: Molecular analysis of AGL gene revealed the homozygous reported variant c.3903_3904insA. Since discordant results from segregation studies showed the carrier status in one parent only, SNP array and short tandem repeats analyses were performed, revealing a paternal disomy of chromosome 1 (UPD1). CONCLUSION: This study describes the first case of GSDIII resulting from UPD1. UPD can play an important role even in case of imprinted genes. DIRAS3 is a maternally imprinted tumor suppressor gene, located on chromosome 1p31, and implicated in growth and oncogenesis. It can be speculated that DIRAS3 overexpression might have a role in the severe short stature of our patient. The study emphasizes the importance of parental segregation analysis especially in patients with recessive conditions to look for specific genetic causes of disease and to estimate properly the risk of family recurrence.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Nanismo/genética , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo III/genética , Fenótipo , Dissomia Uniparental/genética , Adolescente , Nanismo/patologia , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo III/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Dissomia Uniparental/patologia
7.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 294(3): 773-787, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887145

RESUMO

The latent transforming growth factor-beta-binding protein 3 (LTBP3), encoding extracellular matrix proteins, plays a role in skeletal formation. Mutations in LTBP3 have been associated with various types of skeletal dysplasia. We aimed to characterize clinical and molecular features of more patients with mutations in the gene, which may help suggest genotype-phenotype correlation. The first two East Asian patients with short stature, heart defects, and orodental anomalies having LTBP3 mutations were identified. Whole exome and Sanger sequencing revealed that the one with a novel heterozygous missense (c.2017G>T, p.Gly673Cys) mutation in LTBP3 had clinical features consistent with acromicric dysplasia (ACMICD). The variant was located in the highly conserved EGF-like calcium-binding domain adjacent to the single reported LTBP3 variant associated with ACMICD. This finding supports that LTBP3 is a disease gene for ACMICD. Another patient with a novel homozygous splice site acceptor (c.1721-2A>G) mutation in LTBP3 was affected with dental anomalies and short stature (DASS). Previously undescribed orodental features included multiple unerupted teeth, high-arched palate, and microstomia found in our patient with ACMICD, and extensive dental infection, condensing osteitis, and deviated alveolar bone formation in our patient with DASS. Our results and comprehensive reviews suggest a genotype-phenotype correlation: biallelic loss-of-function mutations cause DASS, monoallelic missense gain-of-function mutations in the EGF-like domain cause ACMICD, and monoallelic missense gain-of-function mutations with more drastic effects on the protein functions cause geleophysic dysplasia (GPHYSD3). In summary, we expand the phenotypic and genotypic spectra of LTBP3-related disorders, support that LTBP3 is a disease gene for ACMICD, and propose the genotype-phenotype correlation of LTBP3 mutations.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Proteínas de Ligação a TGF-beta Latente/genética , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/genética , Mutação , Anormalidades Dentárias/genética , Adolescente , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Criança , Nanismo/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Hum Genet ; 64(5): 445-458, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846821

RESUMO

Seckel syndrome (SS) is a rare spectrum of congenital severe microcephaly and dwarfism. One SS-causative gene is Ataxia Telangiectasia and Rad3-Related Protein (ATR), and ATR (c.2101 A>G) mutation causes skipping of exon 9, resulting in a hypomorphic ATR defect. This mutation is considered the cause of an impaired response to DNA replication stress, the main function of ATR, contributing to the pathogenesis of microcephaly. However, the precise behavior and impact of this splicing defect in human neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is unclear. To address this, we established induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts carrying the ATR mutation and an isogenic ATR-corrected counterpart iPSC clone. SS-patient-derived iPSCs (SS-iPSCs) exhibited cell type-specific splicing; exon 9 was dominantly skipped in fibroblasts and iPSC-derived NPCs, but it was included in undifferentiated iPSCs and definitive endodermal cells. SS-iPSC-derived NPCs (SS-NPCs) showed distinct expression profiles from ATR non-mutated NPCs with negative enrichment of neuronal genesis-related gene sets. In SS-NPCs, abnormal mitotic spindles occurred more frequently than in gene-corrected counterparts, and the alignment of NPCs in the surface of the neurospheres was perturbed. Finally, we tested several splicing-modifying compounds and found that TG003, a CLK1 inhibitor, could pharmacologically rescue the exon 9 skipping in SS-NPCs. Treatment with TG003 restored the ATR kinase activity in SS-NPCs and decreased the frequency of abnormal mitotic events. In conclusion, our iPSC model revealed a novel effect of the ATR mutation in mitotic processes of NPCs and NPC-specific missplicing, accompanied by the recovery of neuronal defects using a splicing rectifier.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia , Nanismo , Facies , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Microcefalia , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/biossíntese , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Linhagem Celular , Nanismo/enzimologia , Nanismo/genética , Nanismo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/enzimologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/patologia , Masculino , Microcefalia/enzimologia , Microcefalia/genética , Microcefalia/patologia
9.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 36(2): 242-246, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30762251

RESUMO

Early development of extensive acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a key feature in some patients who have hypochondroplasia (HCH) in association with FGFR3 mutations. We here report regarding five new patients with HCH who exhibited AN, and we compare their characteristics to the eight patients previously described in the literature. In these patients, the AN lesions began in childhood, and they were extensive. These lesions were located on the torso, the abdomen, and the face, in addition to the typical skin fold sites. Other skin lesions were frequently reported: café-au-lait macules, melanocytic nevi, lentigines, and seborrheic keratosis. The Lys650Thr mutation was the predominant reported mutation of FGFR3.


Assuntos
Acantose Nigricans/genética , Osso e Ossos/anormalidades , Nanismo/genética , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/genética , Lordose/genética , Receptor Tipo 3 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Acantose Nigricans/complicações , Adulto , Criança , Nanismo/complicações , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/complicações , Lordose/complicações , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , Pele/patologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(4): e14157, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681580

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Hypochondroplasia (HCH) is the mildest form of chondrodysplasia characterized by disproportionate short stature, short extremities, and variable lumbar lordosis. It is caused by mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene. Up to date, at least thirty mutations of FGFR3 gene have been found to be related to HCH. However, mutational screening of the FGFR3 gene is still far from completeness. Identification of more mutations is particularly important in diagnosis of HCH and will gain more insights into the molecular basis for the pathogenesis of HCH. PATIENT CONCERNS: A large Chinese family consisting of 53 affected individuals with HCH phenotypes was examined. DIAGNOSES: A novel missense mutation, c.1052C>T, in FGFR3 gene was identified in a large Chinese family with HCH. On the basis of this finding and clinical manifestations, the final diagnosis of HCH was made. INTERVENTIONS: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of DNA samples was performed to detect the mutation in the chondrodysplasia-related genes on the proband and her parents, which was confirmed by Sanger sequencing in the proband and most of other living affected family members. OUTCOMES: A novel missense mutation, c.1052C>T, in the extracellular, ligand-binding domain of FGFR3 was identified in a large Chinese family with HCH. This heterozygous mutation results in substitution of serine for phenylalanine at amino acid 351 (p.S351F) and co-segregates with the phenotype in this family. Molecular docking analysis reveals that this unique FGFR3 mutation results in an enhancement of ligand-binding affinity between FGFR3 and its main ligand, fibroblast growth factor 9. LESSONS: This novel mutation is the first mutation displaying an increase in ligand-binding affinity, therefore it may serve as a model to investigate ligand-dependent activity of FGF-FGFR complex. Our data also expanded the mutation spectrum of FGFR3 gene and facilitated clinic diagnosis and genetic counseling for this family with HCH.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/anormalidades , Nanismo/genética , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/genética , Lordose/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Linhagem , Receptor Tipo 3 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Análise de Sequência/métodos , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Criança , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fenótipo
11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 127, 2019 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30631079

RESUMO

COPI is a key mediator of protein trafficking within the secretory pathway. COPI is recruited to the membrane primarily through binding to Arf GTPases, upon which it undergoes assembly to form coated transport intermediates responsible for trafficking numerous proteins, including Golgi-resident enzymes. Here, we identify GORAB, the protein mutated in the skin and bone disorder gerodermia osteodysplastica, as a component of the COPI machinery. GORAB forms stable domains at the trans-Golgi that, via interactions with the COPI-binding protein Scyl1, promote COPI recruitment to these domains. Pathogenic GORAB mutations perturb Scyl1 binding or GORAB assembly into domains, indicating the importance of these interactions. Loss of GORAB causes impairment of COPI-mediated retrieval of trans-Golgi enzymes, resulting in a deficit in glycosylation of secretory cargo proteins. Our results therefore identify GORAB as a COPI scaffolding factor, and support the view that defective protein glycosylation is a major disease mechanism in gerodermia osteodysplastica.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Complexo I de Proteína do Envoltório/metabolismo , Enzimas/metabolismo , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Doenças Ósseas/congênito , Doenças Ósseas/genética , Doenças Ósseas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Células Cultivadas , Complexo I de Proteína do Envoltório/genética , Nanismo/genética , Nanismo/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Transporte Proteico , Interferência de RNA , Dermatopatias Genéticas/genética , Dermatopatias Genéticas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
12.
BMC Med Genet ; 20(1): 8, 2019 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a clinical manifestation featured by velvety brown plaques in skin folds that occurs in some hereditary and syndromic disorders. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) mutations have been identified as one of the genetic causes of inherited AN. CASE PRESENTATION: A 17-year-old Chinese female had presented generalized acanthosis nigricans since she was 4 years old. She yielded no family history of short stature or AN. Apart from a short stature, no skeletal defects, neurological defects or other abnormalities were found. To identify the aetiology of the clinically diagnosed AN, we screened the proband for genetic mutations using whole exome sequencing. A heterozygous mutation (c.1949A > C, p.Lys650Thr) in FGFR3 was found in the proband. To date, 26 cases of AN harbouring this specific gene mutation have been reported in the literature, and only one child carried a de novo mutation instead of inheriting the specific mutation from their parents. The present case is the first-reported Chinese patient with isolated AN with a de novo K650 T mutation in FGFR3. CONCLUSIONS: We reported a new case of AN caused by a heterozygous mutation (c.1949A > C, p.K650 T) in FGFR3, and review the past reports of AN with the same gene mutation. Sequencing of the FGFR3 gene is a feasible approach to identify the aetiology of AN, especially for early onset extensive AN.


Assuntos
Acantose Nigricans/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Receptor Tipo 3 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Acantose Nigricans/diagnóstico , Acantose Nigricans/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Nanismo/genética , Éxons , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Linhagem , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
14.
Psychiatr Genet ; 29(2): 57-60, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30531648

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a genetically complex disease that is related to neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Several genetic polymorphisms and genetic syndromes associated with neurodevelopmental processes have been linked to schizophrenia. In this case report, we present a case with an association between microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II and schizophrenia. Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive disease that occurs as a result of the mutations in the pericentrin (PCNT) gene that are responsible for cell cycle and division. In this report, we discuss the possible association between the PCNT gene and schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Antígenos/genética , Nanismo/genética , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto , Nanismo/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Microcefalia/complicações , Mutação , Osteocondrodisplasias/complicações , Síndrome
15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(6): 1045-1052, 2018 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526862

RESUMO

We describe six persons from three families with three homozygous protein truncating variants in PUS7: c.89_90del (p.Thr30Lysfs∗20), c.1348C>T (p.Arg450∗), and a deletion of the penultimate exon 15. All these individuals have intellectual disability with speech delay, short stature, microcephaly, and aggressive behavior. PUS7 encodes the RNA-independent pseudouridylate synthase 7. Pseudouridylation is the most abundant post-transcriptional modification in RNA, which is primarily thought to stabilize secondary structures of RNA. We show that the disease-related variants lead to abolishment of PUS7 activity on both tRNA and mRNA substrates. Moreover, pus7 knockout in Drosophila melanogaster results in a number of behavioral defects, including increased activity, disorientation, and aggressiveness supporting that neurological defects are caused by PUS7 variants. Our findings demonstrate that RNA pseudouridylation by PUS7 is essential for proper neuronal development and function.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Nanismo/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes/métodos , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA de Transferência/genética
16.
BMC Med Genet ; 19(1): 212, 2018 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dwarfism is a common severe growth disorder, but the etiology is unclear in the majority of cases. Recombinant human growth hormone may be a treatment option, but it has limited efficacy. The currently known laboratory assays do not meet the precision requirements for clinical diagnosis. Here, we have constructed a targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel of selected genes that are suspected to be associated with dwarfism for genetic screening. METHODS: Genetic screening of 91 children with short stature of unknown etiology was performed with the help of the NGS panel. All the coding regions and exon-intron boundaries of 166 genes were included in the panel. To clarify the pathogenicity of these mutations, their clinical data were reviewed and analyzed. RESULTS: The assay identified p.A72G, p.I282V, and p.P491S variants of the PTPN11 gene and a p.I437T variant of the SOS1 gene in 4 cases with Noonan syndrome. A frameshift mutation (p.D2407fs) of the ACAN gene was identified in a case of idiopathic short stature with moderately advanced bone age. A p.R904C variant of the COL2A1 gene was found in a patient, who was accordingly diagnosed with Stickler syndrome. Severe short stature without limb deformity was associated with a p.G11A variant of HOXD13. In addition, we evaluated evidence that a p.D401N variant of the COMP gene may cause multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that syndromes, particularly Noonan syndrome, may be overlooked due to atypical clinical features. This gene panel has been verified to be effective for the rapid screening of genetic etiologies associated with short stature and for guiding precision medicine-based clinical management.


Assuntos
Artrite/genética , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/genética , Nanismo/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Mutação , Síndrome de Noonan/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Descolamento Retiniano/genética , Adolescente , Agrecanas/genética , Artrite/diagnóstico , Artrite/etnologia , Artrite/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Proteína de Matriz Oligomérica de Cartilagem/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colágeno Tipo II/genética , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/diagnóstico , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/etnologia , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/patologia , Nanismo/diagnóstico , Nanismo/etnologia , Nanismo/patologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/etnologia , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/patologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome de Noonan/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Noonan/etnologia , Síndrome de Noonan/patologia , Osteocondrodisplasias/diagnóstico , Osteocondrodisplasias/etnologia , Osteocondrodisplasias/patologia , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 11/genética , Descolamento Retiniano/diagnóstico , Descolamento Retiniano/etnologia , Descolamento Retiniano/patologia , Proteína SOS1/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
17.
Development ; 145(17)2018 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093551

RESUMO

Mutation in minor spliceosome components is linked to the developmental disorder microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type 1 (MOPD1). Here, we inactivated the minor spliceosome in the developing mouse cortex (pallium) by ablating Rnu11, which encodes the crucial minor spliceosome small nuclear RNA (snRNA) U11. Rnu11 conditional knockout mice were born with microcephaly, which was caused by the death of self-amplifying radial glial cells (RGCs), while intermediate progenitor cells and neurons were produced. RNA sequencing suggested that this cell death was mediated by upregulation of p53 (Trp53 - Mouse Genome Informatics) and DNA damage, which were both observed specifically in U11-null RGCs. Moreover, U11 loss caused elevated minor intron retention in genes regulating the cell cycle, which was consistent with fewer RGCs in S-phase and cytokinesis, alongside prolonged metaphase in RGCs. In all, we found that self-amplifying RGCs are the cell type most sensitive to loss of minor splicing. Together, these findings provide a potential explanation of how disruption of minor splicing might cause microcephaly in MOPD1.


Assuntos
Ciclo Celular/genética , Morte Celular/fisiologia , Nanismo/genética , Células Ependimogliais/metabolismo , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética , RNA Nuclear Pequeno/genética , Spliceossomos/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Spliceossomos/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/biossíntese
19.
Science ; 361(6401): 511-516, 2018 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072539

RESUMO

Flores Island, Indonesia, was inhabited by the small-bodied hominin species Homo floresiensis, which has an unknown evolutionary relationship to modern humans. This island is also home to an extant human pygmy population. Here we describe genome-scale single-nucleotide polymorphism data and whole-genome sequences from a contemporary human pygmy population living on Flores near the cave where H. floresiensis was found. The genomes of Flores pygmies reveal a complex history of admixture with Denisovans and Neanderthals but no evidence for gene flow with other archaic hominins. Modern individuals bear the signatures of recent positive selection encompassing the FADS (fatty acid desaturase) gene cluster, likely related to diet, and polygenic selection acting on standing variation that contributed to their short-stature phenotype. Thus, multiple independent instances of hominin insular dwarfism occurred on Flores.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Evolução Biológica , Estatura/genética , Nanismo/genética , Ilhas , População/genética , Seleção Genética , Animais , Fluxo Gênico , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Indonésia , Homem de Neandertal/genética
20.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 49(1): 295-305, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30138938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The genetics of human height is a frequently studied and complex issue. However, there is limited genetic research of short stature. To uncover the subgroup of patients to have higher yield and to propose a simplified diagnostic algorithm in the next generation era. METHODS: This study included 114 Chinese children with height SDS ≤ -2.5 and unknown etiology from 2014 to 2015. Target/whole exome sequencing (referred as NGS) and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) were performed on the enrolled patients sequentially to identify potential genetic etiologies. The samples solved by NGS and CMA were retrospectively studied to evaluate the clinical pathway of the patients following a standard diagnostic algorithm. RESULTS: In total, a potential genetic etiology was identified in 41 (36%) patients: 38 by NGS (33.3%), two by CMA (1.8%), and an additional one by both (0.9%). There were 46 different variants in 29 genes and 2 pathogenic CNVs identified. The diagnostic yield was significantly higher in patients with facial dysmorphism or skeletal abnormalities than those without the corresponding phenotype (P=0.006 and P=0.009, respectively, Pearson's χ2 test). Retrospectively study the cohort indicate 83.3% patients eventually would be evaluated by NGS/CMA. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the utility of high-throughput molecular detection techniques for the etiological diagnosis of undiagnosed short stature and suggests that NGS could be used as a primary diagnostic strategy. Patients with facial dysmorphism and/or skeletal abnormalities are more likely to have a known genetic etiology. Moving NGS forward would simplified the diagnostic algorithm.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Nanismo/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Algoritmos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Cromossomos/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Nanismo/genética , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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