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1.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 9(19): e2000979, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885616

RESUMO

Researchers, engineers, and medical doctors are made aware of the severity of the COVID-19 infection and act quickly against the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 using a large variety of tools. In this review, a panoply of nanoscience and nanotechnology approaches show how these disciplines can help the medical, technical, and scientific communities to fight the pandemic, highlighting the development of nanomaterials for detection, sanitation, therapies, and vaccines. SARS-CoV-2, which can be regarded as a functional core-shell nanoparticle (NP), can interact with diverse materials in its vicinity and remains attached for variable times while preserving its bioactivity. These studies are critical for the appropriate use of controlled disinfection systems. Other nanotechnological approaches are also decisive for the development of improved novel testing and diagnosis kits of coronavirus that are urgently required. Therapeutics are based on nanotechnology strategies as well and focus on antiviral drug design and on new nanoarchitectured vaccines. A brief overview on patented work is presented that emphasizes nanotechnology applied to coronaviruses. Finally, some comments are made on patents of the initial technological responses to COVID-19 that have already been put in practice.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/ultraestrutura , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Desinfecção/métodos , Humanos , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanotecnologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Patentes como Assunto , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Propriedades de Superfície , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 6263-6277, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922002

RESUMO

Background: Nowadays, smart synthesized nanostructures have attracted wide attention in the field of stem cell nanotechnology due to their effect on different properties of stem cells. Methods: GFc7 growth nanofactor was synthesized based on nanochelating technology as an iron-containing copper chelator nanocomplex. The effect of this nanocomplex on the expansion and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) as well as its performance as a cryoprotectant was evaluated in the present study. Results: The results showed that the absolute count of CD34+ and CD34+CD38- cells on days 4, 7, 10 and 13; the percentage of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme on the same days and CD34+CXCR4 population on day 10 were significantly increased when they were treated with GFc7 growth nanofactor in a fetal bovine serum (FBS)-free medium. This medium also led to delayed differentiation in HSCs. One noticeable result was that CD34+CD38- cells cultured in an FBS medium were immediately differentiated into CD34+CD38+ cells, while CD34+CD38- cells treated with GFc7 growth nanofactor in FBS medium did not show such an immediate significant differentiation. De-freezing GFc7-treated CD34+ cells, which were already frozen according to cord blood bank protocols, showed a higher percentage of cell viability and a larger number of colonies according to colony-forming cell assay as compared to control. Conclusion: It can be claimed that treating HSCs with GFc7 growth nanofactor leads to quality and quantity improvement of HSCs, both in terms of expansion in vitro and freezing and de-freezing processes.


Assuntos
Citoproteção , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Nanopartículas/química , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/metabolismo , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Ensaio de Unidades Formadoras de Colônias , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Congelamento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Receptores CXCR4/metabolismo
3.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 6355-6372, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922006

RESUMO

Background: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2NPs) are potent scavengers of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Their antioxidant properties make CeO2NPs promising therapeutic agents for bone diseases and bone tissue engineering. However, the effects of CeO2NPs on intracellular ROS production in osteoclasts (OCs) are still unclear. Numerous studies have reported that intracellular ROS are essential for osteoclastogenesis. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of CeO2NPs on osteoclast differentiation and the potential underlying mechanisms. Methods: The bidirectional modulation of osteoclast differentiation by CeO2NPs was explored by different methods, such as fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and Western blotting. The cytotoxic and proapoptotic effects of CeO2NPs were detected by cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay, TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and flow cytometry. Results: The results of this study demonstrated that although CeO2NPs were capable of scavenging ROS in acellular environments, they facilitated the production of ROS in the acidic cellular environment during receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand (RANKL)-dependent osteoclast differentiation of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). CeO2NPs at lower concentrations (4.0 µg/mL to 8.0 µg/mL) promoted osteoclast formation, as shown by increased expression of Nfatc1 and C-Fos, F-actin ring formation and bone resorption. However, at higher concentrations (greater than 16.0 µg/mL), CeO2NPs inhibited osteoclast differentiation and promoted apoptosis of BMMs by reducing Bcl2 expression and increasing the expression of cleaved caspase-3, which may be due to the overproduction of ROS. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that CeO2NPs facilitate osteoclast formation at lower concentrations while inhibiting osteoclastogenesis in vitro by inducing the apoptosis of BMMs at higher concentrations by modulating cellular ROS levels.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Cério/química , Osteoclastos/citologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligante RANK/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237726, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813737

RESUMO

In this in vitro study, spherical mesoporous bioactive glass nanoparticle (MBGN) and non-porous bioactive glass nanoparticle (BGN) were fabricated. The impact of mesopores on dentinal tubule occlusion and bioactivity was compared to examine the potential of these materials in alleviating dentine hypersensitivity (DH). MBGN, dense BGN were synthesized by sol-gel methods and characterized. Bioactivity and ion dissolution ability were analyzed. Twenty-four simulated sensitive dentin discs were prepared and randomly divided into three groups (n = 8 each); Group 1, no treatment; Group 2, Dense BGN; Group 3, MBGN. Then, four discs per group were treated with 6wt.% citric acid challenge to determine the acidic resistance. The effects on dentinal tubule occlusion were observed by FESEM. The microtensile bond strength (MTBS) was also measured. Cytotoxicity was examined using the MTT assay. According to the results, dense BGN without mesopore and MBGN with mesopore were successfully fabricated. Dense BGN and MBGN occluded the dentinal tubule before and after acid challenge. However, only MBGN formed a membrane-like layer and showed hydroxyapatite formation after soaking SBF solution. There were no significant differences in MTBS among dense BGN, MBGN (P>0.05). The cell viability was above 72% of both materials. The higher bioactivity of MBGN compared with that of dense BGN arises from the structural difference and it is anticipated to facilitate dentin remineralization by inducing hydroxyapatite deposition within the dentinal tubule.


Assuntos
Dessensibilizantes Dentinários/administração & dosagem , Sensibilidade da Dentina/terapia , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Vidro/química , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Dente Pré-Molar , Dentina/metabolismo , Dessensibilizantes Dentinários/química , Dessensibilizantes Dentinários/farmacocinética , Permeabilidade da Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Sensibilidade da Dentina/patologia , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Durapatita/metabolismo , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Porosidade , Propriedades de Superfície , Resistência à Tração , Remineralização Dentária/métodos , Difração de Raios X
5.
J Chromatogr A ; 1627: 461378, 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823092

RESUMO

Downstream processing (DSP) of large bionanoparticles is still a challenge. The present study aims to systematically compare some of the most commonly used DSP strategies for capture and purification of enveloped viruses and virus-like particles (eVLPs) by using the same staring material and analytical tools. As a model, Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) gag VLPs produced in CHO cells were used. Four different DSP strategies were tested. An anion-exchange monolith and a membrane adsorber, for direct capture and purification of eVLPs, and a polymer-grafted anion-exchange resin and a heparin-affinity resin for eVLP purification after a first flow-through step to remove small impurities. All tested strategies were suitable for capture and purification of eVLPs. The performance of the different strategies was evaluated regarding its binding capacity, ability to separate different particle populations and product purity. The highest binding capacity regarding total particles was obtained using the anion exchange membrane adsorber (5.3 × 1012 part/mL membrane), however this method did not allow the separation of different particle populations. Despite having a lower binding capacity (1.5 × 1011 part/mL column) and requiring a pre-processing step with flow-through chromatography, Heparin-affinity chromatography showed the best performance regarding separation of different particle populations, allowing not only the separation of HIV-1 gag VLPs from host cell derived bionanoparticles but also from chromatin. This work additionally shows the importance of thorough sample characterization combining several biochemical and biophysical methods in eVLP DSP.


Assuntos
Convecção , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Adsorção , Animais , Ânions , Células CHO , Cromatina/metabolismo , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , HIV-1/ultraestrutura , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Microesferas , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Polímeros/química , Porosidade , Vírion/isolamento & purificação , Vírion/ultraestrutura
6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4779-4791, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753866

RESUMO

Background: Considering the timeline required for the development of novel antimicrobial drugs, increased attention should be given to repurposing old drugs and improving antimicrobial efficacy, particularly for chronic infections associated with biofilms. Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are common causes of biofilm-associated infections but produce different biofilm matrices. MSSA biofilm cells are typically embedded in an extracellular polysaccharide matrix, whereas MRSA biofilms comprise predominantly of surface proteins and extracellular DNA (eDNA). Nanoparticles (NPs) have the potential to enhance the delivery of antimicrobial agents into biofilms. However, the mechanisms which influence the interactions between NPs and the biofilm matrix are not yet fully understood. Methods: To investigate the influence of NPs surface chemistry on vancomycin (VAN) encapsulation and NP entrapment in MRSA and MSSA biofilms, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) with different surface functionalization (bare-B, amine-D, carboxyl-C, aromatic-A) were synthesised using an adapted Stöber method. The antibacterial efficacy of VAN-loaded MSNs was assessed against MRSA and MSSA biofilms. Results: The two negatively charged MSNs (MSN-B and MSN-C) showed a higher VAN loading in comparison to the positively charged MSNs (MSN-D and MSN-A). Cellular binding with MSN suspensions (0.25 mg mL-1) correlated with the reduced viability of both MSSA and MRSA biofilm cells. This allowed the administration of low MSNs concentrations while maintaining a high local concentration of the antibiotic surrounding the bacterial cells. Conclusion: Our data suggest that by tailoring the surface functionalization of MSNs, enhanced bacterial cell targeting can be achieved, leading to a novel treatment strategy for biofilm infections.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/fisiologia , Nanopartículas/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/ultraestrutura , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Dióxido de Silício/química , Vancomicina/farmacologia
7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4877-4898, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753869

RESUMO

Background: Although dynamics and uses of modified nanoparticles (NPs) as orally administered macromolecular drugs have been researched for many years, measures of molecule stability and aspects related to important transport-related mechanisms which have been assessed in vivo remain as relatively under characterized. Thus, our aim was to develop a novel type of oral-based delivery system for insulin and to overcome barriers to studying the stability, transport mechanisms, and efficacy in vivo of the delivery system. Methods: NPs we developed and tested were composed of insulin (INS), dicyandiamide-modified chitosan (DCDA-CS), cell-penetrating octaarginine (r8), and hydrophilic hyaluronic acid (HA) and were physically constructed by electrostatic self-assembly techniques. Results: Compared to free-insulin, levels of HA-DCDA-CS-r8-INS NPs were retained at more desirable measures of biological activity in our study. Further, our assessments of the mechanisms for NPs suggested that there were high measures of cellular uptake that mainly achieved through active transport via lipid rafts and the macropinocytosis pathway. Furthermore, investigations of NPs indicated their involvement in caveolae-mediated transport and in the DCDA-CS-mediated paracellular pathway, which contributed to increasing the efficiency of sequential transportation from the apical to basolateral areas. Accordingly, high efficiency of absorption of NPs in situ for intestinal loop models was realized. Consequently, there was a strong induction of a hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rats of NPs via orally based administrations when compared with measures related to free insulin. Conclusion: Overall, the dynamics underlying and influenced by HA-DCDA-CS-r8-INS may hold great promise for stability of insulin and could help overcome interference by the epithelial barrier, and thus showing a great potential to improve the efficacy of orally related treatments.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Multifuncionais/química , Nanopartículas/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2 , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/síntese química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Impedância Elétrica , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Guanidinas/síntese química , Guanidinas/química , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/síntese química , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Muco/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Ratos , Solubilidade , Suínos
8.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3965-3980, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606658

RESUMO

Aim: Etoricoxib is a selective inhibitor of COX-2 enzyme. It is proposed as a potent anti-inflammatory drug intended for the control of irritable bowel syndrome. The current work aimed at developing etoricoxib-loaded nanoparticles for colon- targeting. Materials and Methods: PLGA nanoparticles were developed via nano-spray drying technique. The D-optimal design was adopted for the investigation of the influence of i) DL-lactide-coglycolide (PLGA) concentration, ii) polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP K30) concentration and iii) lactide:glycolide ratio in the copolymer chain on the yield%, the encapsulation efficiency (EE%), particle size (PS) and percentage of drug release after 2h (P2h), 4h (P4h) and 12h (P12h). To promote colon targeting of the systems, the best achieved system (M14) was either directly coated with poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) [Eudragit®-S100] or loaded into hard gelatin capsules and the capsules were coated with poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) (E-M14C). The pharmacokinetic parameters of etoricoxib following oral administration of E-M14C in healthy volunteers were assessed relative to commercial etoricoxib tablets. Results: M14 system was prepared using PLGA (0.5% w/v) at a lactide:glycolide ratio of 100:0, in the presence of PVP K30 (2% w/v). M14 system was nano-spherical particles of 488 nm size possessing promising yield% (63.5%) and EE% (91.2%). The percentage drug released after 2, 4 and 12 hours were 43.41%, 47.34 and 64.96%, respectively. Following M14-loading into hard gelatin capsules and coating with poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) [Eudragit-S100], the respective P2h, P4h and P12h were 10.1%, 28.60% and 65.45%. Significant (p < 0.05) differences between the pharmacokinetic parameter of E-M14C in comparison with the commercial product were revealed with a delay in Tmax (from 2.5h to 6h), a prolongation in MRT0-∞ (from 24.4h to 34.7h) and an increase in the relative oral bioavailability (4.23 folds). Conclusion: E-M14C is a potential system for possible colon targeting of etoricoxib.


Assuntos
Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Etoricoxib/farmacologia , Etoricoxib/farmacocinética , Voluntários Saudáveis , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/química , Administração Oral , Adulto , Disponibilidade Biológica , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Colo/metabolismo , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4001-4020, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606661

RESUMO

Background: Simvastatin (SMV), a hypocholesterolemic agent, suffers from very low bioavailability due to its poor aqueous solubility and extensive first-pass metabolism. Methods: Two SMV carrier systems, namely, polymeric drug inclusion complex (IC) and mixed micelles (MM) nanoparticles, were developed and loaded into mucoadhesive buccal films to enhance SMV bioavailability. The two carrier systems were characterized and their permeation across human oral epithelial cells (OEC) was studied. The effect of IC to MM ratio (X1) and the mucoadhesive polymer concentration (X2) on the cumulative percent of drug released, elongation percent and the mucoadhesive strength, from the prepared mucoadhesive films, were optimized. Ex vivo permeation across bovine mucosal tissue was investigated. The permeation parameters for the in vitro and ex vivo release data were calculated. Results: Complexation of SMV with hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin (HP ß-CD) was superior to all other polymers as revealed by the equilibrium saturation solubility, stability constant, complexation efficiency and thermodynamic potential. SMV-HP ß-CD IC was utilized to develop a saturated polymeric drug solution. Both carrier systems showed enhanced permeation across OEC when compared to pure drug. X1 and X2 were significantly affecting the characteristics of the prepared films. The optimized mucoadhesive buccal film formulation loaded with SMV IC and drug MM nanoparticles demonstrated superior ex vivo permeation when compared to the corresponding pure drug buccal film, and the calculated permeation parameters confirmed this finding. Conclusion: Mucoadhesive buccal films containing SMV IC and drug MM can be used to improve drug bioavailability; however, additional pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies are required.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Muco/química , Sinvastatina/farmacologia , 2-Hidroxipropil-beta-Ciclodextrina/química , Adesividade , Animais , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Bovinos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Permeabilidade , Solubilidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
10.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4049-4062, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606663

RESUMO

Background: Calcium carbonate (CC) nanoparticles have broad biomedical utilizations, owing to their multiple intrinsic merits. However, bare CC nanoparticles do not allow for the development of multifunctional devices suitable for advanced drug delivery in cancer therapy. Methods: Phospholipid-modified phospholipid-CC hybrid nanoparticles were prepared in our study using a combination of vapor-diffusion and solvent-diffusion methods to offer optimized pharmaceutical capabilities. Results: Considering that particle size is a critical parameter that plays an important role in both in vitro and in vivo behaviors of nanoparticles, we here for the first time a present detailed protocol for the size-controlled preparation of hybrid nanoparticles, as well as analysis of the in vitro/in vivo behaviors of differently sized hybrid nanoparticles. Conclusion: Our results might significantly advance the application of this promising material in more varied fields.


Assuntos
Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Fosfolipídeos/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Endocitose , Feminino , Humanos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Coelhos , Esferoides Celulares/metabolismo , Eletricidade Estática , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Distribuição Tecidual
11.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4171-4189, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606671

RESUMO

Background: Angiogenic and osteogenic activities are two major problems with biomedical titanium (Ti) and other orthopedic implants used to repair large bone defects. Purpose: The aim of this study is to prepare hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on the surface of Ti by using electrochemical deposition (ED), and to evaluate the effects of nanotopography and silicon (Si) doping on the angiogenic and osteogenic activities of the coating in vitro. Materials and Methods: HA coating and Si-doped HA (HS) coatings with varying nanotopographies were fabricated using two ED modes, ie, the pulsive current (PC) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) methods. The coatings were characterized through scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM), and their in vitro bioactivity and protein adsorption were assessed. Using MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts and HUVECs as cell models, the osteogenic and angiogenic capabilities of the coatings were evaluated through in vitro cellular experiments. Results: By controlling Si content in ~0.8 wt.%, the coatings resulting from the PC mode (HA-PC and HS-PC) and CV mode (HA-CV and HS-CV) had nanosheet and nanorod topographies, respectively. At lower crystallinity, higher ionic dissolution, smaller contact angle, higher surface roughness, and more negative zeta potential, the HS and PC samples exhibited quicker apatite deposition and higher BSA adsorption capacity. The in vitro cell study showed that Si doping was more favorable for enhancing the viability of the MC3T3-E1 cells, but nanosheet coating increased the area for cell spreading. Of the four coatings, HS-PC with Si doping and nanosheet topography exhibited the best effect in terms of up-regulating the expressions of the osteogenic genes (ALP, Col-I, OSX, OPN and OCN) in the MC3T3-E1 cells. Moreover, all leach liquors of the surface-coated Ti disks promoted the growth of the HUVECs, and the HS samples played a more significant role in promoting cell migration and tube formation than the HA samples. Of the four leach liquors, only the two HS samples up-regulated NO content and expressions of the angiogenesis-related genes (VEGF, bFGF and eNOS) in the HUVECs, and the HS-PC yielded a better effect. Conclusion: The results show that Si doping while regulating the topography of the coating can help enhance the bone regeneration and vascularization of HA-coated Ti implants.


Assuntos
Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Durapatita/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Osteogênese , Próteses e Implantes , Silício/química , Titânio/farmacologia , Adsorção , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Nanotubos/química , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/genética , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Propriedades de Superfície , Difração de Raios X
12.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4431-4440, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606687

RESUMO

Introduction: Synergistic treatment integrating photothermal therapy (PTT) and chemotherapy is a promising strategy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the most commonly used photothermal agent, IR820, and chemotherapeutic drug, doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX), are both hydrophilic molecules that suffer from the drawbacks of a short circulation time, rapid elimination and off-target effects. Methods and Results: Herein, a novel nanodrug that combined HCC-targeted IR820 and DOX was developed based on excipient-free co-assembly. First, lactosylated IR820 (LA-IR820) was designed to target HCC. Then, the LA-IR820/DOX nanodrug (LA-IR820/DOX ND) was purely self-assembled without excipient assistance. The physicochemical properties and the chemo-photothermal antitumour activity of the excipient-free LA-IR820/DOX ND were evaluated. More importantly, the obtained LA-IR820/DOX ND exhibited 100% drug loading, remarkable HCC targeting and excellent antitumour efficacy. Conclusion: This excipient-free LA-IR820/DOX ND may be a promising candidate for the synchronous delivery and synergistic targeting of IR820 and DOX as a combined chemo-photothermal therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Verde de Indocianina/análogos & derivados , Lactose/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Doxorrubicina/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Verde de Indocianina/uso terapêutico , Verde de Indocianina/toxicidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura
13.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4483-4500, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606690

RESUMO

Purpose: Tumor metastasis and drug resistance have always been vital aspects to cancer mortality and prognosis. To compromise metastasis and drug resistance, a nanoparticle IPPD-PHF2 (IR780/PLGA-PEI(Dox)-PHF2) has been engineered to accomplish efficient targeted epigenotherapy forced by PHF2-induced MET (mesenchymal to epithelial transition). Materials and Methods: IPPD-PHF2 nanoparticle was synthesized and characterized by several analytical techniques. The transfection efficiency of IPP-PHF2 (IR780/PLGA-PEI-PHF2) was compared with PP-PHF2 (PLGA-PEI-PHF2) in vitro by WB and in vivo by IHC, and the cytotoxicity of IPP was compared with Lipo2000 in vitro by CCK8 assay. The inhibition of cancer cell migration caused by PHF2-upregulation was tested by wound healing assay, and the enhanced chemotherapeutic sensitivity was detected by flow cytometry. Tumor-targeting property of IPPD-PHF2 was proved by fluorescent imaging in vivo with MDA-MB-231 tumor-bearing nude mice. Except for fluorescent imaging ability, considerable photoacoustic signals of IPPD-PHF2 at tumor sites were verified. The anti-tumor activity of IPPD-PHF2 was investigated using in vivo human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell models. Results: Tumor-targeting nanoparticle IPPD-PHF2 had an average size of about 319.2 nm, a stable zeta potential at about 38 mV. The encapsulation efficiency of doxorubicin was around 39.28%, and the adsorption capacity of plasmids was about 64.804 µg/mg. Significant up-regulation of PHF2 induced MET and caused reduced migration as well as enhanced chemotherapeutic sensitivity. Either IPPD (IR780/PLGA-PEI(Dox)) or IPP-PHF2 (IR780/PLGA-PEI-PHF2) presented minor therapeutic effects, whereas IPPD-PHF2 specifically accumulated within tumors, showed extraordinary transfection efficiency specifically in tumor sites, acted as inhibitors of metastasis and proliferation, and presented good multimodality imaging potentials in vivo. Conclusion: IPPD-PHF2 NPs is a promising tool to bring epigenotherapy into a more practical era, and the potential application of harm-free multimodality imaging guidance is of great value.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Epigênese Genética , Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Transfecção , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Indóis/química , Camundongos Nus , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Metástase Neoplásica , Técnicas Fotoacústicas , Polietilenoimina/química , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química
14.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4501-4521, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606691

RESUMO

Purpose: Elevation of blood homocysteine (Hcy) level (hyperhomocysteinemia) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disorders and is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction. The present study aims to investigate the protective effect and underlying mechanism of nanoscale selenium (Nano-Se) in Hcy-mediated vascular endothelial cell dysfunction in vitro and in vivo. Materials and Methods: By incubating vascular endothelial cells with exogenous Hcy and generating hyperhomocysteinemic rat model, the effects of Nano-Se on hyperhomocysteinemia-mediated endothelial dysfunction and its essential mechanisms were investigated. Results: Nano-Se inhibited Hcy-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage and apoptosis by preventing the downregulation of glutathione peroxidase enzyme 1 and 4 (GPX1, GPX4) in the vascular endothelial cells, thus effectively prevented the vascular damage in vitro and in vivo in the hyperhomocysteinemic rats. Nano-Se possessed similar protective effects but lower toxicity against Hcy in vascular endothelial cells when compared with other forms of Se. Conclusion: The application of Nano-Se could serve as a novel promising strategy against Hcy-mediated vascular dysfunction with reduced risk of Se toxicity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/patologia , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/fisiopatologia , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Selênio/uso terapêutico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Disponibilidade Biológica , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Homocisteína , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/complicações , Hipertensão/complicações , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Selênio/farmacologia
15.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4125-4138, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606668

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the effect and mechanism of macrophage membrane-coated nanoparticles (M-NPs) on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/RI) caused by orthotopic liver transplantation. In addition, the advantages of TLR4+/M-NPs compared to M-NPs are discussed. Materials and Methods: We prepared biomimetic M-NPs and identified their characteristics. M-NPs were injected into an SD rat model of orthotopic liver transplantation, and the anti-inflammatory and anti-I/RI activities of M-NPs were studied in vivo and in vitro. In addition, we overexpressed macrophage membrane Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in vitro and prepared TLR4+/M-NPs. Then, we assessed the characteristics and advantages of TLR4+/M-NPs. Results: The M-NPs neutralized endotoxin, inhibited the overactivation of Kupffer cells (KCs) and suppressed the secretion of inflammatory factors by inhibiting the endotoxin-mediated TLR4/MyD88/IRAK1/NF-κB signaling pathway. In an orthotopic liver transplantation model in SD rats, M-NPs showed significant therapeutic efficacy by neutralizing endotoxin and suppressing the secretion of inflammatory factors. Moreover, overexpression of TLR4 on the macrophage membrane by using a TLR4+-plasmid in vitro effectively reduced the amount of M-NPs needed to neutralize an equivalent dose of endotoxin, reducing the potential risks of NP overuse. Conclusion: This study indicates that M-NPs can effectively alleviate I/RI induced by liver transplantation.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/etiologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/terapia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Fluorescência , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
16.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4237-4256, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606675

RESUMO

With the passage of time and more advanced societies, there is a greater emergence and incidence of disease and necessity for improved treatments. In this respect, nowadays, aptamers, with their better efficiency at diagnosing and treating diseases than antibodies, are at the center of attention. Here, in this review, we first investigate aptamer function in various fields (such as the detection and remedy of pathogens, modification of nanoparticles, antibiotic delivery and gene delivery). Then, we present aptamer-conjugated nanocomplexes as the main and efficient factor in gene delivery. Finally, we focus on the targeted co-delivery of genes and drugs by nanocomplexes, as a new exciting approach for cancer treatment in the decades ahead to meet our growing societal needs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Nanopartículas/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Polietilenoimina/química
17.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4275-4288, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606677

RESUMO

Purpose: Selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) are promising antibacterial agents to tackle the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study was to fabricate Se NPs with a net positive charge to enhance their antibacterial efficacy. Methods: Se NPs were coated with a positively charged protein - recombinant spider silk protein eADF4(κ16) - to give them a net positive surface charge. Their cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity were investigated, with negatively charged polyvinyl alcohol coated Se NPs as a control. Besides, these eADF4(κ16)-coated Se NPs were immobilized on the spider silk films, and the antibacterial activity of these films was investigated. Results: Compared to the negatively charged polyvinyl alcohol coated Se NPs, the positively charged eADF4(κ16)-coated Se NPs demonstrated a much higher bactericidal efficacy against the Gram-negative bacteria E. coli, with a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) approximately 50 times lower than that of negatively charged Se NPs. Cytotoxicity testing showed that the eADF4(κ16)-coated Se NPs are safe to both Balb/3T3 mouse embryo fibroblasts and HaCaT human skin keratinocytes up to 31 µg/mL, which is much higher than the MBC of these particles against E. coli (8 ± 1 µg/mL). In addition, antibacterial coatings were created by immobilising the eADF4(κ16)-coated Se NPs on positively charged spider silk films and these were shown to retain good bactericidal efficacy and overcome the issue of low particle stability in culture broth. It was found that these Se NPs needed to be released from the film surface in order to exert their antibacterial effects and this release can be regulated by the surface charge of the film, such as the change of the spider silk protein used. Conclusion: Overall, eADF4(κ16)-coated Se NPs are promising new antibacterial agents against life-threatening bacteria.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Selênio/farmacologia , Seda/farmacologia , Células 3T3 , Animais , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula
18.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4289-4309, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606678

RESUMO

Objective: To construct prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeting, indocyanine green (ICG)-loaded nanobubbles (NBs) for multimodal (ultrasound, photoacoustic and fluorescence) imaging of prostate cancer. Methods: The mechanical oscillation method was used to prepare ICG-loaded photoacoustic NBs (ICG NBs). Then, PSMA-binding peptides were connected to the surface of ICG NBs using the biotin-avidin method to make targeted photoacoustic NBs, namely, PSMAP/ICG NBs. Their particle sizes, zeta potentials, and in vitro ultrasound, photoacoustic and fluorescence imaging were examined. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry were used to detect the binding ability of the PSMAP/ICG NBs to PSMA-positive LNCaP cells, C4-2 cells, and PSMA-negative PC-3 cells. The multimodal imaging effects of PSMAP/ICG NBs and ICG NBs were compared in nude mouse tumor xenografts. Results: The particle size of the PSMAP/ICG NBs was approximately 457.7 nm, and the zeta potential was approximately -23.5 mV. Both confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry confirmed that the PSMAP/ICG NBs could specifically bind to both LNCaP and C4-2 cells, but they rarely bound to PC-3 cells. The ultrasound, photoacoustic and fluorescence imaging intensities of the PSMAP/ICG NBs in vitro positively correlated with their concentrations. The ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging effects of the PSMAP/ICG NBs in LNCaP and C4-2 tumor xenografts were significantly enhanced compared with those in PC-3 tumor xenografts, which were characterized by a significantly increased duration of ultrasound enhancement and heightened photoacoustic signal intensity (P < 0.05). Fluorescence imaging showed that PSMAP/ICG NBs could accumulate in LNCaP and C4-2 tumor xenografts for a relatively long period. Conclusion: The targeted photoacoustic nanobubbles prepared in this study can specifically bind to PSMA-positive prostate cancer cells and have the ability to enhance ultrasound, photoacoustic and fluorescence imaging of PSMA-positive tumor xenografts. Photoacoustic imaging could visually display the intensity of the red photoacoustic signal in the tumor region, providing a more intuitive imaging modality for targeted molecular imaging. This study presents a potential multimodal contrast agent for the accurate diagnosis and assessment of prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Verde de Indocianina/química , Nanopartículas/química , Imagem Óptica , Técnicas Fotoacústicas , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Meios de Contraste/química , Fluorescência , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Nus , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Antígeno Prostático Específico/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Ligação Proteica
19.
J Chromatogr A ; 1625: 461282, 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709333

RESUMO

In recent years, core-shell silica particles (CSSPs) have been increasingly used for highly efficient separation at fast flow rates and relatively low back pressures in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). However, material synthesis techniques for producing CSSPs economically in batch processes remain elusive. In this report, a practical and straightforward method for the preparation of CSSPs is presented. By refluxing freshly prepared nonporous silica particles in ammonia-water solution in the presence of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) at 70-100 °C, CSSPs with shell thicknesses of up to 300 nm and pore sizes from 8 to 25 nm were easily prepared. The effects of the synthetic conditions on the shell thickness, surface area, and pore size were investigated in detail, and the method reproducibility was evaluated in scale-up experiments. A mechanism of CSSP formation is also proposed. The CSSPs were characterized via scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, laser particle size (dynamic light scattering) analysis, and nitrogen adsorption and desorption experiments. The synthesized 3.4-µm CSSPs were functionalized with dimethyloctadecylchlorosilane and used as an HPLC packing material, exhibiting excellent separation performance for both small molecules and large biomolecules. In summary, we report the simplest method developed thus far for the preparation of monodisperse core-shell silica particles suitable for HPLC column packing.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Sílica Gel/química , Adsorção , Amônia/análise , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Microesferas , Peso Molecular , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Polietilenos/química , Porosidade , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2788, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493916

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is associated with many acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, yet limited treatment is currently available clinically. The development of enzyme-mimicking nanomaterials (nanozymes) with good reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging ability and biocompatibility is a promising way for the treatment of ROS-related inflammation. Herein we report a simple and efficient one-step development of ultrasmall Cu5.4O nanoparticles (Cu5.4O USNPs) with multiple enzyme-mimicking and broad-spectrum ROS scavenging ability for the treatment of ROS-related diseases. Cu5.4O USNPs simultaneously possessing catalase-, superoxide dismutase-, and glutathione peroxidase-mimicking enzyme properties exhibit cytoprotective effects against ROS-mediated damage at extremely low dosage and significantly improve treatment outcomes in acute kidney injury, acute liver injury and wound healing. Meanwhile, the ultrasmall size of Cu5.4O USNPs enables rapid renal clearance of the nanomaterial, guaranteeing the biocompatibility. The protective effect and good biocompatibility of Cu5.4O USNPs will facilitate clinical treatment of ROS-related diseases and enable the development of next-generation nanozymes.


Assuntos
Cobre/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Inflamação/patologia , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/química , Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Lesão Renal Aguda/patologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Bovinos , Cobre/farmacocinética , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Análise de Componente Principal , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Distribuição Tecidual , Cicatrização
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