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1.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 202: 111674, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778953

RESUMO

The present work showed the preparation of gold (Au NPs) and silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (C. Lindau). The prepared NPs were studied using various microscopic and spectroscopic techniques, which confirmed the formation of crystalline Ag NPs, Au NPs that are stabilized with C. Lindau extract polyphenols. The prepared Au NPs and Ag NPs are studied to assess their comparative analgesic and muscle relaxant activities conducted on BALB/c mice. The muscle relaxant studies displayed that Ag NPs were comparatively higher efficient than Au NPs and methanolic C. Lindau extract in traction examination. Additionally, the analgesic studies exhibited that Ag NPs, Au NPs showed maximum percentage reduction in acetic acid induced writhing at the concentrations of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight. Further, these results conclude that as prepared Au NPs and Ag NPs prepared from C. Lindau leaf extract demonstrated very good analgesic and muscle relaxant activities for the use of pain management in nursing care.


Assuntos
Acanthaceae/química , Analgésicos/síntese química , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/química , Acanthaceae/metabolismo , Ácido Acético/toxicidade , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Química Verde , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Relaxamento Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cuidados de Enfermagem , Dor/induzido quimicamente , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
2.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 202: 111705, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812087

RESUMO

The procurance of gold nanoparticles in the plant extracts is an excellent way to attain nanomaterials natural and eco-friendly nanomaterials. The Dehydrated roots of Chinese Euphorbia fischeriana flowering plant are called "Lang-Du". In this study, the retrieving of gold nanoparticles from Euphorbia fischeriana root was amalgamated by standard procedure. Fabricated gold nanoparticles were portrayed through the investigations of ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The UV-Vis and FTIR results explicated the obtained particles were sphere-shaped and the terpenoids of Euphorbia fischeriana had strong communications with gold surface. The HRTEM and XRD images exposed the produced gold nanoparticles had an extreme composition of crystal arrangement and excellent uniformed size of particles. In our study, the Isoprenaline induced myocardial damage established the elevation in TBARS, LOOH of heart tissues and notable decline in antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, GPx, and GSH. This biochemical result was additionally proved by histopathological assessment. Remarkably, the pretreatment with EF-AuNps(50 mg/kg b.w) illustrated stabilized levels of serum creatine and cardiotropins in myocardial infarcted animals. And further we understood the essential function of NF-ƙB, TNF-α, IL-6 signaling molecules and its way progression in the development of vascular tenderness.


Assuntos
Euphorbia/química , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Catalase/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Citocinas/metabolismo , Euphorbia/metabolismo , Química Verde , Isoproterenol/toxicidade , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Ratos , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
3.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 202: 111700, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810039

RESUMO

Zinc oxide (ZnO), an inorganic metal oxide established in the form of nanoparticles, has considerable biological properties. The current research uses Selaginella convolute (S. convolute) leaf extract to establish ZnO NPs and to assess their use in pain management. S. Convolute leaf extract mediated ZnO NPs were characterized by modern techniques and instruments such as Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Ultraviolet-vis-spectroscopy (UV-vis), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), indicating the emergence of spherical NPs of which is around 40 nm. The FTIR spectrum also signified that S. convolute plant extract polyphenols acted as a capping ligand for the fabricated ZnO NPs. Possessed ZnO NPs have shown important characteristics of muscle relaxing and antinociceptive. A concentration dependent acetic acid induced writhing effect was noted for both S. convolute extract and ZnO NPs. S. convolute plant extract and ZnO NPs are found to exhibit highest muscle relaxation effect in both traction and chimney tests and no sedative effect was shown by both ZnO NPs and plant extract. The present results showed that the S. convolute leaves extract is a very effective green reducing agent for the preparation of ZnO NPs and the prepared NPs can be used in pain management in emerging nursing care in future.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Selaginellaceae/química , Óxido de Zinco/química , Ácido Acético/toxicidade , Animais , Química Verde , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Relaxamento Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dor/induzido quimicamente , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Selaginellaceae/metabolismo
4.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 202: 111668, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734435

RESUMO

Fraxinus rhynchophylla belongs to the family of Oleaceae and also called as Chinese ash wood possesses various pharmacological properties such as neuroprotective, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, etc. Therefore we synthesized ZnO nanoparticles using Fraxinus rhynchophylla wood extract as reducing and capping agent. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized with the aid of UV-Spec, DLS, FT-IR and TEM analysis. Green synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were then assessed for anti-nociceptive property by using various nociception models such as thermal stress-induced, acetic acid, glutamate, capsaicin, and formalin-induced nociception. The sedative effect of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles was evaluated with an open field test. UV-Spectroscopic analysis confirms the formation of ZnO nanoparticles and the characterization studies DLS, FT-IR, and TEM analysis prove it has ideal nanoparticle can be used as a nano-drug. Results of both thermal stress-induced methods hot plate and tail immersion nociception test verified the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles are a potent antinociceptive drug. ZnO nanoparticles effectively reduced the abdominal writhes in acetic acid-induced nociception and it also significantly decreased the nociception activity in another glutamate, capsaicin, and formalin-induced nociception models. Open field experiment proved that synthesized ZnO nanoparticles are less sedative compared to the standard antinociceptive drug morphine. Overall our findings authentically confirm ZnO nanoparticles synthesized from Fraxinus rhynchophylla wood extract is a novel drug that persuasively reduces nociception in different nociceptive induced mice models and can be the best alternative for allopathic drugs which renders severe side effects.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Fraxinus/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Óxido de Zinco/química , Analgésicos/síntese química , Analgésicos/química , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Formaldeído/toxicidade , Fraxinus/metabolismo , Química Verde , Temperatura Alta , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Dor/induzido quimicamente , Casca de Planta/química , Casca de Planta/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química
5.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 203: 111737, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862636

RESUMO

Metal nanostructures are promising agents sensitizing by laser light and X-ray in photothermal therapy (PTT) and radiotherapy (RT) of cancer that improve treatment strategies of cancer. Nanoscale platinum materials are favorable in nanomedicine applications. In this study, platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) were synthesized and applied for cancer therapy upon 808-nm laser light and X-ray radiation, or their combination. Two power densities of laser (1.0 and 1.5 W cm-2) and three X-ray doses (2, 4 and 6 Gy) were selected for irradiation of B16/F10 cell line at 24 and 72 h-post treatment. The synthesized PtNPs had a spherical shape with a diameter of 12.2 ± 0.7 nm, and were cytocompatible up to 250 µg mL-1. A photothermal conversion activity in a concentration-dependent manner at 72 h-post treatment was observed. Also, PtNPs represented cytotoxicity upon X-ray radiation doses of 2, 4, and 6 Gy after 24 h, while, 72-h time passing led to deeper outcomes. Dual radiation of laser light and X-ray into PtNPs considerably improved the treatment via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. PtNPs can act as a novel dual absorber of laser light and X-ray, a common sensitizer, for treatment of cancer. The results of this study can be considered after further clinical investigations for treatment of tumor models.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Lasers , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Platina/química , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma Experimental/radioterapia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Nanomedicina , Fototerapia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Raios X
6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 8361-8378, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749615

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the anti-colitis potential of platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs). Materials and methods: 5-, 30- and 70-nm PtNPs were administered to C57BL/6 mice once daily by intragastric gavage for 8 d during and after 5-d dextran sodium sulfate treatment. Results: According to body weight change, stool blood and consistency, and colon length and histopathology, PtNPs size-dependently alleviated DSS-induced murine colitis. PtNPs enhanced gut-barrier function by upregulating the colonic expressions of heat-shock protein 25 and tight junction proteins. Based on colonic myeloperoxidase activity, colonic and peripheral levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, and peripheral counts of white blood cells, PtNPs attenuated colonic and systemic inflammation. By suppressing lipopolysaccharide-triggered production of proinflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, PtNPs exerted direct anti-inflammatory activities in RAW264.7 macrophages through a mechanism involving intracellular reactive oxygen species scavenging and Toll-like receptor 4/NF-κB signaling suppression. High-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing of fecal samples unveiled that PtNPs induced gut dysbiosis by unfavorably altering α-diversity, Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, and richness of certain specific bacteria. Conclusion: PtNPs are a promising anti-colitis agent, but may negatively impact gut-microbiota.


Assuntos
Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/terapia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Platina/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda , Administração Oral , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Colite/microbiologia , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/patologia , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 200: 111635, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671372

RESUMO

Parkinson disease is one of the most common neurological movement disorders affecting geriatric population. Biosynthesized gold nanoparticles are the ideal alternatives spotlighted by many researchers to treat various diseases. In the present study we synthesized gold nanoparticles using the root extract of Paeonia mountan, woody trees which are used in traditional Chinese medicine to be prescribed for diverse diseases. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles was confirmed with UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis and characterized using FTIR, HR-TEM, EDAX and XRD analysis. The cytotoxicity property of synthesized gold nanoparticles was assessed using MTT assay in the murine microglial BV2 cells. The neuroprotective effect of synthesized gold nanoparticles in inflammatory agent lipopolysaccharides triggered murine microglial BV2 cells was evaluated using nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 and inflammatory cytokines assays such as IL-6&IL-1ß. Further to confirm in vivo effect of synthesized nanoparticles, the nanoparticles were treated to Parkinson induced C57BL/6 mice. Behavioral, biochemical and molecular analysis were performed to estimate the potency of synthesized gold nanoparticles against the Parkinson induction in mice model. Our characterization results prove the gold nanoparticles synthesized using Paeonia mountan fulfills the requirement of ideal nanodrug and it potentially inhibited the inflammation in in vitro murine microglial BV2. The results of in vivo experiments authentically confirm gold nanoparticles synthesized using Paeonia mountan alleviates the neuroinflammation and improves the motor coordination in Parkinson induced mice.


Assuntos
Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Paeonia/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/química , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Química Verde , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/citologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Paeonia/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/veterinária , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
8.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 201: 111643, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698218

RESUMO

Diabetes is a major emerging health consequence across the world which directly associated with the obesity. Contemporary anti-diabetic drugs have numeral limitations, and investigation of herbal remedies for diabetes give novel guide for the expansion of new drugs that can be used as harmonizing to present anti-diabetic allopathic medications. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of 21 nm have been formerly well portrayed in vitro for their capability to intend active uptake in cell. Our present study was dealing with the synthesis of gold nanoparticles by means of Smilax glabra rhizome amend the anti-obesity constraints in high-fat diet by streptozotocin provoked obese diabetes in rat model. Characterization studies like UV -Spectroscopy, XRD analysis, SEM, TEM microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, and FT-IR investigation confirms the availability of dimension, shape and size. Biochemical parameters like blood glucose and insulin sufferance and its release, lipid profile, aterogenic & coronary index, liver markers, inflammatory markers, hormones like leptin, resistin, adiponectin indicates the therapeutic effect of gold nanoparticles harvested from Smilax glabra on obese and diabetic rats. Histopathological examinations displayed the disturbed internal structures of obese and diabetic rats liver and heart tissues. Whereas, treatment with gold nanoparticles synthesized from Smilax glabra restored the internal membrane, nuclei and cytoplasm. All these findings confirmed the anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effect of synthesized gold nanoparticles from Smilax glabra.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Smilax/química , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Rizoma/química , Rizoma/metabolismo , Smilax/metabolismo , Estreptozocina/toxicidade
9.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 201: 111657, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706085

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a general neurodegenerative disorder which largely has an effect on the society of the aged populations. PD is distinguishedwith loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra. The exceptional properties of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have fascinated great attention in biomedical applications. In this present study, we explored theprospective beneficial effects of AuNPs synthesized from Cinnamomum verum on PD. PD rat models were established through MPTP injection treatment and AuNPs was administered. Administration of AuNPs reduces effect of MPTP-induced oxidative stress and motor abnormalities observed in PD rats. In addition ELISA analysis demonstrated that AuNPs treatment significantly attenuates Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression levels. Consequently, we investigated TLR/NF-κB pathway to examine the function of AuNPs on MPTP- induced PD rats. We found that AuNPs suppressed the alterations in the pathway of TLR/NF-κB associated molecules in MPTP stimulated PD rats. Hence, our results suggest that AuNPs attenuates MPTP introduced motor disorders, oxidative stress, activated inflammatory cytokines and activated TLR/NF-κB signaling in PD rats. In conclusion, AuNPs ease PD symptoms by the inhibition of TLR/NF-κB signaling pathway and recommend promise approach in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as PD.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Ouro/química , Intoxicação por MPTP/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Química Verde , Intoxicação por MPTP/patologia , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo
10.
Life Sci ; 239: 117011, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669241

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multifaceted and costly disease, which requires serious attention. Finding a cheaper anti-diabetic alternative that can act on multiple disease-related targets and pathways is the ultimate treatment goal for DM. Nanotechnology has offered some exciting possibilities in biomedical and drug delivery applications. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs), a novel agent to deliver zinc, have great implications in many disease therapies including DM. This review summarizes the pharmacological mechanisms by which ZnO-NPs alleviate DM and diabetic complications. Research implications and future perspectives were also discussed.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Óxido de Zinco/uso terapêutico , Animais , Complicações do Diabetes/tratamento farmacológico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia
11.
Exp Parasitol ; 207: 107772, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610183

RESUMO

Cyclosporiasis is an emerging worldwide infection caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, Cyclospora cayetanensis. In immunocompetent patients, it is mainly manifested by self-limited diarrhea, which is persistent and may be fatal in immunocompromised patients. The standard treatment for cyclosporiasis is a combination of two antibiotics, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. Gastrointestinal, haematologic and renal side effects were reported with this combination. Moreover, sulfa allergy, foetal anomalies and recurrence were recorded with no alternative drug treatment option. In this study, silver nanoparticles were chemically synthesized to be evaluated for the first time for their anti-cyclospora effects in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed experimental mice in comparison to the standard treatment. The effect of silver nanoparticles was assessed through studying stool oocyst load, oocyst viability, ultrastructural changes in oocysts, and estimation of serum gamma interferon. Toxic effect of the therapeutic agents was evaluated by measuring liver enzymes, urea and creatinine in mouse sera. Results showed that silver nanoparticles had promising anti-cyclospora potentials. The animals that received these nanoparticles showed a statistically significant decrease in the oocyst burden and number of viable oocysts in stool and a statistically significant increase in serum gamma interferon in comparison to the corresponding group receiving the standard treatment and to the infected non-treated control group. Scanning electron microscopic examination revealed mutilated oocysts with irregularities, poring and perforations. Biochemical results showed no evidence of toxicity of silver nanoparticles, as the sera of the mice showed a statistically non-significant decrease in liver enzymes in immunocompetent subgroups, and a statistically significant decrease in immunosuppressed subgroups. Furthermore, a statistically non-significant decrease in urea and creatinine was recorded in all subgroups. Thus, silver nanoparticles proved their effectiveness against Cyclospora infection, and this will draw the attention to its use as an alternative to the standard therapy.


Assuntos
Coccidiostáticos/uso terapêutico , Cyclospora/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclosporíase/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Alanina Transaminase/análise , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/análise , Coccidiostáticos/farmacologia , Coccidiostáticos/toxicidade , Creatinina/sangue , Ciclofosfamida/imunologia , Cyclospora/isolamento & purificação , Cyclospora/ultraestrutura , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Imunocompetência , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imunossupressores/imunologia , Interferon gama/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Oocistos/ultraestrutura , Prata , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico , Ureia/sangue
12.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 7643-7663, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571869

RESUMO

Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels. It is a highly regulated process as determined by the interplay between pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors. Under certain conditions the balance between angiogenesis stimulators and inhibitors is altered, which results in a shift from physiological to pathological angiogenesis. Therefore, the goal of therapeutic targeting of angiogenic process is to normalize vasculature in target tissues by enhancing angiogenesis in disease conditions of reduced vascularity and blood flow, such as tissue ischemia, or alternatively to inhibit excessive and abnormal angiogenesis in disorders like cancer. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are special particles that are generated by nanotechnology and composed of an inorganic core containing gold which is encircled by an organic monolayer. The ability of AuNPs to alter vasculature has captured recent attention in medical literature as potential therapeutic agents for the management of pathologic angiogenesis. This review provides an overview of the effects of AuNPs on angiogenesis and the molecular mechanisms and biomedical applications associated with their effects. In addition, the main synthesis methods, physical properties, uptake mechanisms, and toxicity of AuNPs are briefly summarized.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica/métodos , Ouro/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Endocitose , Ouro/toxicidade , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade
13.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 104: 109928, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500065

RESUMO

The recent trend of gene therapy is using short hairpin RNA conjugated with different types of nanoparticles. shRNAs have a significant role in gene silencing and have a promising role in treating several genetic and infectious diseases. There are several drawbacks of delivering bare shRNA in the blood as they are fragile in nature and readily degradable. To overcome this problem shRNAs can be conjugated with nanoparticles for a safe deliver. In this article several nanoparticles are mentioned which play significant role in delivery of this payload. On one hand they protect the shRNA from degradation on the other they help to penetrate this large molecule in to the cell. Some of these nanoconjugates are in clinical trials and have a promising role in treatment of diseases.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Polímeros/química
14.
Chem Biol Interact ; 312: 108814, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509734

RESUMO

Nanotechnology is a growing science that may provide several new applications for medicine, food preservation, diagnostic technologies, and sanitation. Despite its beneficial applications, there are several questions related to the safety of nanomaterials for human use. The development of nanotechnology is associated with some concerns because of the increased risk of carcinogenesis following exposure to nanomaterials. The increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are due to exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) are primarily responsible for the genotoxicity of metal NPs. Not all, but most metal NPs are able to directly produce free radicals through the release of metal ions and through interactions with water molecules. Furthermore, the increased production of free radicals and the cell death caused by metal NPs can stimulate reduction/oxidation (redox) reactions, leading to the continuous endogenous production of ROS in a positive feedback loop. The overexpression of inflammatory mediators, such as NF-kB and STATs, the mitochondrial malfunction and the increased intracellular calcium levels mediate the chronic oxidative stress that occurs after exposure to metal NPs. In this paper, we review the genotoxicity of different types of metal NPs and the redox mechanisms that amplify the toxicity of these NPs.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Oxirredução , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
15.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 199: 111591, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514102

RESUMO

Recently, majority of the studies were focusing on the nanoparticles (NPs) and their abilities of penetrating Stratum Corneum (SC), as they can be prominently utilized in the plastic surgeries. In the current work, we demonstrated the penetrating abilities of gold NPs (AuNPs) through anthropological skin with diameters of 10 and 15 nm, varying in sizes, with the help of Multiphoton Microscopy. In addition, we also demonstrated a rapid facile environment friendly process of synthesizing AuNPs of adjustable sizes with the help of aqueous M. lucida leaf extract. Surface plasmon resonance was performed to confirm the synthesis of AuNPs at 530 nm with the help of UV-vis spectrophotometer. By differentiating the quantities of M. lucida leaf aqueous extracts, we studied the reduction time, morphological differences and size of the AuNPs. By performing Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDAX) and Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED), we characterized the fabricated AuNPs. The further aggregation and growth of AuNPs was protected by the polyphenols in the oxidised form by having a coordination with the surface of AuNPs. Moreover, the experiments of skin penetration showed an effort to deeply examine the factors leading to the penetration of particles into the human skin. These responses indicate that NPs at the determined size ranges penetrate the SC in the same pattern of the drug molecules, mostly by the intercellular paths. These responses attained were essential for developing a unique transdermal transporter as well as for understanding the basic interaction of skin-NPs for the application of plastic surgeries.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Morinda/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Adulto , Ouro , Química Verde , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pele/metabolismo , Cirurgia Plástica
16.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 4528241, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428226

RESUMO

During the last 3 decades, there has been a slow advance to obtain new treatments for malignant melanoma that improve patient survival. In this work, we present a systematic study focused on the antiproliferative and antitumour effect of AgNPs. These nanoparticles are fully characterized, are coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and have an average size of 35 ± 15 nm and a metallic silver content of 1.2% wt. Main changes on cell viability, induction of apoptosis and necrosis, and ROS generation were found on B16-F10 cells after six hours of exposure to AgNPs (IC50 = 4.2 µg/mL) or Cisplatin (IC50 = 2.0 µg/mL). Despite the similar response for both AgNPs and Cisplatin on antiproliferative potency (cellular viability of 53.95 ± 1.88 and 53.62 ± 1.04) and ROS production (20.27 ± 1.09% and 19.50 ± 0.35%), significantly different cell death pathways were triggered. While AgNPs induce only apoptosis (45.98 ± 1.88%), Cisplatin induces apoptosis and necrosis at the same rate (22.31 ± 1.72% and 24.07 ± 1.10%, respectively). In addition to their antiproliferative activity, in vivo experiments showed that treatments of 3, 6, and 12 mg/kg of AgNPs elicit a survival rate almost 4 times higher (P < 0.05) compared with the survival rate obtained with Cisplatin (2 mg/kg). Furthermore, the survivor mice treated with AgNPs do not show genotoxic damage determined by micronuclei frequency quantification on peripheral blood cells. These results exhibit the remarkable antitumour activity of a nongenotoxic AgNP formulation and constitute the first advance toward the application of these AgNPs for melanoma treatment, which could considerably reduce adverse effects provoked by currently applied chemotherapeutics.


Assuntos
Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Prata/química , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Melanoma Experimental/mortalidade , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
17.
IET Nanobiotechnol ; 13(6): 617-620, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432795

RESUMO

One of the most important challenges in treating cancer is the invasion and the angiogenesis of cancer cells. The synthesis of green nanoparticles (NPs) and their use in therapeutic fields is one of the most effective methods with minimal side effects in cancer treatment. In this study, cytotoxic and anti-angiogenic effects of silver NPs (AgNPs) coated with palm pollen extract [Ag-PP(NPs)] were evaluated. For this purpose, the cells were treated with NPs and then were subjected to trypan blue testing (48 h). Then, the cancer invasion was evaluated by the scratch procedure and the expressions of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor (VEGF-R) genes were estimated using real-time PCR assay. Also, the angiogenesis effect of the NPs was investigated with chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. The Ag-PP(NPs) induced cytotoxicity on MCF7 cells. The findings also showed that Ag-PP(NPs) inhibit invasive cancer cells and reduce the expression of VEGF and VEGF-R and significantly reduced the number and vessels lengths and the lengths and weights of the embryos in CAM assay. Ag-PP(NPs) with the induction of cytotoxic effects, metastatic inhibition and anti-angiogenesis properties should be considered as an appropriate option for treatment of cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Prata/farmacologia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/química , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião de Galinha , Membrana Corioalantoide/citologia , Membrana Corioalantoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/prevenção & controle , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Prata/química , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
18.
IET Nanobiotechnol ; 13(6): 626-633, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432797

RESUMO

Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) has received substantial attention, because nanoparticles are produced in an eco-friendly way using biomolecules present in plant extracts in a single step reaction. This research article highlights GNPs obtained using shade-dried leaf extracts of Millettia pinnata (L.) with aqueous auric chloride (HAuCl4) at ambient temperature. In the present study, GNPs with average particle size 37 nm in size were fabricated. Furthermore, the synthesis method to obtain stable and monodispersed GNPs was advanced by optimising enzyme concentration 100 µg/ml, pH 5.4, substrate concentration 0.45 mM and 12 h time of reaction. The confirmation of GNPs formation and characterisation was followed by UV-vis-absorption spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and zeta potential (ZP) for the analysis of shape, size, and stability, respectively. TEM images and powder XRD revealed the GNPs synthesis of spherical-shaped nanoparticles in the face-centred cubic arrangement. Cytotoxicity of GNPs was studied against A549 lung cancer cells with IC50 14.76 µg/ml and found lower as compared to doxorubicin IC50 11.23 µg/ml but significant enough to be used as a vehicle GNPs produced using green source can be used as significant therapeutic agents and drug delivery carriers.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Ouro/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Millettia/química , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos/química , Antioxidantes/síntese química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Química Verde/métodos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química
19.
Adv Colloid Interface Sci ; 272: 102017, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437570

RESUMO

The worldwide focus on research in the field of green nanotechnology has resulted in the environmentally and biologically safe applications of a diversity of nanomaterials. Nanotechnology, in general, implies the production of nanoparticles having different but regular shapes, sizes, and properties. A lot of studies have been conducted on the synthesis of metal nanoparticles through biological, chemical, and physical methods. Owing to its safety, both environmental and in vivo, as well as the ease of synthesis, biogenic routes especially the plant-based synthesis of metal nanoparticles has been preferred as the best strategy. Among the metal nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles are recognized as the most potent, biocompatible and environment-friendly. A decade of research work has attempted the production of gold nanoparticles mediated by different parts of various plants. Further, these nanoparticles have been engineered through modification in the sizes and shapes for attaining enhanced activity and optimal performance in many different applications including biomedical, antimicrobial, diagnostics and environmental applications. This article reviews the fabrication strategies for gold nanoparticles via plant-based routes and highlights the diversity of the applications of these materials in bio-nanotechnology. The review article also highlights the recent developments in the synthesis and optical properties of gold nanoparticles.


Assuntos
Ouro/química , Química Verde/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Plantas/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Nanotecnologia/métodos
20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(7)2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336944

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: The current study focuses on an eco-friendly and cost-effective method of Ephedra procera C. A. Mey. mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles as potential cytotoxic, antimicrobial and anti-oxidant agents. Materials and Methods: Plant aqueous extracts were screened for Total Phenolic (TPC), Total Flavonoid contents (TFC), Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging potentials. Total reducing power estimated by potassium ferricyanide colorimetric assay. The biosynthesized E. procera nanoparticles (EpNPs) were characterized by UV-spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy. EpNPs were evaluated for their antimicrobial, bio-compatibility and cytotoxic potentials. Results: Initial phytocheimcal analysis of plant aqueous extract revealed TFC of 20.7 ± 0.21 µg/mg extract and TPC of 117.01 ± 0.78 µg/mg extract. TAC, DPPH free radical scavenging and reducing power were 73.8 ± 0.32 µg/mg extract, 71.8 ± 0.73% and 105.4 ± 0.65 µg/mg extract respectively. The synthesized EpNPs were observed to possess high cytotoxicity against HepG2 cancer cell lines with IC50 (61.3 µg/mL) as compared aqueous extract with IC50 of (247 µg/mL). EpNPs were found to be biocompatible and have less effect on human erythrocytes. EpNPs exhibited significant antioxidant potentials and exhibited considerable activity against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MICs) of 11.12 µg/mL and 11.33 µg/mL respectively. Fungal species Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus were found susceptible to EpNPs. Conclusions: Results of the current study revealed that EpNPs exhibited considerable antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic potentials. Aqueous extract possesses significant anti-radical properties and thus can be useful in free radicals induced degenerative disorders.


Assuntos
Ephedra/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Prata/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/análise , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Prata/análise
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