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1.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4741-4754, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456635

RESUMO

Background: Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.(Ib) has high content of various beneficial nutrients which helps in improving and maintaining human health. It is well known as a functional food and also a valuable source of unique natural products. It contains various phenolic and flavonoid bioactive compounds. Methods: In this study, using the outer peel of two varieties of Ib : Korean red skin sweet potato and Korean pumpkin sweet potato, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized (termed Ib1-AgNps and Ib2-AgNps), respectively. Characterization of Ib1-AgNPs and Ib2-AgNPs was carried out through scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray powder diffraction and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Further, the bio-potential of the synthesized AgNPs was investigated by antidiabetic (α-glucosidase assay), antioxidant (free radical scavenging assays), antibacterial (disc diffusion method) and cytotoxicity assays (cell viability against HepG2 cells). Results: FT-IR spectroscopy revealed the contribution of bioactive compounds existing in Ib1 and Ib2 extracts, in the biosynthesis and equilibrium of the AgNPs. Although the Ib2-AgNPs had a higher atomic percentage of Ag in comparison with Ib1-AgNPs, in the antidiabetic assay, the inhibition percentage of α-glucosidase was higher for AgNPs of Ib1 than Ib2, at all three concentrations examined. From the cytotoxicity results, HepG2 cancer cells were more sensitive to the Ib1-AgNPs in comparison to the Ib2-AgNPs-treated HepG2 cells. The antioxidant prospective was higher in Ib2-AgNPs than Ib1-AgNPs. Moreover, the Ib2-AgNPs showed inhibitory action against all five tested pathogenic bacteria, producing an inhibition zone of 8.74-11.52 mm while Ib1-AgNPs had an inhibitory effect on four of them, with an 8.67-11.23 (mm) inhibition zone. Conclusions: Overall, the results concluded that the Ib2-AgNPs exhibited relatively higher functional activity than Ib1-AgNPs, which might be credited to the greater abundance of bioactive compounds existing in Ib2 extract that acted as reducing as well as capping agents in the synthesis of Ib2-AgNPs. Overall, the current study highlights a novel cost-effective and eco-friendly AgNPs synthesis using food waste peels with biocompatibility and could be potentially utilized in biomedical and pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ipomoea batatas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4991-5015, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371943

RESUMO

Purpose: This study evaluates the cytotoxicity of AuNPs coated with polyallylamine (AuNPs-PAA) and conjugated or not to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting antibody Cetuximab (AuNPs-PAA-Ctxb) in normal human kidney (HK-2), liver (THLE-2) and microvascular endothelial (TIME) cells, and compares it with two cancer cell lines that are EGFR-overexpressing (A431) or EGFR-negative (MDA-MB-453). Results: Conjugation of Cetuximab to AuNPs-PAA increased the AuNPs-PAA-Ctxb interactions with cells, but reduced their cytotoxicity. TIME cells exhibited the strongest reduction in viability after exposure to AuNPs-PAA(±Ctxb), followed by THLE-2, MDA-MB-453, HK-2 and A431 cells. This cell type-dependent sensitivity was strongly correlated to the inhibition of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and glutathione reductase (GR), and to the depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Both are suggested to initiate apoptosis, which was indeed detected in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The role of oxidative stress in AuNPs-PAA(±Ctxb)-induced cytotoxicity was demonstrated by co-incubation of the cells with N-acetyl L-cysteine (NAC), which significantly decreased apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Conclusion: This study helps to identify the cells and tissues that could be sensitive to AuNPs and deepens the understanding of the risks associated with the use of AuNPs in vivo.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 7/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cetuximab/farmacologia , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Poliaminas/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Eletricidade Estática , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/metabolismo
3.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 5017-5032, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371944

RESUMO

Background: Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major anti-inflammatory compound in green tea, has been shown to suppress osteoclast (OC) differentiation. However, the low aqueous solubility of EGCG always leads to poor bioavailability, adverse effects, and several drawbacks for clinical applications. Purpose: In this study, we synthesized EGCG-capped gold nanoparticles (EGCG-GNPs) to solve the drawbacks for clinical uses of EGCG in bone destruction disorders by direct reduction of HAuCl4 in EGCG aqueous solution. Methods and Results: The obtained EGCG-GNPs were negatively charged and spherical. Theoretical calculation results suggested that EGCG was released from GNPs in an acidic environment. Cellular uptake study showed an obviously large amount of intracellular EGCG-GNPs without cytotoxicity. EGCG-GNPs exhibited better effects in reducing intracellular reactive oxygen species levels than free EGCG. A more dramatic anti-osteoclastogenic effect induced by EGCG-GNPs than free EGCG was observed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated bone marrow macrophages, including decreased formation of TRAP-positive multinuclear cells and actin rings. Meanwhile, EGCG-GNPs not only suppressed the mRNA expression of genetic markers of OC differentiation but also inhibited MAPK signaling pathways. Furthermore, we confirmed that EGCG-GNPs greatly reversed bone resorption in the LPS-induced calvarial bone erosion model in vivo, which was more effective than applying free EGCG, specifically in inhibiting the number of OCs, improving bone density, and preventing bone loss. Conclusion: EGCG-GNPs showed better anti-osteoclastogenic effect than free EGCG in vitro and in vivo, indicating their potential in anti-bone resorption treatment strategy.


Assuntos
Catequina/análogos & derivados , Ouro/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Reabsorção Óssea/patologia , Catequina/farmacologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Ligantes , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Biológicos , Ligante RANK/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Crânio/patologia , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 5125-5133, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371951

RESUMO

Purpose: The frequent usage of various lighting screens has made dry eye syndrome an increasingly serious phenomenon. To relieve this global problem, we have developed a photothermal conversion hydrogel based mini-eye patch. Methods: Gold nanoparticles (GNRs) were synthesized by a seed-mediated method, and then used as the inner cores to grow palladium (Pd) shell by PdCl42-reduction. Then, gelatin was added to prepare GNRs @ Pd hydrogel eye patch by genipin cross-linking. We implanted temperature sensitive ink (complex composed of amino resin and styrene maleic anhydride copolymer) in the eye patch, which could change color at different temperatures. Heating performance of the eye patch was accessed with an infrared temperature profile and the circulating temperature experiment. The safety assessment of the eye patch was conducted by H&E staining of the mouse's eyelid skin and CCK-8 assay. A Keratograph 5M noninvasive ocular surface analyzer was used to assess the impact of eye patches on dry eyes. Results: It was found that GNRs @ Pd hydrogel eye patches could sense various visible light and responded by heating up spontaneously. Results from the CCK-8 assay and H&E staining showed that the eye patch has good safety performance. Measurements of the first noninvasive tear break-up time (NITBUT), the average NITBUT, the tear meniscus height (TMH), combined with red eye analysis, further demonstrated the patch's eye-protective properties. Conclusion: After being pasted to the lacrimal gland, the hydrogel patch converted various light irradiations into heat and stimulated the lacrimal gland to produce more tears to relieve dry eye. The built-in temperature-sensitive ink can play an important role in warning people of their excessive eye usage. Because this recyclable strategy does not interfere with normal eye use, it is thus more environmentally friendly and convenient than ordinary infrared eyewear.


Assuntos
Síndromes do Olho Seco/terapia , Olho/patologia , Hidrogéis/química , Luz , Temperatura Ambiente , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Ouro/química , Humanos , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Coelhos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Adulto Jovem
5.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 5147-5157, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371953

RESUMO

Background: Kaempferol (K) is a recognized anticancer drug that can conjugate with small-size gold nanoclusters (AuNCs). Materials and methods: K-AuNCs were synthesized and their use as an anticancer drug was explored using A549 lung cancer cells. Colony formation and cell migration assays were carried out. The morphology of the K-AuNCs treated A549 cells was explored using bio-atomic force microscopy. Results: The K-AuNCs were 1-3 nm in diameter and emitted strong fluorescent at 650 nm following excitation at 550 nm. The stretching and bending nature of the K-AuNCs were analyzed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The presence of kaempferol in the AuNCs were confirmed by the PL spectroscopy. Conclusion: The synthesized K-AuNCs mainly targeted and damaged the nuclei of the cancer cells. This composite nanocluster was less toxicity to the normal human cell and higher toxicity to the A549 lunch cancer cell and these material is potential for anticancer drug delivery and bio imaging applications.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Ouro/química , Quempferóis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos/química , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Quempferóis/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Fenômenos Ópticos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4667-4679, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308652

RESUMO

Purpose: The pathogenicity in Candida spp was attributed by several virulence factors such as production of tissue damaging extracellular enzymes, germ tube formation, hyphal morphogenesis and establishment of drug resistant biofilm. The objective of present study was to investigate the effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on growth, cell morphology and key virulence attributes of Candida species. Methods: AgNPs were synthesized by the using seed extract of Syzygium cumini (Sc), and were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). ScAgNPs were used to evaluate their antifungal and antibacterial activity as well as their potent inhibitory effects on germ tube and biofilm formation and extracellular enzymes viz. phospholipases, proteinases, lipases and hemolysin secreted by Candida spp. Results: The MICs values of ScAgNPs were ranged from 0.125-0.250 mg/ml, whereas the MBCs and MFCs were 0.250 and 0.500 mg/ml, respectively. ScAgNPs significantly inhibit the production of phospholipases by 82.2, 75.7, 78.7, 62.5, and 65.8%; proteinases by 82.0, 72.0, 77.5, 67.0, and 83.7%; lipase by 69.4, 58.8, 60.0, 42.9, and 65.0%; and hemolysin by 62.8, 69.7, 67.2, 73.1, and 70.2% in C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. dubliniensis, C. parapsilosis and C. krusei, respectively, at 500 µg/ml. ScAgNPs inhibit germ tube formation in C. albicans up to 97.1% at 0.25 mg/ml. LIVE/DEAD staining results showed that ScAgNPs almost completely inhibit biofilm formation in C. albicans. TEM analysis shows that ScAgNPs not only anchored onto the cell surface but also penetrated and accumulated in the cytoplasm that causes severe damage to the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane. Conclusion: To summarize, the biosynthesized ScAgNPs strongly suppressed the multiplication, germ tube and biofilm formation and most importantly secretion of hydrolytic enzymes (viz. phospholipases, proteinases, lipases and hemolysin) by Candia spp. The present research work open several avenues of further study, such as to explore the molecular mechanism of inhibition of germ tubes and biofilm formation and suppression of production of various hydrolytic enzymes by Candida spp.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida/patogenicidade , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/citologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Hemolisinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrólise , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Syzygium/química , Virulência/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Virulência
7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4723-4739, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308655

RESUMO

Background: Much consideration has been paid to the toxicological assessment of nanoparticles prior to clinical and biological applications. While in vitro studies have been expanding continually, in vivo investigations of nanoparticles have not developed a cohesive structure. This study aimed to assess the acute toxicity of different concentrations of chitosan-coated silver nanoparticles (Ch-AgNPs) in main organs, including liver, kidneys, and spleen. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight male albino rats were used and divided into 4 groups (n=7). Group 1 was kept as a negative control group. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were treated intraperitoneally with Ch-AgNPs each day for 14 days at doses of 50, 25, and 10 mg/kg body weight (bwt) respectively. Histopathological, morphometric and immunohistochemical studies were performed as well as oxidative stress evaluations, and specific functional examinations for each organ were elucidated. Results: It was revealed that Ch-AgNPs induced dose-dependent toxicity, and the repeated dosing of rats with 50 mg/kg Ch-AgNPs induced severe toxicities. Histopathological examination showed congestion, hemorrhage, cellular degeneration, apoptosis and necrosis in hepatic and renal tissue as well as lymphocytic depletion with increasing tangible macrophages in the spleen. The highest levels of malondialdehyde, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (MDA, ALT, AST) and the lowest levels of reduced glutathione, immunoglobulin G, M and total protein (GSH, IgG, IgM, TP) were observed in this group. On the other hand, repeated dosing with 25 mg/kg induced mild to moderate disturbance in the previous parameters, while there was no significant difference in results of pathological examination and biochemical tests between the control group and those treated with 10 mg/kg bwt Ch-AgNPs. Conclusion: Chitosan-coated silver nanoparticles induce dose-dependent adverse effects on rats.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Creatinina/sangue , Glutationa/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/patologia
8.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4367-4381, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354266

RESUMO

Purpose: Polyethylenimine (PEI) has been widely used as a versatile template to develop multifunctional nanosystems for disease diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we manufactured iodine-131 (131I)-labeled PEI-entrapped gold nanoparticles (Au PENPs) as a novel nanoprobe for single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging and radionuclide therapy. Materials and methods: PEI was PEGylated and sequentially conjugated with Buthus martensii Karsch chlorotoxin (BmK CT, a tumor-specific ligand which can selectively bind to MMP2), 3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid-OSu (HPAO), and fluorescein isothiocyanate to form the multifunctional PEI template for entrapment of Au NPs. Then, the PEI surface was radiolabeled with 131I via HPAO to produce the novel nanoprobe (BmK CT-Au PENPs-131I). Results: The synthesized multifunctional Au PENPs before and after 131I radiolabeling were well-characterized as follows: structure, X-ray attenuation coefficient, colloid stability, cytocompatibility, and radiochemical stability in vitro. Furthermore, BmK CT-Au PENPs-131I were suitable for targeted SPECT/CT imaging and radionuclide therapy of tumor cells in vitro and in a xenograft tumor model in vivo. Conclusion: The developed multifunctional Au PENPs are a promising theranostic platform for targeted imaging and treatment of different MMP2-overexpressing tumors.


Assuntos
Ouro/química , Radioisótopos do Iodo/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Polietilenoimina/química , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/uso terapêutico , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Animais , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Coloides/química , Glioma/patologia , Glioma/radioterapia , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Especificidade de Órgãos , Tamanho da Partícula , Propionatos/química , Venenos de Escorpião/toxicidade
9.
Aquat Toxicol ; 213: 105221, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207537

RESUMO

Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) tend to precipitate in saline waters so the majority of aquatic toxicity studies have focused on freshwaters, where bioavailability is presumed to be higher. Recent studies have illustrated that some ENM formulations are bioavailable and bioactive in salt water and that their effects are more pronounced at the physiological than biochemical level. These findings raise concerns regarding the effects of ENMs on marine organisms. Therefore, our goal was to characterize the effects of polyvinylpyrolidone-functionalized silver ENMs (nAg) on aerobic performance in the killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus), a common euryhaline teleost. Fish were exposed to 80 µg L-1 of 5 nm nAg for 48 h in brackish water (12 ppt) and routine (MO2min) and maximum (MO2max) rates of oxygen consumption were quantified. Silver dissolution was minimal and nAg remained well dispersed in brackish water, with a hydrodynamic diameter of 21.0 nm, compared to 19.3 in freshwater. Both MO2min and MO2max were significantly lower (by 53 and 30%, respectively) in killifish exposed to nAg and a reduction in MO2 variability suggested spontaneous activity was suppressed. Neither gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity, nor various other biochemical markers were affected by nAg exposure. The results illustrate that a common ENM formulation is bioactive in salt water and, as in previous studies on functionalized copper ENMs, that effects are more pronounced at the whole animal than the biochemical level.


Assuntos
Água Doce , Fundulidae/fisiologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Aerobiose , Animais , Metabolismo Basal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Fundulidae/sangue , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/ultraestrutura , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Consumo de Oxigênio/efeitos dos fármacos , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
10.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 3403-3411, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190799

RESUMO

Aim: To quantitatively and sensitively investigate the biodistribution of immune cells after systemic administration. Methods: Immune cells were loaded with plasmonic gold nanostars (GNS) tracking probes. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for quantitative gold mass measurement and two-photon photoluminescence (TPL) was used for high-resolution sensitive optical imaging. Results: GNS nanoparticles were loaded successfully into immune cells without negative effect on cellular vitality. Liver and spleen were identified to be the major organs for macrophage cells uptake after systematic administration. A small amount of macrophage cells were detected in the tumor site in our murine lymphoma animal model. Conclusion: GNS has great potential as a biocompatible marker for quantitative tracking and high-resolution imaging of immune cells at the cellular level.


Assuntos
Ouro/química , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Distribuição Tecidual
11.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 3427-3438, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190801

RESUMO

Background: Biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have wider range of biomedical applications. The present work synthesized Tp-AgNPs using mycelial extract of endophytic fungus Talaromyces purpureogenus (MEEF), characterized, and analyzed for antibacterial, anti-proliferation and cell wounding healing activities. Methods: The synthesized Tp-AgNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis), field emission transmission electron microscopy (FETEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), particle size analysis (PSA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Further, antibacterial activity was determined by Kirby-Bauer test and anti-proliferation activity was tested in human lung carcinoma A549 by water-soluble tetrazolium and flow cytometer assay. In addition, cell wounding healing activity was determined by scratch assay. Results: UV-Vis results displayed a strong absorption peak from 390 nm to 420 nm, which indicated the successful synthesis of Tp-AgNPs. FETEM-EDS results indicated the round and triangle shaped Tp-AgNPs with the average size of 25 nm in accordance with PSA. FTIR analysis indicated the involvement of various functional molecules from MEEF in the synthesis of Tp-AgNPs. XRD result proved nature of Tp-AgNPs as a high-quality crystal. The Tp-AgNPs significantly inhibited the growth of bacterial pathogens at the minimal inhibitory concentration of 16.12 µg.mL-1 for Gram+, and 13.98 µg.mL-1 for Gram- bacteria. Further, Tp-AgNPs (2 µg.mL-1) showed a strong anti-proliferation effect in A549. Interestingly, Tp-AgNPs was not cytotoxic to normal NIH3T3 cells. In addition, the NPs exhibited a strong cell wounding healing activity. Conclusion: This work biosynthesized AgNPs with strong antibacterial, anticancer and cell wound healing properties using endophytic fungus T. purpureogenus.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/farmacologia , Talaromyces/metabolismo , Células A549 , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Células NIH 3T3 , Prata/química , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 3517-3524, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190808

RESUMO

Background: Liver plays a vital role in the elimination of xenobiotics that can induce hepatotoxicity in living organisms.Silver nanoparticles have evolved recently as an alternative in various industries and are used for their biomedical applications.Rhizophora apiculata is a least studied mangrove-based plant that has been used in the traditional medicine of Southeast Asia for its healing properties. It is a well-known fact that the generation of free radicals has been associated with oxidative stress.  Methods: Hence, in this study we used carbon tetrachloride as a hepatotoxin to induce liver damage. The protective effects of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Rhizophora apiculata on hepatotoxin-induced liver damage in experimental mice were assessed.  Results: The results of the assessment indicate that silver nanoparticles were effective in protecting the liver from damages induced by carbon tetrachloride.  Conclusion: Among existing literature, this is the first ever approach for hepatoprotective effect of nanoparticles derived using plant extract from mangrove ecosystem.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Rhizophoraceae/química , Prata/farmacologia , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Espectrometria por Raios X
13.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 3533-3541, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190810

RESUMO

Background: Himalayan honey, a natural product of wild honey bees found in the Himalayan mountains of Nepal, has been used in medicine for many years. The successful development of nanotechnology and beneficial effects of honey would bring a new opportunity to synthesize hybrid nanomaterials for biomedical applications. Thus, the purpose of this study was to load Himalayan honey onto iron oxide nanoparticles (IO-NPs) and study their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Methods: Himalayan honey loaded iron oxide nanoparticles (HHLIO-NPs) were synthesized and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses were performed for characterization. UV-VIS spectra confirmed the loading of honey onto nanoparticles. The antioxidant activity of these nanoparticles was studied against 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical system. We also tested antimicrobial activity of HHLIO-NPs using well diffusion method towards both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains of Staphylococus aureus & Escherichia coli. Results: From XRD analysis, the average particle size was found to be 33-40 nm. The SEM images show needle shape porous structures of HHLIO-NPs compared to free IO-NPs indicating the surfactant-like behaviour of honey. In DPPH radical system, the scavenging activities of Himalayan honey (HH), free IO-NPs and HHLIO-NPs ranged 7.93-35.99%, 11.02-52.02% and 16.10-80.52% respectively, with corresponding IC50 values of 1.36 mg/mL, 1.09 mg/mL and 0.52 mg/mL. The antimicrobial property of all test samples showed a noteworthy inhibition on both bacterial strains. However, the HH and HHLIO-NPs exhibited strong antibacterial activity against E. coli. Conclusion: This work reveals that the biological activity of HH is enhanced significantly after loading into IO-NPs. Thus, the HHLIO-NPs would be a promising alternative for antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos Férricos/química , Mel , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tamanho da Partícula , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Difração de Raios X
14.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4091-4103, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239669

RESUMO

Introduction: Curcuma wenyujin is a plant which belongs to the family of Zingiberaceae, found in South Asia and China. C. wenyujin is a major constituent in Chinese traditional medicine and is used to treat liver diseases, blood clots, and is also prescribed as a painkiller. C. wenyujin possesses antioxidant, antiproliferative, and antitumorogenic properties, and many researchers have proved the efficacy of C. wenyujin against various types of cancer. The major drawback of this historical drug is it's low bioavailability. Methods: This study synthesized gold nanoparticles using C. wenyujin and assessed its potency against in vitro renal cancer cells. The biosynthesized C. wenyujin gold nanoparticles (CWAuNPs) were characterized using UV-Spec, DLS, FTIR, SAED, TEM, EDAX, and Atomic Force analysis. The cytotoxicity of CWAuNPs against renal cancer cell lines A498 and SW-156 was assessed with MTT assay. The induction of apoptosis by CWAuNPs in A498 cell was measured using apoptotic staining DAPI, Rhodamine 123, and H2DCFDA. The apoptotic activity of CWAuNPs was further confirmed with flow cytometric analysis. The molecular mechanism of CWAuNPs was analyzed with qPCR and immunoblotting analysis of caspases, proapoptotic, and antiapoptotic proteins. Results: The characterization of results of synthesized CWAuNPs satisfy the distinctive properties of a potent nanodrug. The results of apoptotic staining techniques confirm the induction of CWAuNPs in A498 by increasing the apoptotic Caspase 3,9, Bid, and Bad, and decreasing the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, Bcl-xl expressions, which is authentically proven by the qPCR and immunoblotting analysis. Conclusion: In conclusion, these results confirmed that biosynthesized CWAuNPs is a potent anticancer agent which induces apoptosis in the A498 renal carcinoma cell line.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Curcuma/química , Ouro/farmacologia , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
15.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4247-4259, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239678

RESUMO

Purpose: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely applied in various fields as excellent antibacterial reagents over the past decades. Although the particle size is considered as the most crucial factor influencing cellular uptake, transportation, and accumulation behaviors, there are still many controversies regarding the correlation between size and uptake of AgNPs. In this study, size-dependent cellular uptake of AgNPs with different diameters was investigated in B16 cells. Methods: The uptake of AgNPs was investigated by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) imaging in B16 cells. Results: Twenty nanometer and 100 nm AgNPs had the lowest and highest uptake efficiency at both 12 hours and 24 hours, respectively. Smaller AgNPs crossed the plasma membrane faster with uniform distribution: 5 nm AgNPs were detected in both cytoplasm and nucleus at 0.5 hours after incubation. Larger AgNPs were extremely difficult to migrate: 100 nm AgNPs were detected in the nucleus at 12 hours after incubation. Internalization of AgNPs was directly observed, mainly within membrane-bound structures, such as intracellular vesicles and late endosomes. The uptake of all four-sized AgNPs (5 nm, 20 nm, 50 nm, 100 nm) decreased significantly after the pre-treatment with chlorpromazine hydrochloride, which can specifically inhibit the clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The internalization efficiencies of AgNPs (5 nm, 20 nm, 50 nm) were markedly reduced by methyl-ß-cyclodextrin, a specific caveolin-mediated endocytosis inhibitor, whereas 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride as an inhibitor of macropinocytosis inhibited the uptake of larger sizes of AgNPs (50 nm and 100 nm). Conclusion: The results suggest that the size of AgNPs can not only affect the efficiency of cellular uptake, but also the type of endocytosis. The clathrin-mediated endocytosis may be the most common endocytic pathway for AgNPs in B16 cells, and AgNPs at each size were likely to enter cells by a major internalization pathway.


Assuntos
Endocitose , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Prata/química , Animais , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/ultraestrutura , Tamanho Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Melanoma Experimental , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Fatores de Tempo , beta-Ciclodextrinas
16.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 3983-3993, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213810

RESUMO

Background: Infections caused by drug resistant bacteria are a major health concern worldwide and have prompted scientists to carry out efforts to overcome this challenge. Researchers and pharmaceutical companies are trying to develop new kinds of antimicrobial agents by using different physical and chemical methods to overcome these problems. Materials and methods: In the present study, rifampicin conjugated silver (Rif-Ag) nanoparticles have successfully been synthesized using a chemical method. Characterization of the nanoparticles was performed using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FTIR, SEM, TEM, and AFM. Results: The AFM, SEM, and TEM results showed that the average particle size of Rif-Ag nanoparticles was about 15-18±4 nm. The FTIR spectra revealed the conjugation of -NH2 and -OH functional moiety with silver nanoparticles surface. Considering the penetrating power of rifampicin, the free drug is compared with synthesized nanoparticle for antimicrobial, biofilm inhibition, and eradication potential. Synthesized nanoparticles were found to be significantly active as compared to drug alone. Conclusion: This study has shown greater biofilm inhibitory and eradicating potential against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae, as evident by crystal violet, MTT staining, and microscopic analysis. So, it will be further modified, and studies for the mechanism of action are needed.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/fisiologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/fisiologia , Rifampina/farmacologia , Prata/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Rifampina/química , Sais , Prata/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
17.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 3995-4005, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213811

RESUMO

Purpose: Since nanoparticles (NPs) are beginning to be introduced in medicine and industry, it is mendatory to evaluate their biological side-effects, among other things. The present study aimed to investigate the pathways by which nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs) enter nephrons and to evaluate their localization and effects on cellular ultrastructure. Methods: Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 20 nm NiNPs (20 mg/Kg/b.w./day) for 28 consecutive days. Transmission electron microscope technique was used to detect localization of NiNPs and their effects on cellular ultrastructure in rat kidneys. Additionally, measurements of certain biochemical parameters such as creatinine, urea, uric acid and phosphorus for investigating renal function following NiNPs treatment were taken. Results: The presence of NiNPs in the nephrons in treated rats was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. NiNPs entered the renal tubules cells via various pathways. The results indicated that NiNPs administration induced ultrastructural changes in the proximal cells of renal tubules and certain glomerular cells (podocytes and mesangial cells). Additionally, NiNPs were found to be localized in the mitochondria, which led to a significant decrease in their density and morphology. Furthermore, cell death was induced in the glomerular cells as found with a Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) assay and through detection of p35 using immunohistochemical staining. Conclusion: Herein, NiNPs were found to induce various cellular ultrastructural changes in the kidneys of rats. NiNPs used diverse pathways to internalize into the cytoplasm of the proximal convoluted tubules (PT) cells across the basement membrane, and also through the plasma membrane of two adjacent PT cells. NiNPs internalization, accumulation and their alterations of the cellular ultrastructure affected rat renal function.


Assuntos
Endocitose , Rim/ultraestrutura , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Animais , Células Epiteliais/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Células Mesangiais/ultraestrutura , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Níquel/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Podócitos/ultraestrutura , Ratos Wistar
18.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 129: 278-285, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254805

RESUMO

A novel electrochemical magnetoimmunosensor for the rapid and sensitive detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was fabricated based on a combination of high-efficiency immunomagnetic separation, bifunctional Au-nanoparticle (bi-AuNP) probes, and enzyme catalytic amplification. The reaction carrier magnetic beads (MBs) effectively reduced the toxicity of the complex sample to the working electrode, and the signal carrier bi-AuNP probes loaded a large amount of signal molecules, both of which enhanced the signal-to-noise ratio and further improved the detection sensitivity. A detection limit as low as 0.11 pg/mL was achieved for CEA detection based on the immunomagnetic separation and bi-AuNP probe-based multiamplification strategy, and the strategy was further successfully applied in human serum samples. The transducer was regenerated via a simple washing procedure, which enabled the detection of all samples on a single electrode with high reproducibility. The proposed strategy, which has the merits of high sensitivity, selectivity, and reproducibility exhibits great potential for detection in complex samples.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Imobilizados/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/sangue , Ouro/química , Imãs/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 2557-2571, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118605

RESUMO

Introduction: Global increase in the consumption of antibiotics has induced selective stress on wild-type microorganisms, pushing them to adapt to conditions of higher antibiotic concentrations, and thus an increased variety of resistant bacterial strains have emerged. Metal nanoparticles synthesized by green methods have been studied and proposed as potential antimicrobial agents against both wild-type and antibiotic-resistant strains; in addition, exopolysaccharides have been used as capping agent of metal nanoparticles due to their biocompatibility, reducing biological risks in a wide variety of applications. Purpose: In this work, we use an exopolysaccharide, from Rhodotorula mucilaginosa UANL-001L, an autochthonous strain from the Mexican northeast, as a capping agent in the synthesis of Zn, and Ni, nanoparticle biopolymer biocomposites. Materials and methods: To physically and chemically characterize the synthesized biocomposites, FT-IR, UV-Vs, TEM, SAED and EDS analysis were carried out. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm biological activity were tested for the biocomposites against two resistant clinical strains, a Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, and a Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrobial activity was determined using a microdilution assay whereas antibiofilm activity was analyzed through crystal violet staining. Results: Biocomposites composed of exopolysaccharide capped Zn and Ni metal nanoparticles were synthesized through a green synthesis methodology. The average size of the Zn and Ni nanoparticles ranged between 8 and 26 nm, respectively. The Ni-EPS biocomposites showed antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 3 and 2 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, Zn-EPS biocomposites showed antimicrobial activity against resistant Staphylococcus aureus at 1 mg/mL. Both biocomposites showed no toxicity, as renal function showed no differences between treatments and control in the in vivo assays with male rats tests in this study at a concentration of 24 mg/kg of body weight. Conclusion: The exopolysaccharide produced by Rhodotorula mucilaginosa UANL-001L is an excellent candidate as a capping agent in the synthesis of biopolymer-metal nanoparticle biocomposites. Both Ni and Zn-EPS biocomposites demonstrate to be potential contenders as novel antimicrobial agents against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive clinically relevant resistant bacterial strains. Moreover, Ni-EPS biocomposites also showed antibiofilm activity, which makes them an interesting material to be used in different applications to counterattack global health problems due to the emergence of resistant microorganisms.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biopolímeros/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Níquel/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/farmacologia , Rhodotorula/metabolismo , Zinco/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Rhodotorula/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
20.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 2773-2780, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118610

RESUMO

Purpose: An important application of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) is their use as an antimicrobial and wound dressing material. The aim of this study is to investigate the morphological dependence on the antimicrobial activity and cellular response of Ag NPs. Materials and methods: Ag NPs of various shapes were synthesized in an aqueous solution using a simple method. The morphology of the synthesized Ag NPs was observed via TEM imaging. The antimicrobial activity of the Ag NPs with different morphologies was evaluated against various microorganisms (Escherichia coli [E. coli], Staphylococcus aureus [S. aureus], Pseudomonas aeruginosa [P. aeruginosa]). The antimicrobial activity of the Ag NPs was also examined according to the concentration in terms of the growth rate of E. coli. Results: The TEM images indicated that the Ag NPs with different morphologies (sphere, disk and triangular plate) had been successfully synthesized. The antimicrobial activity obtained from the inhibition zone was in the order of spherical Ag NPs > disk Ag NPs > triangular plate Ag NPs. In contrast, fibroblast cells grew well in all types of Ag NPs when the cell viability was evaluated via an MTT assay. An inductively coupled plasma mass assay showed that the difference in the antimicrobial activities of the Ag NPs was closely associated with the difference in the release rate of the Ag ions due to the difference in the surface area of the Ag NPs. Conclusion: The morphological dependence of the antimicrobial activity of the Ag NPs can be explained by the difference in the Ag ion release depending on the shape. Therefore, it will be possible to control the antimicrobial activity by controlling the shape and size of the Ag NPs.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/química , Prata/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Íons , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Células NIH 3T3 , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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