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1.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 36(5): 862-869, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631637

RESUMO

Despite the continuous improvement in perioperative use of antibiotics and aseptic techniques, the incidence of infection continues to rise as the need for surgery increasing and brings great challenges to orthopedic surgery. The rough or porous structure of the prosthesis provides an excellent place for bacterial adhesion, proliferation and biofilm formation, which is the main cause of infection. Traditional antibiotic therapy and surgical debridement are difficult to determine whether the infected focus have been removed completely and whether the infection will recur. In recent years, nanotechnology has shown obvious advantages in biomaterials and drug delivery. Nano drug carriers can effectively achieve local antimicrobial therapy, prevent surgical infection by local sustained drug release or intelligent controlled drug release under specific stimuli, and reduce the toxic side effects of drugs. The unique advantages of nanotechnology provide new ideas and options for the prevention and treatment of periprosthetic infection. At present, the application of nano-technology in the prevention and treatment of infection can be divided into the addition of nano-drug-loaded materials to prosthesis materials, the construction of drug-loaded nano-coatings on the surface of prosthesis, the perfusable nano-antimicrobial drug carriers, and the stimulation-responsive drug controlled release system. This article reviews the methods of infection prevention and treatment in orthopaedic surgery, especially the research status of nanotechnology in the prevention and treatment of periprosthetic infection.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos , Nanotecnologia , Ortopedia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/prevenção & controle , Aderência Bacteriana , Humanos
2.
Expert Opin Ther Pat ; 29(11): 891-907, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603360

RESUMO

Introduction: Pharmacotherapy is limited by the inefficient drug targeting of non-healthy cells/tissues. In this pharmacological landscape, liposomes are contributing to the impulse given by Nanotechnology to optimize drug therapy. Areas covered: The analysis of the state-of-the-art in liposomal formulations for drug delivery purposes have underlined that lately published patents (since 2014) are exploring alternative compositions and ways to optimize the stability and drug loading content/release profile. These improvements are complemented by improved long-circulating structures and further liposome functionalizations, which have definitively opened the road for the (co-)delivery of therapeutics to the site of action. Liposomes are also contributing to new drug delivery approaches involving the generation of extracellular vesicles by targeted cells, while opening new ways to combine disease diagnosis and therapy (theranosis). Expert opinion: Patent publications on liposomal formulations have expanded new ways in drug delivery. New lipid compositions and strategies to optimize stability and drug vehiculization capabilities have settle solid pillars in liposome fabrication. Despite, their architecture has been satisfactorily adapted for combining passive and active drug targeting concepts, new inputs of liposomes into the disease arena should answer for: a simple/scalable/cost-effective formulation; a safe/stable/controllable formulation meeting quality control regulations; and, a confirmed therapeutic efficiency in clinical investigations.


Assuntos
Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Lipídeos/química , Animais , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos , Lipossomos , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Patentes como Assunto
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(39): 10823-10831, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487159

RESUMO

The development of technology to improve the mineralization of organic fertilizer and to enhance crop production is essential to achieve the transition from traditional farming to eco-friendly organic farming. Nanobubble oxygation (NB) was employed for comparison with traditional pump-aerated oxygation (AW) and a control group through both soil incubation and soil column experiments. Plant-available N and P contents in the NB treatment group were higher than those in the AW and control groups. Enzymatic activities including ß-1,4-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, phosphatase, α-1,4-glucosidase, ß-1,4-xylosidase, peroxidase, and phenol oxidase were significantly higher in both oxygation groups compared with the control. The soil microbial biomass, activity, and diversity were also significantly improved due to the oxygation treatment. Additionally, the microbial metabolic functions were shifted in both oxygation treatments compared with the control group. The final tomato yield increase from the NB treatment group was 23%, and that from the AW treatment was 17%, compared with the control.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Produção Agrícola , Lycopersicon esculentum/enzimologia , Oxigênio/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
4.
Chem Asian J ; 14(19): 3240-3250, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508892

RESUMO

With the rapid development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, various types of functional nanoreactors have been designed for diverse applications. Here, the recent evolution of the rational design of nanoreactors for chemical synthesis and biomedical applications are briefly summarized and discussed. The presence of nanoreactors provides constrained space isolated from the surrounding environment. Scientists are committed to studying changes in chemical reactions when the reaction system is confined to the nanosized space. Nanoreactors accelerate the reaction rate and even change mechanism of some chemical reactions. Cells and organelles as natural nanoreactors are also discussed. The development of intracellular synthesis makes it possible to realize various applications in biomedicine. The challenges on the rational design of nanoreactors and perspectives are also discussed.


Assuntos
Nanotecnologia , Tecnologia Biomédica , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Química Click , Nanopartículas/química , Polímeros
5.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 465, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows the mechanical characterization of single cells and live tissue by quantifying force-distance (FD) data in nano-indentation experiments. One of the main problems when dealing with biological tissue is the fact that the measured FD curves can be disturbed. These disturbances are caused, for instance, by passive cell movement, adhesive forces between the AFM probe and the cell, or insufficient attachment of the tissue to the supporting cover slide. In practice, the resulting artifacts are easily spotted by an experimenter who then manually sorts out curves before proceeding with data evaluation. However, this manual sorting step becomes increasingly cumbersome for studies that involve numerous measurements or for quantitative imaging based on FD maps. RESULTS: We introduce the Python package nanite, which automates all basic aspects of FD data analysis, including data import, tip-sample separation, base line correction, contact point retrieval, and model fitting. In addition, nanite enables the automation of the sorting step using supervised learning. This learning approach relates subjective ratings to predefined features extracted from FD curves. For ratings ranging from 0 to 10, our approach achieves a mean squared error below 1.0 rating points and a classification accuracy between good and poor curves that is above 87%. We showcase our approach by quantifying Young's moduli of the zebrafish spinal cord at different classification thresholds and by introducing data quality as a new dimension for quantitative AFM image analysis. CONCLUSION: The addition of quality-based sorting using supervised learning enables a fully automated and reproducible FD data analysis pipeline for biological samples in AFM.


Assuntos
Confiabilidade dos Dados , Aprendizado de Máquina , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Software , Animais , Automação , Nanotecnologia , Peixe-Zebra
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(42): 11577-11583, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557026

RESUMO

Nanotechnology has provided a novel approach for the preparation of a safe and highly effective pesticide formulation. Thiazole-Zn, a widely used bactericide, was successfully prepared at nanoscale by an innovative approach of final synthesis process control. Its plausible formation mechanism based on restricted particle aggregation in a nanoreactor was elucidated. Then in order to assess the application performance of thiazole-Zn nanoparticle, the nanoformulation (NPF) was conveniently formulated. Interestingly, the physicochemical properties of NPF showed better than that of the commercial pesticide formulation (CPF) in dispersibility, wettability, spreadability, and stability. At the same time, the in vitro bioassay showed that the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of NPF against Xanthomonas oryzae pv Oryzae (XOO), Xanthomonas oryzae pv Oryzicola (XOC), Erwinia carotovora subsp. Carotovora (Jones) Holland (ECC), and Erwinia chrysanthemi pv Zeae (ECZ) were 46.88, 93.75, 93.75, and 375.00 mg/L, respectively, whereas those of CPF were 93.75, 375.00, 375.00, and 875.00 mg/L, respectively. Therefore, NPF exhibited stronger antibacterial activity against the above-mentioned pathogens. Moreover, NPF was more effective to bacterial blight of rice than CPF in field trial. As a conclusion, nanotechnology for pesticides by synthesis process control will have a potential in improving the utilization efficiency and relieving the corresponding environmental pollution.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Tiadiazóis/química , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia , Erwinia/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Xanthomonas/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Nat Biotechnol ; 37(9): 1007-1012, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477925

RESUMO

Periodically throughout history developments from adjacent fields of science and technology reach a tipping point where together they produce unparalleled advances, such as the Allen Brain Atlas and the Human Genome Project. Today, research focused at the interface between the nervous system and electronics is not only leading to advances in fundamental neuroscience, but also unlocking the potential of implants capable of cellular-level therapeutic targeting. Ultimately, these personalized electronic therapies will provide new treatment modalities for neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric illness; powerful control of prosthetics for restorative function in degenerative diseases, trauma and amputation; and even augmentation of human cognition. Overall, we believe that emerging advances in tissue-like electronics will enable minimally invasive devices capable of establishing a stable long-term cellular neural interface and providing long-term treatment for chronic neurological conditions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/terapia , Medicina de Precisão , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Humanos , Nanotecnologia
8.
Pharm Res ; 36(11): 153, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482243

RESUMO

The purpose of this review is to discuss the challenges associated with the development of nanoparticle-based quality drug products in adhering to the principles of quality by design (QbD) and defining appropriate quality parameters towards successful product development. With the advent of nanotechnology into the pharmaceutical field, the novel field of nanomedicine was born. Due to their unique properties in terms of size, conformation and targeted delivery, nanomedicines are able to overcome many drawbacks of conventional medicine. As nano-sized formulations have made their way into more and more therapies, it has became clear that these very unique properties create hurdles for nanomedicines in successfully traversing the regulatory pathways and there is a need to develop nanomedicines in a more controlled and consistent fashion. The elements of a QbD methodology explained in this review enable the development of nano-based formulations in a way that maximizes the possibility of success. The identification of critical quality attributes (CQA) of the drug product and its intermediates are discussed in detail with a focus on nanomaterial-based formulations. In conclusion, QbD and the identification and specification of CQAs at its core are critical to the design, development and growth of nanomaterials in pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Nanocápsulas/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Animais , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Nanomedicina , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 5087-5107, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371949

RESUMO

Background: Nanotechnology explores a variety of promising approaches in the area of material sciences on a molecular level, and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are of leading interest in the present scenario. This review is a comprehensive contribution in the field of green synthesis, characterization, and biological activities of AgNPs using different biological sources. Methods: Biosynthesis of AgNPs can be accomplished by physical, chemical, and green synthesis; however, synthesis via biological precursors has shown remarkable outcomes. In available reported data, these entities are used as reducing agents where the synthesized NPs are characterized by ultraviolet-visible and Fourier-transform infrared spectra and X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Results: Modulation of metals to a nanoscale drastically changes their chemical, physical, and optical properties, and is exploited further via antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antioxidant, and cardioprotective activities. Results showed excellent growth inhibition of the microorganism. Conclusion: Novel outcomes of green synthesis in the field of nanotechnology are appreciable where the synthesis and design of NPs have proven potential outcomes in diverse fields. The study of green synthesis can be extended to conduct the in silco and in vitro research to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Química Verde/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Prata/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia
11.
Chem Soc Rev ; 48(18): 4892-4920, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402369

RESUMO

DNA nanotechnology engineered at the solid-liquid interface has advanced our fundamental understanding of DNA hybridization kinetics and facilitated the design of improved biosensing, bioimaging and therapeutic platforms. Three research branches of DNA nanotechnology exist: (i) structural DNA nanotechnology for the construction of various nanoscale patterns; (ii) dynamic DNA nanotechnology for the operation of nanodevices; and (iii) functional DNA nanotechnology for the exploration of new DNA functions. Although the initial stages of DNA nanotechnology research began in aqueous solution, current research efforts have shifted to solid-liquid interfaces. Based on shape and component features, these interfaces can be classified as flat interfaces, nanoparticle interfaces, and soft interfaces of DNA origami and cell membranes. This review briefly discusses the development of DNA nanotechnology. We then highlight the important roles of structural DNA nanotechnology in tailoring the properties of flat interfaces and modifications of nanoparticle interfaces, and extensively review their successful bioapplications. In addition, engineering advances in DNA nanodevices at interfaces for improved biosensing both in vitro and in vivo are presented. The use of DNA nanotechnology as a tool to engineer cell membranes to reveal protein levels and cell behavior is also discussed. Finally, we present challenges and an outlook for this emerging field.


Assuntos
DNA/química , Nanotecnologia , Cinética , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico
12.
Chem Soc Rev ; 48(19): 4966-4978, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368460

RESUMO

The recent advances in the micro/nanomotor field have shown great progress in the propulsion of such devices by fuel-free mechanisms. Light, as an abundant and natural source, has been demonstrated to be a promising external field to wirelessly induce the motion of these tiny micro/nanomachines, without the need of any toxic fuel or complex system set-up. This tutorial review covers the most representative examples of light-driven micro/nanomotors developed so far, which self-propelled exclusively under fuel-free conditions. Their different swimming behaviors triggered by light stimuli, divided into four main categories (schooling, phototaxis, gravitaxis and directional motion), are discussed along with their similarities with the motion modes of microorganisms. Moreover, the main parameters that influence the motion of light-driven photocatalytic-based micro/nanomotors as well as alternative strategies to develop more efficient systems are also discussed.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Luz , Nanotecnologia , Catálise , Nanoestruturas/química , Energia Solar
13.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 5541-5554, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410002

RESUMO

Currently, 47 million people live with dementia globally, and it is estimated to increase more than threefold (~131 million) by 2050. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the major causative factors to induce progressive dementia. AD is a neurodegenerative disease, and its pathogenesis has been attributed to extracellular aggregates of amyloid ß (Aß) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles made of hyperphosphorylated τ-protein in cortical and limbic areas of the human brain. It is characterized by memory loss and progressive neurocognitive dysfunction. The anomalous processing of APP by ß-secretases and γ-secretases leads to production of Aß40 and Aß42 monomers, which further oligomerize and aggregate into senile plaques. The disease also intensifies through infectious agents like HIV. Additionally, during disease pathogenesis, the presence of high concentrations of Aß peptides in central nervous system initiates microglial infiltration. Upon coming into vicinity of Aß, microglia get activated, endocytose Aß, and contribute toward their clearance via TREM2 surface receptors, simultaneously triggering innate immunoresponse against the aggregation. In addition to a detailed report on causative factors leading to AD, the present review also discusses the current state of the art in AD therapeutics and diagnostics, including labeling and imaging techniques employed as contrast agents for better visualization and sensing of the plaques. The review also points to an urgent need for nanotechnology as an efficient therapeutic strategy to increase the bioavailability of drugs in the central nervous system.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/química , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Barreira Hematoencefálica/patologia , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Nanotecnologia , Placa Amiloide/patologia
14.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 15(9): 1839-1866, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387674

RESUMO

Immunotherapy is one of the most potent options for cancer treatment, with numerous breakthroughs in this field, bringing us closer to the realization of cancer eradication. However, the intrinsic limits of immunotherapy, such as its low responsive rate, narrow therapeutic window and systemic toxicity, have hindered its clinical application and thus prompted the development of nanotechnology-assisted modality for more effective and safer cancer immunotherapy. By locally increasing the drug concentration and limiting drug exposure to normal tissues, nanocarriers significantly potentiate the effects of immunotherapy while reducing side effects. Additionally, nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems allow different therapeutic strategies as a complement to conventional immunotherapeutic modalities, providing numerous novel and effective approaches for combinational cancer therapy. In this review, we first briefly introduce the five main classes of immunotherapy, and then we extensively covered some advanced biomaterials and novel strategies of nanotechnology intervention and detailed how these approaches function to enhance immunotherapeutic and combinational combination therapeutic efficacy.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Nanotecnologia , Neoplasias/terapia
15.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(10): 1030-1041, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341111

RESUMO

Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is one of the most challenging diseases faced by humankind. AD is still not classified as curable because of the complex structure of pathologies underlying it. As the mean life expectancy of the world population constantly increases, the prevalence of AD and treatment costs for AD also grow rapidly. Current state of the art for AD treatment mainly consists of palliative therapy aimed at providing symptomatic relief and improving the standard of living in patients with AD. However, different research groups are working on more effective and safe drug delivery options aimed at both symptomatic relief and treatment of the underlying mechanisms. In this review, the current prevalence of AD, health costs, pathologies, and available treatment options including the ones in the market and/or under trial have been reviewed. Data in the existing literature have been presented, and future opportunities have been discussed. It is our belief that these nanotechnological products provide the required efficacy and safety profiles to enable these formulations go through phase studies and enter the market after regulatory authority approval, as with cancer. Last, but not the least the metabolomic studies will be providing useful informative data on the early diagnosis of AD, thus may be clinical implications might be delayed with the administration of therapeutic agents at the initial state of the disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Pesquisa Biomédica , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Nanotecnologia
16.
J Chromatogr A ; 1603: 426-432, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301798

RESUMO

Reversed-phase chromatography is the most common technique for separation of tryptic peptides. In this short communication, we describe the optimization of sample loading and separation parameters for a novel micromachined column and provide a detailed description on the performance and reproducibility of this separation system. Tryptic digest of a mixture of seven proteins with diverse mass and isoelectric point was used as a test sample. The methods developed and used are straight-forward; by using well-balanced, combined-step gradients an optimal distribution of peptides on the column could be achieved throughout the complete gradient window. The potential use of the column is exceptional due to the low back-pressure, better distribution of peptides over the separation window, enhanced stability and reproducibility of retention times, and the prolonged lifetime of columns compared to conventionally packed nano-HPLC column. The higher identification rates have been demonstrated through measurements of HeLa cell lysates under identical chromatographic conditions on the pillar array and packed-bed columns.


Assuntos
Cromatografia de Fase Reversa/métodos , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Células HeLa , Humanos , Proteínas/isolamento & purificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(25): 26146-26158, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280439

RESUMO

Nanotechnology provides innovative and promising solutions for the conservation of cultural heritage, but the development and application of new nano-enabled products pose concerns regarding their human health and environmental risks. To address these issues, we propose a sustainability framework implementing the Safe by Design concept to support product developers in the early steps of product development, with the aim to provide safer nano-formulations for conservation, while retaining their functionality. In addition, this framework can support the assessment of sustainability of new products and their comparison to their conventional chemical counterparts if any. The goal is to promote the selection and use of safer and more sustainable nano-based products in different conservation contexts. The application of the proposed framework is illustrated through a hypothetical case which provides a realistic example of the methodological steps to be followed, tailored and iterated along the decision-making process.


Assuntos
Nanotecnologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Humanos , Gestão da Segurança
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 618, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increased transmission of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) poses a challenge to tuberculosis prevention and control in Sri Lanka. Isoniazid (INH) is a key element of the first line anti tuberculosis treatment regimen. Resistance to INH may lead to development of MDR TB. Therefore, early detection of INH resistance is important to curb spread of resistance. Due to the limited availability of rapid molecular methods for detection of drug resistance in Sri Lanka, this study was aimed at developing a simple and rapid gold nanoparticle (AuNP) based lateral flow strip for the simultaneous detection of the most common INH resistance mutation (katG S315 T, 78.6%) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb). METHODS: Lateral flow strip was designed on an inert plastic backing layer containing a sample pad, nitrocellulose membrane and an absorption pad. Biotin labeled 4 capture probes which separately conjugated with streptavidin were immobilized on the nitrocellulose. The test sample was prepared by multiplex PCR using primers to amplify codon 315 region of the katG gene and MTb specific IS6110 region. The two detection probes complementary to the 5' end of each amplified fragment was conjugated with gold nanoparticles (20 nm) and coupled with the above amplified PCR products were applied on the sample pad. The hybridization of the amplified target regions to the respective capture probes takes place when the sample moves towards the absorption pad. Positive hybridization is indicated by red colour lines. RESULTS: The three immobilized capture probes on the strip (for the detection of TB, katG wild type and mutation) were 100 and 96.6% specific and 100 and 92.1% sensitive respectively. CONCLUSION: The AuNP based lateral flow assay was capable of differentiating the specific mutation and the wild type along with MTb identification within 3 h.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Catalase/genética , Doenças Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Ouro/química , Humanos , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Sri Lanka , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2933, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270330

RESUMO

Synthetic DNA is becoming an attractive substrate for digital data storage due to its density, durability, and relevance in biological research. A major challenge in making DNA data storage a reality is that reading DNA back into data using sequencing by synthesis remains a laborious, slow and expensive process. Here, we demonstrate successful decoding of 1.67 megabytes of information stored in short fragments of synthetic DNA using a portable nanopore sequencing platform. We design and validate an assembly strategy for DNA storage that drastically increases the throughput of nanopore sequencing. Importantly, this assembly strategy is generalizable to any application that requires nanopore sequencing of small DNA amplicons.


Assuntos
DNA/genética , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , DNA/síntese química , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Nanoporos , Nanotecnologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/instrumentação
20.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4187-4209, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289440

RESUMO

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are disseminated cancer cells. The occurrence and circulation of CTCs seem key for metastasis, still the major cause of cancer-associated deaths. As such, CTCs are investigated as predictive biomarkers. However, due to their rarity and heterogeneous biology, CTCs' practical use has not made it into the clinical routine. Clearly, methods for the effective isolation and reliable detection of CTCs are urgently needed. With the development of nanotechnology, various nanosystems for CTC isolation and enrichment and CTC-targeted cancer therapy have been designed. Here, we summarize the relationship between CTCs and tumor metastasis, and describe CTCs' unique properties hampering their effective enrichment. We comment on nanotechnology-based systems for CTC isolation and recent achievements in microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip technologies. We discuss recent advances in CTC-targeted cancer therapy exploiting the unique properties of nanomaterials. We conclude by introducing developments in CTC-directed nanosystems and other advanced technologies currently in (pre)clinical research.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Separação Celular/métodos , Nanomedicina/métodos , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/isolamento & purificação , Materiais Biomiméticos , Grafite , Humanos , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Microfluídica/instrumentação , Microfluídica/métodos , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Nanotubos de Carbono
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