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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10432-10447, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466447

RESUMO

A composite nanogel was developed for cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) delivery by combining Maillard reaction and heat gelation. The starting materials utilized were ovalbumin, dextran, and pectin. C3G-loaded nanogel was spherical with a diameter of ∼185 nm, which was maintained over a wide range of pH and NaCl concentrations. The composite nanogel enhanced the chemical stability of C3G under accelerated degradation models and a simulated gastrointestinal tract. Clathrin-mediated, caveolae-mediated, and macropinocytosis-related endocytosis contributed to the higher cellular uptake of nano-C3G than that of free-C3G. The apparent permeability coefficients of C3G increased 2.16 times after nanoencapsulation. The transcytosis of the C3G-bearing nanogel occurred primarily through the clathrin-related pathway and macropinocytosis and followed the "common recycling endosomes-endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi complex-basolateral plasma membrane" route. Moreover, nano-C3G was more efficient in restoring the viability of cells and activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes than free-C3G in oxidative models, which may be attributed to the former's high cellular absorption.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Composição de Medicamentos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Géis/química , Géis/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Absorção Intestinal , Modelos Biológicos , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10470-10480, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469565

RESUMO

Foodborne nanoparticles (FNPs) produced by roasting have attracted the attention of people, owing to their safety risk to body health. Herein, we reported the formation, physicochemical properties, elemental composition, biodistribution, and binding with human serum albumin (HSA) of FNPs extracted from roast squid. The results showed that the FNP size gradually decreased from 4.1 to 2.3 nm as the roasting temperature changed from 190 to 250 °C. The main component elements of FNPs are carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen, and the carbon and nitrogen contents of FNPs increased with the roasting temperature rising. The surface of FNPs contained hydroxyl, amino, and carboxyl functional groups. The FNPs can emit fluorescence in ultraviolet light and show excitation-dependent emission behavior. Furthermore, it was found that the FNPs derived from roast squid could be accumulated in the stomach, intestine, and brain of BALB/c mice after oral feeding. Static fluorescence quenching of HSA was found by the Stern-Volmer equation and ultraviolet-visible spectrum analysis after interaction with the FNPs. After the addition of FNPs, the α-helix content of HSA decreased and the morphological height of HSA increased, which indicated that the FNPs could cause structural changes in HSA. The atomic force microscopy characterization showed the formation of nanocorona between FNPs and HSA.


Assuntos
Decapodiformes/química , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Albumina Sérica Humana/química , Animais , Culinária , Decapodiformes/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Tamanho da Partícula , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Albumina Sérica Humana/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
3.
Pharm Res ; 36(10): 143, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385111

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pancreatic Polypeptide-secreting tumor of the distal pancreas (PPoma) is a rare, difficult and indolent type of cancer with a survival rate of 5-year in only 10% of all cases. The PPoma is classified as a neuroendocrine tumor (NET) not functioning that overexpresses SSTR 2 (somatostatin receptor subtype 2). Thus, in order to improve the diagnosis of this type of tumor, we developed nanoparticulate drug carriers based on poly-lactic acid (PLA) polymer loaded with octreotide and radiolabeled with Technetium-99 m (99mTc). METHODS: PLA/PVA octreotide nanoparticles were developed by double-emulsion technique. These nanoparticles were characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and radiolabeled with 99mTc by the direct via forming 99mTc-PLA/PVA octreotide nanoparticles. The safety of these nanosystems was evaluated by the MTT cell toxicity assay and their in vivo biodistribution was evaluated in xenografted inducted animals. RESULTS: The results showed that a 189 nm sized nanoparticle were formed with a PDI of 0,097, corroborating the monodispersive behavior. These nanoparticles were successfully radiolabeled with 99mTc showing uptake by the inducted tumor. The MTT assay corroborated the safety of the nanosystem for the cells. CONCLUSION: The results support the use of this nanosystem (99mTc-PLA/PVA octreotide nanoparticles) as imaging agent for PPoma. Graphical Abstract Polypeptide-Secreting Tumor of the Distal Pancreas (PPoma) Radiolabeled Nanoparticles for Imaging.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/diagnóstico por imagem , Nanopartículas/química , Octreotida/química , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Polipeptídeo Pancreático/metabolismo , Poliésteres/química , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/química , Tecnécio/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Octreotida/metabolismo , Pâncreas/diagnóstico por imagem , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Cintilografia/métodos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/metabolismo , Receptores de Somatostatina/genética , Receptores de Somatostatina/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
4.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(8): 125, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363859

RESUMO

The global need to develop sustainable materials and products from non-fossil raw material is pushing industry to utilize side-streams more efficiently using green processes. Aromatic lignin, the world's second most abundant biopolymer, has multiple attractive properties which can be exploited in various ways instead of being burnt or used as animal feed. Lignin's poor water solubility and its highly branched and random structure make it a challenging biopolymer to exploit when developing novel technologies for the preparation of tailored nanobiomaterials for value-added applications. The notable number of scientific publications focusing on the formation and modification of technical lignin in nanoparticulate morphology show that these bottlenecks could be solved using lignin in the form of colloidal particles (CLPs). These particles are very stable at wide pH range (4-11) and easily dispersible in organic solvents after stabilized via cross-linking. Negative hydroxyl groups on the CLP surface enable multiple enzymatic and chemical modifications e.g. via polymerization reactions and surface-coating with positive polymers. This contribution highlights how tailored CLPs could be innovatively exploited in different the state-of-the-art applications such as medicine, foods, and cosmetics.


Assuntos
Química Verde/métodos , Lignina/síntese química , Lignina/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Animais , Biotransformação , Solubilidade
6.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 20(7): 270, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363872

RESUMO

Currently, there is no specific treatment for acute lung injury (ALI). E-selectin-binding peptide (Esbp), a high-affinity peptide that delivers drugs targeting inflammatory vascular endothelial cells, can bind to E-selectin and act as a targeting ligand for selective drug delivery. In this study, we coupled the thiol groups of Esbp to the amino groups on the surface of bovine serum albumin (BSA) using succinimidyl iodoacetic acid to make Esbp-modified BSA nanoparticles (BSANPs) at the average ratio of 19.3 µg Esbp to 1 mg BSA. The Esbp-modified BSANPs were spherical in shape and had a particle size of 266.7 ± 2.7 nm, polydispersity index of 0.165 ± 0.02, zeta potential of - 33.64 ± 1.23 mV, encapsulation efficiency of 84.3 ± 2.3%, and drug loading of 6.7 ± 0.32%. The cumulative release rate of dexamethasone-loaded Esbp-modified BSANPs was 51.2% within 12 h, significantly lower than that of 88.2% of free drugs. Moreover, Esbp-modified BSANPs could be uptaken in vitro by activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells and in vivo by the lungs of the established ALI mouse model. These results indicated that our Esbp-modified BSANPs delivery system has characteristics of good targeting ability and biocompatibility and is able to inhibit inflammation. Overall, our Esbp-modified BSANPs delivery system has therapeutic potentials as a new targeting drug system for the treatment of ALI in the future.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Selectina E/administração & dosagem , Antígenos HLA-D/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Soroalbumina Bovina/administração & dosagem , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dexametasona/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/metabolismo , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Selectina E/metabolismo , Antígenos HLA-D/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 20(6): 250, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297635

RESUMO

Melanoma is regarded as the fifth and sixth most common cancer in men and women, respectively, and it is estimated that one person dies from melanoma every hour in the USA. Unfortunately, the treatment of melanoma is difficult because of its aggressive metastasis and resistance to treatment. The treatment of melanoma continues to be a challenging issue due to the limitations of available treatments such as a low response rate, severe adverse reactions, and significant toxicity. Natural polyphenols have attracted considerable attention from the scientific community due to their chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic efficacy. It has been suggested that poorly soluble polyphenols such as curcumin, resveratrol, quercetin, coumarin, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate may have significant benefits in the treatment of melanoma due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and chemoprotective efficacies. The major obstacles for the use of polyphenolic compounds are low stability and poor bioavailability. Numerous nanoformulations, including solid lipid nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles, micelles, and liposomes, have been formulated to enhance the bioavailability and stability, as well as the therapeutic efficacy of polyphenols. This review will provide an overview of poorly soluble polyphenols that have been reported to have antimetastatic efficacy in melanomas.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/química , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Catequina/administração & dosagem , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/química , Catequina/metabolismo , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Curcumina/química , Curcumina/metabolismo , Humanos , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Quercetina/administração & dosagem , Quercetina/química , Quercetina/metabolismo , Resveratrol/administração & dosagem , Resveratrol/química , Resveratrol/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Solubilidade
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9382-9389, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361959

RESUMO

Early stage exposure of foodborne substances, such as brightening agent titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), can cause long-term effects in adulthood. We aimed to explore the potential adverse effect of long-term dietary intake of TiO2 NPs. After feeding for 2-3 months from weaning, TiO2 NPs-exposed mice showed lower body weight and induced intestinal inflammation. However, this phenomenon was not observed in gut microbiota-removed mice. TiO2 NPs exposure rarely affected the diversity of microbial communities, but significantly decreased the abundance of several probiotic taxa including Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. Additionally, TiO2 NPs aggravated DSS-induced chronic colitis and immune response in vivo, and reduced the population of CD4+T cells, regulatory T cells, and macrophages in mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, dietary TiO2 NPs could interfere with the balance of immune system and dynamic of gut microbiome, which may result in low-grade intestinal inflammation and aggravated immunological response to external stimulus, thus introducing potential health risk.


Assuntos
Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/imunologia , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Titânio/metabolismo , Titânio/toxicidade , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3051, 2019 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296864

RESUMO

Treatment of liver metastasis experiences slow progress owing to the severe side effects. In this study, we demonstrate a strategy capable of eliminating metastatic cancer cells in a selective manner. Nucleus-targeting W18O49 nanoparticles (WONPs) are conjugated to mitochondria-selective mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) containing photosensitizer (Ce6) through a Cathepsin B-cleavable peptide. In hepatocytes, upon the laser irradiation, the generated singlet oxygen species are consumed by WONPs, in turn leading to the loss of their photothermally heating capacity, thereby sparing hepatocyte from thermal damage induced by the laser illumination. By contrast, in cancer cells, the cleaved peptide linker allows WONPs and MSNs to respectively target nucleus and mitochondria, where the therapeutic powers could be unleashed, both photodynamically and photothermally. This ensures the energy production of cancer cells can be abolished. We further assess the underlying molecular mechanism at both gene and protein levels to better understand the therapeutic outcome.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/administração & dosagem , Animais , Catepsina B/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Feminino , Células HCT116 , Hepatócitos/citologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Lasers , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Óxidos/química , Fotoquimioterapia/instrumentação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Dióxido de Silício/química , Resultado do Tratamento , Tungstênio/química , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(35): 18830-18838, 2019 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322147

RESUMO

In biomedical technologies that use nanoparticles, the nanoparticles are often required to translocate across a cell membrane. Application of an external electric field has been used to increase the cell membrane permeability; however, damage to the cell is of great concern. Using a molecular dynamics simulation, we show that even under a weak external electric field that is lower than the membrane breakdown intensity, a cationic nanoparticle will directly translocate across a model cell membrane without membrane disruption. We then reveal its physical mechanism. At the contact interface between the nanoparticle and the cell membrane, the electric potential across the membrane is locally enhanced by superimposing the nanoparticle surface potential on the externally applied potential, resulting in its direct translocation. Our finding implies that, by controlling the nanoparticle-induced local enhancement of the membrane potential, the cellular delivery of nanoparticles via a non-endocytic and non-disruptive pathway can be realized.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Cátions/metabolismo , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Potenciais da Membrana , Membranas Artificiais , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular
11.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(2): 267-273, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172221

RESUMO

The development of nanotechnology has drawn increased attention to the risks of nanoparticles (NPs). In this work, the near-infrared persistent luminescence imaging technique was used to track the biodistribution of NPs in vivo in zebrafish. Zebrafish were used as a vertebrate animal model to show NPs distribution and the effects of exposure. ZnGa2O4:Cr (ZGOC) was chosen as the probe in this work. In continuous exposure experiments, the results showed more particles accumulated in the intestines than in the gills in both groups. In both the gills and abdomen, the NPs contents were greater in the ZGOC-NH2-treated groups than in the ZGOC groups, and the NPs caused damage to the gills and intestines. Removal exposure experiments indicated that ZGOC and ZGOC-NH2 could be excreted from the body. The metabolism, excretion of NPs, the quantification and monitoring of NPs behavior in biological systems should be examined in further studies.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Medições Luminescentes , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Imagem Óptica , Propriedades de Superfície , Distribuição Tecidual , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
12.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1073: 45-53, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146835

RESUMO

A novel and ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescent (ECL) bioassay has been developed for the detection of atrazine (ATZ), whereby bifunctional S, N-codoped carbon dots (S, N-CDs) and activated mesoporous bicarbons (BCs) have been innovatively integrated to synergistically amplify the ECL signal. When endogenous dissolved O2 is used as a coreactant, its sluggish reduction hinders the enhancement of ECL intensity of the luminophore, thus restricting its further application in bioanalysis. Here, bifunctional S, N-CDs severe as not only the ECL luminophore but the coreaction accelerator of dissolved O2 to generate more intermediates to boost the coreaction without using any other coreactant and coreaction accelerator. The as-formed nanoarchitectures of BCs possess enlarged surface area as the nanocarriers. They could provide adequate active sites for immobilization of tyrosinase (Tyr), which greatly prompts the ECL bioassay applications. Such a smart integration of bifunctional S, N-CDs, activated mesoporous BCs and the enzyme inhibition reaction achieves a unique and attractive high-performance signal-on ECL bioassay, realizing ultrasensitive detection of ATZ. Under the optimal condition, this bioassay exhibits two linear ranges, from 0.0001 to 0.01 µg L-1 and 0.01-20 µg L-1 with a detection limit of 0.08 ng L-1 at signal to noise ratio of 3. The as-fabricated assay is sensitive and economical, opening a new way for the enhancement of ECL signal output and a versatile strategy for ultrasensitive ECL bioanalysis.


Assuntos
Atrazina/análise , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Medições Luminescentes , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/química , Nanopartículas/química , Atrazina/metabolismo , Carbono/química , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Porosidade , Pontos Quânticos/química , Propriedades de Superfície
13.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt B): 967-973, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252135

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) in rice grains is a serious food safety concern. Some coexisting engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) were shown to alter the accumulation and speciation of As in rice grains. However, investigation on the effects of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs), a popular ingredient in pesticides, on the uptake and accumulation of As is rare. We explored the potentially different impact of CuO NPs and corresponding Cu(II) ions on the accumulation of two As species in rice seedlings in a hydroponic system. Rice seedlings were treated with a combinations of 1 mg/L of arsenite (As(III)) or arsenate (As(V)) and 100 mg/L of CuO NPs or Cu(II) for 6 days. Both forms of Cu significantly reduced the accumulation of total As in rice tissues, with Cu(II) exhibiting significantly greater effect than CuO NPs. As speciation in rice roots was markedly affected by both forms of Cu, and the impacts were Cu-form dependent. For example, the co-existence of As(V) with CuO NPs led to a 45% decrease of As(V) in rice roots, while the co-existence of As(V) with Cu(II) caused a 47% increase in As(V) in rice roots. As speciation in rice shoots was less affected by co-present Cu than in rice roots. Co-occurring As(III) or As(V) lowered Cu concentration in rice roots by 40% and 50% in treatments with CuO NPs, but did not affect Cu content in rice roots co-exposed to Cu(II). The study confirmed the reciprocal effect of co-occurring CuO NPs or Cu(II) and As in rice paddies and highlighted the unique "nano-effect" of CuO NPs. The results alsos showed that the initial oxidation state of As plays an important role in the interactions between As and Cu. The results shed light on the current debate on the safe applications of nano-enabled agrichemicals vs. conventional metal salts in agriculture.


Assuntos
Arsênico/metabolismo , Cobre/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Transporte Biológico , Cobre/metabolismo , Interações de Medicamentos , Oryza/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/metabolismo
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(24): 24430-24444, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230234

RESUMO

Regarding the rapid progress in the production and consumption of nanobased products, this research considered the behavior of Melissa officinalis toward zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO), nanoelemental selenium (nSe), and bulk counterparts. Seedlings were irrigated with nutrient solution containing different doses of nZnO (0, 100, and 300 mg l-1) and/or nSe (0, 10, and 50 mg l-1). The supplements made changes in growth and morphological indexes in both shoot and roots. The mixed treatments of nSe10 and nZnO led to a drastic increase in biomass, activation of lateral buds, and stimulations in the development of lateral roots. However, the nSe50 reduced plants' growth (45.5%) and caused severe toxicity which was basically lower than the bulk. Furthermore, the nSe and nZnO improved K, Fe, and Zn concentrations in leaves and roots, except for seedlings exposed to nSe50 or BSe50. Moreover, the nSe and nZnO supplementations in a dose-dependent manner caused changes in leaf non-protein thiols (mean = 77%), leaf ascorbate content (mean = 65%), and soluble phenols in roots (mean = 28%) and leaves (mean = 61%). In addition, exposure to nZnO and/or nSe drastically induced the expression of rosmarinic acid synthase (RAS) and Hydroxy phenyl pyruvate reductase (HPPR) genes. Besides, the nSe, nZnO, or bulk counterparts influenced the activities of nitrate reductase in leaves and peroxidase in roots, depending on dose factor and compound form. The comparative physiological and molecular evidence on phytotoxicity and potential advantages of nSe, nZnO, and their bulk counterparts were served as a theoretical basis to be exploited in food, agricultural, and pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Melissa/genética , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Selênio/toxicidade , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade , Biodegradação Ambiental , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Óxido de Zinco/metabolismo
15.
Carbohydr Polym ; 216: 332-342, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31047074

RESUMO

Chitosan has received a lot of attention as a carrier for small interfering RNA (siRNA), due to its capacity for complexation and intracellular release of these molecules. However, one of its limitations is its insolubility at neutral pH and the tendency towards aggregation of its nanoparticles in isotonic ionic strength. In this study, a series of amphipathic chitosans were synthesized by varying the degree of acetylation (DA) from ˜2 to ˜30 mol% and the degree of substitution (DS) from 5 to 25%. by tertiary amino groups (DEAE) The results showed that the adjustment of these parameters decreases the interparticle interactions mediated by hydrogen bonding to obtain nanoparticles with improved colloidal stability. siRNA-containing nanoparticles of 100 to 150 nm with low polydispersities (0.15-0.2) and slightly positive zeta potentials (˜+ 5 mV) were resistant to aggregation at pH 7.4 and ionic strength of 150 mM. This resistance to aggregation is provided by changes on the nanoparticle surface and highlights the importance of more organized self-assembly in providing colloidal stability at physiological conditions. Additionally, the PEGylation of the most promising vectors conferred favorable physicochemical properties to nanoparticles. The chitosans and their nanoparticles exhibited low toxicity and an efficient cell uptake, as probed by confocal microscopy of rhodamine labeled vectors. The results provide a new approach to overcome the limited stability of chitosan nanoparticles at physiological conditions and show the potential of these amphipathic chitosans as siRNA carriers.


Assuntos
Quitosana/análogos & derivados , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Nanopartículas/química , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , Tensoativos/química , Anidridos Acéticos/química , Acetilação , Animais , Quitosana/síntese química , Quitosana/metabolismo , Quitosana/toxicidade , Dietilaminas/química , Portadores de Fármacos/síntese química , Portadores de Fármacos/metabolismo , Portadores de Fármacos/toxicidade , Fluorescência , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Tamanho da Partícula , Polietilenoglicóis/síntese química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polietilenoglicóis/metabolismo , Polietilenoglicóis/toxicidade , Células RAW 264.7 , RNA Interferente Pequeno/química , Rodaminas/química , Tensoativos/síntese química , Tensoativos/metabolismo , Tensoativos/toxicidade
16.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 127: 50-57, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088616

RESUMO

Macrophages eliminate and destroy invading bacteria and contaminants by engulfing them or secreting cytokines that trigger downstream immune responses. Consequently, impairment of the phagocytic functions of macrophages and/or suppressing their cytokine secretion are dangerous to organisms that rely on immune protection. Accordingly, exposure to environmental nanoparticles (NPs) that display immunomodulatory properties are serious. In this work, two types of NPs, i.e., mild-toxicity CuInS2 NPs and high-toxicity CdTe NPs, were used to evaluate the effects of NP exposure for macrophages. Following incubation for 24 h, THP-1-derived macrophage viability was assessed using an MTT method after exposing the THP-1 cells to different concentrations of CuInS2 or CdTe NPs. Phagocytosis assays demonstrated that both CuInS2 and CdTe NPs impair phagocytic activity toward Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). After pretreatment with CuInS2 and CdTe NPs at 4 µmol/L, THP-1 macrophages exhibited decreases in phagocytic ratio from ca. 32.9% to ca. 18.5% and 18.7%, respectively. Since the zeta potentials of intact and weathered CuInS2 NPs were distributed over a wide range from positive to negative, large quantities of intact and weathered CuInS2 NPs bore sufficient positive charge on their surfaces to induce membrane depolarization, thus theoretically providing electrostatic forces between S. aureus and THP-1, which could induce downstream intracellular events that increase phagocytosis. However, real time polymerase chain reaction arrays revealed that transcription of the pro-inflammatory factors IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α decreased while that of the anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 increased after treatment with CuInS2 NPs. Furthermore, transcription of TNF-α decreased while IL-10 increased after treatment with CdTe NPs. Thus, both kinds of NPs inhibited phagocytosis of S. aureus by THP-1 to some extent, confirming that immunosuppression can occur when macrophages are exposed to environmental NPs.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Fatores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Staphylococcus aureus/imunologia , Células THP-1
17.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(11): 3071-3079, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117686

RESUMO

Vesicle transport conducted by motor protein multiplexes (MPMs), which is ubiquitous among eukaryotes, shows anomalous and stochastic dynamics qualitatively different from the dynamics of thermal motion and artificial active matter; the relationship between in vivo vesicle-delivery dynamics and the underlying physicochemical processes is not yet quantitatively understood. Addressing this issue, we perform accurate tracking of individual vesicles, containing upconverting nanoparticles, transported by kinesin-dynein-multiplexes along axonal microtubules. The mean-square-displacement of vesicles along the microtubule exhibits unusual dynamic phase transitions that are seemingly inconsistent with the scaling behavior of the mean-first-passage time over the travel length. These paradoxical results and the vesicle displacement distribution are quantitatively explained and predicted by a multimode MPM model, developed in the current work, where ATP-hydrolysis-coupled motion of MPM has both unidirectional and bidirectional modes.


Assuntos
Dineínas/metabolismo , Cinesina/metabolismo , Corpos Multivesiculares/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Transporte Axonal , Transporte Biológico Ativo , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Hidrólise , Cinética , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Nanopartículas/metabolismo
18.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 14(10): 1247-1265, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084385

RESUMO

Aim: Plant virus-like particles (VLPs) have emerged as a novel platform for delivery of drugs/antibodies. The aim of the present investigation is to establish the entry mechanism of flexuous rod-shaped virus particles into mammalian cells. Methods: Far-Western blot analysis, pull-down and ELISA were used to characterize vimentin and Hsp60 interaction with VLPs. The mode/kinetics of internalization of VLPs was deciphered using pharmacological inhibitors/endosomal markers. Results & discussion: The flexuous rod-shaped VLPs of Pepper vein banding virus (PVBV) enter HeLa and HepG2 cells via cell-surface proteins: vimentin and Hsp60, respectively. VLPs internalize via different modes of endocytosis in HeLa, HepG2 cells and are biodegradable. Vimentin and Hsp60 could be potential epithelial ligands that facilitate targeting of nanoparticles to tumor cells.


Assuntos
Endocitose , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Potyvirus/fisiologia , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Chaperonina 60/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Cinética , Vimentina/metabolismo , Vírion/fisiologia , Internalização do Vírus
19.
Environ Pollut ; 251: 407-414, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103000

RESUMO

The widespread application of commercial TiO2 NPs inevitably leads to their release into environmental waters through various ways. TiO2 NPs released into water might be absorbed by and react with periphytic biofilms, which are a kind of aquatic environmental media of important ecological significance, and influence the physiological activity and ecological function of periphytic biofilms. This study investigated the effects of exposure to 1 mg/L and 5 mg/L of TiO2 NPs on periphytic biofilms cultured indoors. After a 10-day exposure to TiO2 NPs, the growth (measured by chlorophyll-a content) of microalgal community was inhibited greatly (more than 60%); however, the primary production (indicated by quantum yield) of periphytic biofilms maintained changeless. As for bacteria, TiO2 NP-exposure increased the bacterial diversity and altered the composition structure. Significant changes were observed in the bacterial communities at the class level, mainly including Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Cytophagia, Flavobacteriia, Sphingobacteriia, Synechococcophycideae and Oscillatoriophycideae. The enhancement of metabolic activities (the production of extracellular polymeric substances, especially proteins content increased by 48.51%) of periphytic biofilms was a resistance mechanism to toxicity of NPs. As for extracellular enzyme activities of periphytic biofilms, alkaline phosphatase activity was inhibited (22.43%) after exposed to 5 mg/L of TiO2 NPs, which posed a threat to phosphorus metabolism of periphytic biofilms. Overall, this study demonstrated that 1 mg/L and 5 mg/L of TiO2 NPs negatively influenced physiological activities and ecological functions of periphytic biofilms, highlighting that the ecological risks of TiO2 NPs should be paid attention to.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Perifíton/efeitos dos fármacos , Titânio/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/metabolismo , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microalgas/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Titânio/química , Titânio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2341, 2019 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138801

RESUMO

Understanding nanoparticle uptake by biological cells is fundamentally important to wide-ranging fields from nanotoxicology to drug delivery. It is now accepted that the arrival of nanoparticles at the cell is an extremely complicated process, shaped by many factors including unique nanoparticle physico-chemical characteristics, protein-particle interactions and subsequent agglomeration, diffusion and sedimentation. Sequentially, the nanoparticle internalisation process itself is also complex, and controlled by multiple aspects of a cell's state. Despite this multitude of factors, here we demonstrate that the statistical distribution of the nanoparticle dose per endosome is independent of the initial administered dose and exposure duration. Rather, it is the number of nanoparticle containing endosomes that are dependent on these initial dosing conditions. These observations explain the heterogeneity of nanoparticle delivery at the cellular level and allow the derivation of simple, yet powerful probabilistic distributions that accurately predict the nanoparticle dose delivered to individual cells across a population.


Assuntos
Endossomos/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Células A549 , Transporte Biológico , Linhagem Celular , Endossomos/ultraestrutura , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Microscopia Confocal , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura
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