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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(37): 22639-22648, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900936

RESUMO

Despite an abundant literature on gold nanoparticles use for biomedicine, only a few of the gold-based nanodevices are currently tested in clinical trials, and none of them are approved by health agencies. Conversely, ionic gold has been used for decades to treat human rheumatoid arthritis and benefits from 70-y hindsight on medical use. With a view to open up new perspectives in gold nanoparticles research and medical use, we revisit here the literature on therapeutic gold salts. We first summarize the literature on gold salt pharmacokinetics, therapeutic effects, adverse reactions, and the present repurposing of these ancient drugs. Owing to these readings, we evidence the existence of a common metabolism of gold nanoparticles and gold ions and propose to use gold salts as a "shortcut" to assess the long-term effects of gold nanoparticles, such as their fate and toxicity, which remain challenging questions nowadays. Moreover, one of gold salts side effects (i.e., a blue discoloration of the skin exposed to light) leads us to propose a strategy to biosynthesize large gold nanoparticles from gold salts using light irradiation. These hypotheses, which will be further investigated in the near future, open up new avenues in the field of ionic gold and gold nanoparticles-based therapies.


Assuntos
Ouro/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Nanomedicina/tendências , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Ouro/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/efeitos adversos , Nanomedicina/métodos
2.
Theranostics ; 10(21): 9591-9600, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32863947

RESUMO

Cytokine storms, defined by the dysregulated and excessive production of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines, are closely associated with the pathology and mortality of several infectious diseases, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Effective therapies are urgently needed to block the development of cytokine storms to improve patient outcomes, but approaches that target individual cytokines may have limited effect due to the number of cytokines involved in this process. Dysfunctional macrophages appear to play an essential role in cytokine storm development, and therapeutic interventions that target these cells may be a more feasible approach than targeting specific cytokines. Nanomedicine-based therapeutics that target macrophages have recently been shown to reduce cytokine production in animal models of diseases that are associated with excessive proinflammatory responses. In this mini-review, we summarize important studies and discuss how macrophage-targeted nanomedicines can be employed to attenuate cytokine storms and their associated pathological effects to improve outcomes in patients with severe infections or other conditions associated with excessive pro-inflammatory responses. We also discuss engineering approaches that can improve nanocarriers targeting efficiency to macrophages, and key issues should be considered before initiating such studies.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Citocinas/imunologia , Infecções/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Nanomedicina/tendências , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Humanos , Infecções/tratamento farmacológico , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia
3.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5719-5743, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821098

RESUMO

This review aims to summarize the methods that have been used till today, highlight methods that are currently being developed, and predict the future roadmap for anticancer therapy. In the beginning of this review, established approaches for anticancer therapy, such as conventional chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, monoclonal antibodies, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors are summarized. To counteract the side effects of conventional chemotherapy and to increase limited anticancer efficacy, nanodrug- and stem cell-based therapies have been introduced. However, current level of understanding and strategies of nanodrug and stem cell-based therapies have limitations that make them inadequate for clinical application. Subsequently, this manuscript reviews methods with fewer side effects compared to those of the methods mentioned above which are currently being investigated and are already being applied in the clinic. The newer strategies that are already being clinically applied include cancer immunotherapy, especially T cell-mediated therapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors, and strategies that are gaining attention include the manipulation of the tumor microenvironment or the activation of dendritic cells. Tumor-associated macrophage repolarization is another potential strategy for cancer immunotherapy, a method which activates macrophages to immunologically attack malignant cells. At the end of this review, we discuss combination therapies, which are the future of cancer treatment. Nanoparticle-based anticancer immunotherapies seem to be effective, in that they effectively use nanodrugs to elicit a greater immune response. The combination of these therapies with others, such as photothermal or tumor vaccine therapy, can result in a greater anticancer effect. Thus, the future of anticancer therapy aims to increase the effectiveness of therapy using various therapies in a synergistic combination rather than individually.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Nanomedicina/tendências , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Microambiente Tumoral
4.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 15(17): 1719-1734, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462968

RESUMO

Prior research on nanotechnologies in diagnostics, prevention and treatment of coronavirus infections is reviewed. Gold nanoparticles and semiconductor quantum dots in colorimetric and immunochromatographic assays, silica nanoparticles in the polymerase chain reaction and spike protein nanospheres as antigen carriers and adjuvants in vaccine formulations present notable examples in diagnostics and prevention, while uses of nanoparticles in coronavirus infection treatments have been merely sporadic. The current absence of antiviral therapeutics that specifically target human coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, might be largely due to the underuse of nanotechnologies. Elucidating the interface between nanoparticles and coronaviruses is timely, but presents the only route to the rational design of precisely targeted therapeutics for coronavirus infections. Such a fundamental approach is also a viable prophylaxis against future pandemics of this type.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Nanotecnologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Camundongos , Nanomedicina/métodos , Nanomedicina/tendências , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Nanotecnologia/tendências , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
6.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 15(2): 205-214, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916480

RESUMO

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) has a significant contribution to homeostasis and protection of the CNS. However, it also limits the crossing of therapeutics and thereby complicates the treatment of CNS disorders. To overcome this limitation, the use of nanocarriers for drug delivery across the BBB has recently been exploited. Nanocarriers can utilize different physiological mechanisms for drug delivery across the BBB and can be modified to achieve the desired kinetics and efficacy. Consequentially, several nanocarriers have been reported to act as functional nanomedicines in preclinical studies using animal models for human diseases. Given the rapid development of novel nanocarriers, this review provides a comprehensive insight into the most recent advancements made in nanocarrier-based drug delivery to the CNS, such as the development of multifunctional nanomedicines and theranostics.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/tratamento farmacológico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Animais , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Humanos , Nanomedicina/tendências , Nanopartículas , Nanomedicina Teranóstica/tendências
9.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(12)2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847454

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Nanomedicine, a term coined by the American engineer Eric Drexler (1955) and Robert Freitas Jr. (1952) in the nineties, can be defined as a complex, multi-disciplinary branch of medicine, in which nano-technologies, molecular biotechnologies, and other nano-sciences are applied at every step of disease management, from diagnosis (nano-diagnostics) to treatment (nano-therapeutics), prognosis, and monitoring of biological parameters and biomarkers. Nanomedicine is a relatively young discipline, which is increasingly and exponentially growing, characterized by emerging ethical issues and implications. Nanomedicine has branched out in hundreds of different sub-fields. Materials and Methods: A bibliometrics-based analysis was applied mining the entire content of PubMed/MEDLINE, using "nanomedicine" as a Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) search term. Results: A sample of 6696 articles were extracted from PubMed/MEDLINE and analyzed. Articles had been published in the period from 2003 to 2019, showing an increasing trend throughout the time. Six thematic clusters emerged (first cluster: molecular methods; second cluster: molecular biology and nano-characterization; third cluster: nano-diagnostics and nano-theranostics; fourth cluster: clinical applications, in the sub-fields of nano-oncology, nano-immunology and nano-vaccinology; fifth cluster: clinical applications, in the sub-fields of nano-oncology and nano-infectiology; and sixth cluster: nanodrugs). The countries with the highest percentages of articles in the field of nanomedicine were the North America (38.3%) and Europe (35.1%). Conclusions: The present study showed that there is an increasing trend in publishing and performing research in the super-specialty of nanomedicine. Most productive countries were the USA and European countries, with China as an emerging region. Hot topics in the last years were nano-diagnostics and nano-theranostics and clinical applications in the sub-fields of nano-oncology and nano-infectiology.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Nanomedicina , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/tendências , Editoração/tendências , Pesquisa/tendências , Humanos , Gestão da Informação , MEDLINE , Nanomedicina/tendências
11.
Curr Pharm Des ; 25(24): 2626-2636, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603056

RESUMO

Nanoparticles have gained significant importance in the past two decades, due to their multifaceted applications in the field of nanomedicine. As our ecosystems and habitats are changing due to global warming, many new diseases are emerging continuously. Treating these costs a lot of money and mostly ends up in failure. In addition, frequent use of antibiotics to control the emerging diseases has led the pathogens to develop resistance to antibiotics. Hence, the nanoparticles are targeted to treat such diseases instead of the costly antibiotics. In particular, the biosynthesized nanoparticles have received considerable attention due to their simple, eco-friendly and promising activity. To highlight, microbial mediated nanoparticles have been found to possess higher activity and thus have a promising role in antimicrobial therapy to fight against the emerging drug-resistant pathogens. In this context, this review article is aimed at highlight the role of nanoparticles in the field of nanomedicine and importance of actinobacteria in the nanoparticle synthesis and their need in antimicrobial therapy. This is a comprehensive review, focusing on the potential of actinobacteria-mediated nanoparticles in the field of nanomedicine.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Nanomedicina/tendências , Nanopartículas
12.
Curr Pharm Des ; 25(17): 1962-1979, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumours are no longer regarded as isolated masses of aberrantly proliferating epithelial cells. Rather, their properties depend on complex interactions between epithelial cancer cells and the surrounding stromal compartment within the tumour microenvironment. In particular, leukocyte infiltration plays a role in controlling tumour development and is now considered one of the hallmarks of cancer. Thus, in the last few years, immunotherapy has become a promising strategy to fight cancer, as its goal is to reprogram or activate antitumour immunity to kill tumour cells, without damaging the normal cells and provide long-lasting results where other therapies fail. However, the immune-related adverse events due to the low specificity in tumour cell targeting, strongly limit immunotherapy efficacy. In this regard, nanomedicine offers a platform for the delivery of different immunotherapeutic agents specifically to the tumour site, thus increasing efficacy and reducing toxicity. Indeed, playing with different material types, several nanoparticles can be formulated with different shape, charge, size and surface chemical modifications making them the most promising platform for biomedical applications. AIM: In this review, we will summarize the different types of cancer immunotherapy currently in clinical trials or already approved for cancer treatment. Then, we will focus on the most recent promising strategies to deliver immunotherapies directly to the tumour site using nanoparticles. CONCLUSION: Nanomedicine seems to be a promising approach to improve the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. However, additional investigations are needed to minimize the variables in the production processes in order to make nanoparticles suitable for clinical use.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia , Nanomedicina/tendências , Nanopartículas , Neoplasias/terapia , Humanos , Microambiente Tumoral
13.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 84(4): 689-706, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367789

RESUMO

Despite the efforts that have been made in the field of breast cancer therapy, it is a leading cause of cancer death in women and a major health problem. The current treatments combine several strategies (surgery, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, hormone therapy, and chemotherapy) depending on cancer subtype and tumour stage. The use of chemotherapy is required in certain circumstances, like before or after surgery or in advanced stages of the disease. Chemotherapeutic regimens that include anthracyclines (e.g. doxorubicin), taxanes (e.g. paclitaxel), 5-fluorouracil and/or cyclophosphamide show, in general, a high toxicity that limit their clinical use. The use of targeted chemotherapy allows to get a selective location of the drug at tumour mass, decreasing the toxicity of these treatments. An increase of the antitumour efficacy can also be achieved. The use of nanocarriers containing anticancer drugs can be a good strategy to get targeted chemotherapy. In fact, several nanoformulations containing paclitaxel and doxorubicin have been approved or are under clinical trial for breast cancer therapy. The main advantage of these nanomedicines is their lower toxicity compared to conventional formulations, which can be attributed to the elimination of the solvents of the formulation (e.g. Cremophor-EL in paclitaxel conventional formulations) and the more selective location of the drug at tumour site (e.g. cardiotoxicity related to free doxorubicin). However, some adverse events (e.g. hand foot syndrome or infusion reactions) have been related to the administration of some nanomedicines, which have to be considered.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama , Nanomedicina , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Nanomedicina/métodos , Nanomedicina/tendências , Nanoestruturas/uso terapêutico , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
14.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 22(3): 501-520, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395328

RESUMO

Reducing the frequency of drug administration in the treatment of exotic pets is advantageous because it may decrease handling frequency and thus potential stress and injury risk for the animal, increase owner compliance with the prescribed treatment, and decrease need for general anesthesia in patients that cannot be handled safely. Increasing efficient drug plasma concentration using sustained-released delivery systems is an appealing solution. Potential candidates that could provide a promising solution have been investigated in exotic pets. In this article, the technologies that are the closest to being integrated in exotic pet medicine are reviewed: osmotic pumps, nanoparticles, and hydrogels.


Assuntos
Animais Exóticos , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Medicina Veterinária/instrumentação , Animais , Aves , Implantes de Medicamento , Peixes , Manobra Psicológica , Hidrogéis , Bombas de Infusão/economia , Bombas de Infusão/veterinária , Lipossomos , Mamíferos , Nanomedicina/tendências , Nanopartículas , Osmose/fisiologia , Coelhos , Ratos , Répteis , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Medicina Veterinária/métodos
15.
Curr Pharm Des ; 25(24): 2677-2693, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nanopharmaceuticals have rapidly emerged as a means to cure several diseases. There are numerous reports describing the development and application of nanopharmaceuticals. Here, we discussed nanoparticle synthesis and the mechanisms to scavenge free radicals. We also discuss their major properties and list several commercially available nanomedicines. RESULTS: Reactive oxygen and hydrogen species are formed during normal metabolism, and excessive reactive species can damage proteins, lipids, and DNA and cause disease. Plant- and microbe-based nanoparticles, which can protect tissues from free radical damage, have recently gained research momentum because they are inexpensive and safe. CONCLUSION: Synthetic and biocompatible nanoparticles exhibit antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties, which can be used to treat several diseases. Further studies are needed to investigate their sizes, dose-dependent activities, and mechanisms of action.


Assuntos
Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Nanomedicina/tendências , Nanopartículas
16.
Curr Pharm Des ; 25(24): 2650-2660, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298154

RESUMO

Generally, silver is considered as a noble metal used for treating burn wound infections, open wounds and cuts. However, the emerging nanotechnology has made a remarkable impact by converting metallic silver into silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for better applications. The advancement in technology has improved the synthesis of NPs using biological method instead of physical and chemical methods. Nonetheless, synthesizing AgNPs using biological sources is ecofriendly and cost effective. Till date, AgNPs are widely used as antibacterial agents; therefore, a novel idea is needed for the successful use of AgNPs as therapeutic agents to uncertain diseases and infections. In biomedicine, AgNPs possess significant advantages due to their physical and chemical versatility. Indeed, the toxicity concerns regarding AgNPs have created the need for non-toxic and ecofriendly approaches to produce AgNPs. The applications of AgNPs in nanogels, nanosolutions, silver based dressings and coating over medical devices are under progress. Still, an improvised version of AgNPs for extended applications in an ecofriendly manner is the need of the hour. Therefore, the present review emphasizes the synthesis methods, modes of action under dissipative conditions and the various biomedical applications of AgNPs in detail.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanomedicina/tendências , Prata/farmacologia
17.
Curr Pharm Des ; 25(13): 1554-1579, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium group contains several pathogenic bacteria including M. tuberculosis where the emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is alarming for human and animal health around the world. The condition has further aggravated due to the speed of discovery of the newer drugs has been outpaced by the rate of resistance developed in microorganisms, thus requiring alternative combat strategies. For this purpose, nano-antimicrobials have emerged as a potential option. OBJECTIVE: The current review is focused on providing a detailed account of nanocarriers like liposome, micelles, dendrimers, solid lipid NPs, niosomes, polymeric nanoparticles, nano-suspensions, nano-emulsion, mesoporous silica and alginate-based drug delivery systems along with the recent updates on developments regarding nanoparticle-based therapeutics, vaccines and diagnostic methods developed or under pipeline with their potential benefits and limitations to combat mycobacterial diseases for their successful eradication from the world in future. RESULTS: Distinct morphology and the underlying mechanism of pathogenesis and resistance development in this group of organisms urge improved and novel methods for the early and efficient diagnosis, treatment and vaccination to eradicate the disease. Recent developments in nanotechnology have the potential to meet both the aspects: nano-materials are proven components of several efficient targeted drug delivery systems and the typical physicochemical properties of several nano-formulations have shown to possess distinct bacteriocidal properties. Along with the therapeutic aspects, nano-vaccines and theranostic applications of nano-formulations have grown in popularity in recent times as an effective alternative means to combat different microbial superbugs. CONCLUSION: Nanomedicine holds a bright prospect to perform a key role in global tuberculosis elimination program.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Nanomedicina/tendências , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Animais , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos
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