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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4963, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009406

RESUMO

Bacterial nanotubes are membranous structures that have been reported to function as conduits between cells to exchange DNA, proteins, and nutrients. Here, we investigate the morphology and formation of bacterial nanotubes using Bacillus subtilis. We show that nanotube formation is associated with stress conditions, and is highly sensitive to the cells' genetic background, growth phase, and sample preparation methods. Remarkably, nanotubes appear to be extruded exclusively from dying cells, likely as a result of biophysical forces. Their emergence is extremely fast, occurring within seconds by cannibalizing the cell membrane. Subsequent experiments reveal that cell-to-cell transfer of non-conjugative plasmids depends strictly on the competence system of the cell, and not on nanotube formation. Our study thus supports the notion that bacterial nanotubes are a post mortem phenomenon involved in cell disintegration, and are unlikely to be involved in cytoplasmic content exchange between live cells.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/citologia , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Viabilidade Microbiana , Nanotubos/química , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Bacillus subtilis/ultraestrutura , Conjugação Genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Plasmídeos/genética
2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4151-4169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606670

RESUMO

Purpose: Focused ultrasound (FUS) is a noninvasive method to produce thermal and mechanical destruction along with an immune-stimulatory effect against cancer. However, FUS ablation alone appears insufficient to generate consistent antitumor immunity. In this study, a multifunctional nanoparticle was designed to boost FUS-induced immune effects and achieve systemic, long-lasting antitumor immunity, along with imaging and thermal enhancement. Materials and Methods: PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles encapsulating astragalus polysaccharides (APS) and gold nanorods (AuNRs) were constructed by a simple double emulsion method, characterized, and tested for cytotoxicity. The abilities of PA imaging and thermal-synergetic ablation efficiency were analyzed in vitro and in vivo. The immune-synergistic effect on dendritic cell (DC) differentiation in vitro and the immune response in vivo were also evaluated. Results: The obtained APS/AuNR/PLGA-PEG nanoparticles have an average diameter of 255.00±0.1717 nm and an APS-loading efficiency of 54.89±2.07%, demonstrating their PA imaging capability and high biocompatibility both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the as-prepared nanoparticles achieved a higher necrosis cell rate and induced apoptosis rate in an in vitro cell suspension assay, greater necrosis area and decreased energy efficiency factor (EEF) in an in vivo rabbit liver assay, and remarkable thermal-synergic performance. In particular, the nanoparticles upregulated the expression of MHC-II, CD80 and CD86 on cocultured DCs in vitro, followed by declining phagocytic function and enhanced interleukin (IL)-12 and interferon (INF)-γ production. Furthermore, they boosted the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, and IgG1 (P< 0.001) but not IgG2a. Immune promotion peaked on day 3 after FUS in vivo. Conclusion: The multifunctional APS/AuNR/PLGA-PEG nanoparticles can serve as an excellent synergistic agent for FUS therapy, facilitating real-time imaging, promoting thermal ablation effects, and boosting FUS-induced immune effects, which have the potential to be used for further clinical FUS treatment.


Assuntos
Astrágalo (Planta)/química , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Multifuncionais/química , Nanotubos/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Terapia por Ultrassom , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Apoptose , Morte Celular , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Feminino , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fagocitose , Técnicas Fotoacústicas , Poliésteres/síntese química , Poliésteres/química , Polietilenoglicóis/síntese química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Coelhos , Nanomedicina Teranóstica , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
3.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4171-4189, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606671

RESUMO

Background: Angiogenic and osteogenic activities are two major problems with biomedical titanium (Ti) and other orthopedic implants used to repair large bone defects. Purpose: The aim of this study is to prepare hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on the surface of Ti by using electrochemical deposition (ED), and to evaluate the effects of nanotopography and silicon (Si) doping on the angiogenic and osteogenic activities of the coating in vitro. Materials and Methods: HA coating and Si-doped HA (HS) coatings with varying nanotopographies were fabricated using two ED modes, ie, the pulsive current (PC) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) methods. The coatings were characterized through scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM), and their in vitro bioactivity and protein adsorption were assessed. Using MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts and HUVECs as cell models, the osteogenic and angiogenic capabilities of the coatings were evaluated through in vitro cellular experiments. Results: By controlling Si content in ~0.8 wt.%, the coatings resulting from the PC mode (HA-PC and HS-PC) and CV mode (HA-CV and HS-CV) had nanosheet and nanorod topographies, respectively. At lower crystallinity, higher ionic dissolution, smaller contact angle, higher surface roughness, and more negative zeta potential, the HS and PC samples exhibited quicker apatite deposition and higher BSA adsorption capacity. The in vitro cell study showed that Si doping was more favorable for enhancing the viability of the MC3T3-E1 cells, but nanosheet coating increased the area for cell spreading. Of the four coatings, HS-PC with Si doping and nanosheet topography exhibited the best effect in terms of up-regulating the expressions of the osteogenic genes (ALP, Col-I, OSX, OPN and OCN) in the MC3T3-E1 cells. Moreover, all leach liquors of the surface-coated Ti disks promoted the growth of the HUVECs, and the HS samples played a more significant role in promoting cell migration and tube formation than the HA samples. Of the four leach liquors, only the two HS samples up-regulated NO content and expressions of the angiogenesis-related genes (VEGF, bFGF and eNOS) in the HUVECs, and the HS-PC yielded a better effect. Conclusion: The results show that Si doping while regulating the topography of the coating can help enhance the bone regeneration and vascularization of HA-coated Ti implants.


Assuntos
Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Durapatita/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Osteogênese , Próteses e Implantes , Silício/química , Titânio/farmacologia , Adsorção , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Nanotubos/química , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/genética , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Propriedades de Superfície , Difração de Raios X
4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4471-4481, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606689

RESUMO

Background: Ineffective integration has been recognized as one of the major causes of early orthopedic failure of titanium-based implants. One strategy to address this problem is to develop modified titanium surfaces that promote osteoblast differentiation. This study explored titanium surfaces modified with TiO2 nanotubes (TiO2 NTs) capable of localized drug delivery into bone and enhanced osteoblast cell differentiation. Materials and Methods: Briefly, TiO2 NTs were subjected to anodic oxidation and loaded with Metformin, a widely used diabetes drug. To create surfaces with sustainable drug-eluting characteristics, TiO2 NTs were spin coated with a thin layer of chitosan. The surfaces were characterized via scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and contact angle measurements. The surfaces were then exposed to mesenchymal bone marrow stem cells (MSCs) to evaluate cell adhesion, growth, differentiation, and morphology on the modified surfaces. Results: A noticeable increase in drug release time (3 days vs 20 days) and a decrease in burst release characteristics (85% to 7%) was observed in coated samples as compared to uncoated samples, respectively. Chitosan-coated TiO2 NTs exhibited a considerable enhancement in cell adhesion, proliferation, and genetic expression of type I collagen, and alkaline phosphatase activity as compared to uncoated TiO2 NTs. Conclusion: TiO2 NT surfaces with a chitosan coating are capable of delivering Metformin to a bone site over a sustained period of time with the potential to enhance MSCs cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Metformina/farmacologia , Nanotubos/química , Osteoblastos/citologia , Titânio/química , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanotubos/ultraestrutura , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/ultraestrutura , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Molhabilidade
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234136, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520947

RESUMO

Groundwater treatment sludge is a Fe/Mn-bearing waste that is mass produced in groundwater treatment plant. In this study, sludge was converted to a magnetic adsorbent (MA) by adding ascorbate. The sludge was weakly magnetised in the amorphous form with Fe and Mn contents of 28.8% and 8.1%, respectively. After hydrothermal treatment, Fe/Mn oxides in the sludge was recrystallised to siderite and rhodochrosite, with jacobsite as the intermediate in the presence of ascorbate. With an increment in ascorbate dosage, the obtained magnetic adsorbent had a significant increase in chromate adsorption but a decrease in magnetisation. When the Mascorbate/MFe molar ratio was 10, the produced MA-10 was a dumbbell-shaped nanorod with a length of 2-5 µm and a diameter of 0.5-1 µm. This MA-10 showed 183.2 mg/g of chromate adsorption capacity and 2.81 emu/g of magnetisation. The mechanism of chromate adsorption was surface coprecipitation of the generated Cr3+ and Fe3+/Mn4+ from redox reaction between chromate and siderite/rhodochrosite on MA-10, separately. This study demonstrated an efficient recycling route of waste sludge from groundwater treatment to produce MA for treating chromate-bearing wastewater.


Assuntos
Cromatos/química , Magnetismo , Nanotubos/química , Esgotos/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Adsorção , Carbonatos/química , Compostos Férricos/química , Ferro/química , Cinética , Manganês/química , Oxirredução , Óxidos/química
6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3523-3537, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32547011

RESUMO

Background: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have a higher failure rate of dental implant treatments. However, whether titanium (Ti) implants with TiO2 nanotubes (TNT) surface can retain their biocompatibility and osteogenetic ability under DM conditions has not been investigated; in addition, their behavior in DM conditions is not well characterized. Materials and Methods: Pure Ti discs were surface treated into the polishing (mechanically polished, MP), sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA), and TNT groups. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the surface morphology. The cell adhesion and proliferation ability on different modified Ti surfaces at various glucose concentrations (5.5, 11, 16.5, and 22 mM) was detected by the CCK-8 assay. The osteogenetic ability on different modified Ti surfaces under high-glucose conditions was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin (OPN) immunofluorescence, Western blot, and Alizarin Red staining in vitro. Detection of cell apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was undertaken both before and after N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment to assess the oxidative stress associated with different modified Ti surfaces under high-glucose conditions. An in vivo study was conducted in DM rats with different modified Ti femoral implants. The osteogenetic ability of different modified Ti implants in DM rats was assessed using a micro-CT scan. Results: High-glucose conditions inhibited cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenetic ability of different modified Ti surfaces. High-glucose conditions induced higher apoptosis rate and intracellular ROS level on different modified Ti surfaces; these effects were alleviated by NAC. Compared with the SLA surface, the TNT surface alleviated the osteogenetic inhibition induced by high-glucose states by reversing the overproduction of ROS in vitro. In the in vivo experiment, micro-CT scan analysis further confirmed the best osteogenetic ability of TNT surface in rats with DM. Conclusion: TNT surface modification alleviates osteogenetic inhibition induced by DM. It may provide a more favorable Ti implant surface for patients with DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Nanotubos/química , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Titânio/farmacologia , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/toxicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Osteopontina/metabolismo , Próteses e Implantes , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Propriedades de Superfície
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(27): 15473-15481, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571948

RESUMO

The development of sustainable methods for the degradation of pollutants in water is an ongoing critical challenge. Anthropogenic organic micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals, present in our water supplies in trace quantities, are currently not remediated by conventional treatment processes. Here, we report an initial demonstration of the oxidative degradation of organic micropollutants using specially designed nanoparticles and visible-wavelength sunlight. Gold "Janus" nanorods (Au JNRs), partially coated with silica to enhance their colloidal stability in aqueous solutions while also maintaining a partially uncoated Au surface to facilitate photocatalysis, were synthesized. Au JNRs were dispersed in an aqueous solution containing peroxydisulfate (PDS), where oxidative degradation of both simulant and actual organic micropollutants was observed. Photothermal heating, light-induced hot electron-driven charge transfer, and direct electron shuttling under dark conditions all contribute to the observed oxidation chemistry. This work not only provides an ideal platform for studying plasmonic photochemistry in aqueous medium but also opens the door for nanoengineered, solar-based methods to remediate recalcitrant micropollutants in water supplies.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/efeitos da radiação , Fotólise/efeitos da radiação , Luz Solar , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluição Química da Água/prevenção & controle , Ouro/química , Ouro/efeitos da radiação , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Nanotubos/química , Nanotubos/efeitos da radiação , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Compostos Orgânicos/toxicidade , Oxirredução/efeitos da radiação , Dióxido de Silício/química , Dióxido de Silício/efeitos da radiação , Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
8.
Nat Protoc ; 15(8): 2443-2469, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591769

RESUMO

Cellular membrane processes, from signal transduction to membrane fusion and fission, depend on acute membrane deformations produced by small and short-lived protein complexes working in conditions far from equilibrium. Real-time monitoring and quantitative assessment of such deformations are challenging; hence, mechanistic analyses of the protein action are commonly based on ensemble averaging, which masks important mechanistic details of the action. In this protocol, we describe how to reconstruct and quantify membrane remodeling by individual proteins and small protein complexes in vitro, using an ultra-short (80- to 400-nm) lipid nanotube (usNT) template. We use the luminal conductance of the usNT as the real-time reporter of the protein interaction(s) with the usNT. We explain how to make and calibrate the usNT template to achieve subnanometer precision in the geometrical assessment of the molecular footprints on the nanotube membrane. We next demonstrate how membrane deformations driven by purified proteins implicated in cellular membrane remodeling can be analyzed at a single-molecule level. The preparation of one usNT takes ~1 h, and the shortest procedure yielding the basic geometrical parameters of a small protein complex takes 10 h.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Membrana Celular/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Nanotubos/química
9.
Food Chem ; 329: 127160, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485646

RESUMO

In this study, we developed an indirect competitive plasmonic immunoassay using glucose oxidase (GOx)-induced redox reaction to etch Au nanorods (AuNRs) for qualitative and quantitative detection of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk. In this system, streptavidin (SA) was selected as a linker between biotinylated anti-AFM1-monoantibody (bio-mAb) and biotinylated GOx (bio-GOx) to form the immunocomplexes bio-mAb-SA-bio-GOx. After the oxidation of the glucose and I-, the resultant I2 could etch cetytrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-stabilized AuNRs. This resulted in the blue shift of the longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) extinction peak, with a color change from blue to pink. The linear range and limit of detection (LOD) of the plasmonic immunoassay were 0.25-10 ng mL-1 and 0.11 ng mL-1, respectively. It displayed quantitative detection with high sensitivity, specificity, recovery, and accuracy, which is promising for qualitative and quantitative detection of AFM1 in food safety.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina M1/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Imunoensaio/métodos , Leite/química , Nanotubos , Animais , Glucose/química , Glucose Oxidase/química , Ouro/química , Imunoensaio/instrumentação , Limite de Detecção , Nanotubos/química , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/métodos
10.
Chemosphere ; 251: 126381, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443232

RESUMO

In this study, carbon quantum dots (CQDs) were used to decorate a TiO2/g-C3N4 (TCN) film electrode. The morphological, optical, and electrochemical properties of the TiO2/g-C3N4/CQDs nanorod arrays (TCNC NRAs) film were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The improved optical properties, photoelectrochemical properties and photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) performance of photoanode can be observed by doping CQDs onto the TCN NRAs film. Compared with TiO2 NRAs and TCN NRAs, the narrower band gap of 2.47 eV and longer lifetime of photoinduced electron-hole pairs were observed in the TCNC NRAs. Under visible light irradiation and a bias voltage of 1.2 V, the photocurrent density and 1,4-dioxane (1,4-D) removal rate of PEC process with TCNC NRAs electrode reached 0.16 mA/cm2 and 77.9%, respectively, which was 2.5 times and 1.5 times of that with TCN NRAs electrode. TCNC NRAs electrode could keep >75% of the 1,4-D removal rate during five cycles tests. High PEC performance with TCNC NRAs electrode could be attributed to the enhanced charge separation and the change of electron transfer mechanism from typical heterojunction to Z-scheme, which may increase the active species production and change the dominant reactive species from O2·- to ·OH. Our experimental results should be useful for studying the degradation of 1,4-D and developing efficient PEC materials.


Assuntos
Dioxanos/química , Pontos Quânticos/química , Carbono , Eletrodos , Luz , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nanotubos/química , Titânio
11.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 2541-2553, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32368039

RESUMO

Background: In the emerging field of nanotechnology, copper oxide (CuO) nanomaterials are considered to be one of the most important transition metal oxides owing to its fascinating properties. Its synthesis from green chemistry principles is gaining importance as next-generation antibiotics due to its simplicity, eco-friendliness, and cost-effectiveness. In the present study, CuO nanorods (CuO NRs) were synthesized from the aqueous fruit extract of Momordica charantia and characterized using different analytical techniques. Further, the biomedical therapeutic potential was evaluated against multi-drug resistant microbial strains. Materials and Methods: To synthesize CuO NRs, 0.1M of CuSO4.5H2O solution was added to aqueous extract of Momordica charantia in a 1:3 (v/v) ratio (pH=11) and heated at 50°C followed by washing and drying. The synthesized CuO NRs were subjected to characterization using different analytical techniques such as UV visible spectroscopy, zeta sizer equipped with zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Further, the application as a biomedical therapeutic potential was evaluated in vitro using well diffusion method against eleven multidrug-resistant clinical bacterial strains, a fungus- Trichophyton rubrum and in ovo against the R2B virus using haemagglutination (HA) test. Results: Characterization was preliminarily done by the spectral study that confirms the absorbance band at 245nm. FTIR analysis at 628 cm-1 peak identified copper oxide vibration. SEM analysis revealed agglomerated particle clusters. However, with TEM clear nanorods of average diameter of 61.48 ± 2 nm were observed. EDAX confirmed CuO formation while XRD showed a typical monoclinic structure with 6 nm crystallite size. Biological screening of CuO NRs showed significant results against both in vitro and in ovo methods. Significant inhibitory activity (p<0.0001) was noted against most of the resistant human pathogenic strains including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The highest efficacy was observed against Bacillus cereus with a 31.66 mm zone of inhibition. Besides, the therapeutic potential of CuO NRs against Corynebacterium xerosis, Streptococcus viridians and R2B strain of Newcastle disease is reported for the first time. Conclusion: Based on the present results, it could be expected that green synthesized CuO NRs would find potential applications in the field of nanomedicine.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cobre/farmacologia , Química Verde , Momordica charantia/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Hemaglutinação , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Nanotubos/química , Nanotubos/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Espectrometria por Raios X , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Eletricidade Estática , Difração de Raios X
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2495, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427872

RESUMO

Colloidal crystal engineering with nucleic acid-modified nanoparticles is a powerful way for preparing 3D superlattices, which may be useful in many areas, including catalysis, sensing, and photonics. To date, the building blocks studied have been primarily based upon metals, metal oxides, chalcogenide semiconductors, and proteins. Here, we show that metal-organic framework nanoparticles (MOF NPs) densely functionalized with oligonucleotides can be programmed to crystallize into a diverse set of superlattices with well-defined crystal symmetries and compositions. Electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering characterization confirm the formation of single-component MOF superlattices, binary MOF-Au single crystals, and two-dimensional MOF nanorod assemblies. Importantly, DNA-modified porphyrinic MOF nanorods (PCN-222) were assembled into 2D superlattices and found to be catalytically active for the photooxidation of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES, a chemical warfare simulant of mustard gas). Taken together, these new materials and methods provide access to colloidal crystals that incorporate particles with the well-established designer properties of MOFs and, therefore, increase the scope of possibilities for colloidal crystal engineering with DNA.


Assuntos
Coloides/química , DNA/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Nanopartículas/química , Cristalização , DNA/genética , Engenharia/métodos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão e Varredura/métodos , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Nanotubos/química , Nanotubos/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Prata/química , Difração de Raios X
13.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449715

RESUMO

A biomimetic NM was developed to serve as a tissue-engineering biological scaffold, which can enhance stem cell anchorage. The biomimetic NM is formed from JBNTs and FN through self-assembly in an aqueous solution. JBNTs measure 200-300 µm in length with inner hydrophobic hollow channels and outer hydrophilic surfaces. JBNTs are positively charged and FNs are negatively charged. Therefore, when injected into a neutral aqueous solution, they are bonded together via noncovalent bonding to form the NM bundles. The self-assembly process is completed within a few seconds without any chemical initiators, heat source, or UV light. When the pH of the NM solution is lower than the isoelectric point of FNs (pI 5.5-6.0), the NM bundles will self-release due to the presence of positively charged FN. NM is known to mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) morphologically and hence, can be used as an injectable scaffold, which provides an excellent platform to enhance hMSC adhesion. Cell density analysis and fluorescence imaging experiments indicated that the NMs significantly increased the anchorage of hMSCs compared to the negative control.


Assuntos
Biomimética/métodos , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fibronectinas/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Nanotubos/química , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular/ultraestrutura , Fluorescência , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/ultraestrutura , Nanotubos/ultraestrutura
14.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 2151-2169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32280212

RESUMO

Introduction: In recent years there has been ample interest in nanoscale modifications of synthetic biomaterials to understand fundamental aspects of cell-surface interactions towards improved biological outcomes. In this study, we aimed at closing in on the effects of nanotubular TiO2 surfaces with variable nanotopography on the response on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Although the influence of TiO2 nanotubes on the cellular response, and in particular on hMSC activity, has already been addressed in the past, previous studies overlooked critical morphological, structural and physical aspects that go beyond the simple nanotube diameter, such as spatial statistics. Methods: To bridge this gap, we implemented an extensive characterization of nanotubular surfaces generated by anodization of titanium with a focus on spatial structural variables including eccentricity, nearest neighbour distance (NND) and Voronoi entropy, and associated them to the hMSC response. In addition, we assessed the biological potential of a two-tiered honeycomb nanoarchitecture, which allowed the detection of combinatory effects that this hierarchical structure has on stem cells with respect to conventional nanotubular designs. We have combined experimental techniques, ranging from Scanning Electron (SEM) and Atomic Force (AFM) microscopy to Raman spectroscopy, with computational simulations to characterize and model nanotubular surfaces. We evaluated the cell response at 6 hrs, 1 and 2 days by fluorescence microscopy, as well as bone mineral deposition by Raman spectroscopy, demonstrating substrate-induced differential biological cueing at both the short- and long-term. Results: Our work demonstrates that the nanotube diameter is not sufficient to comprehensively characterize nanotubular surfaces and equally important parameters, such as eccentricity and wall thickness, ought to be included since they all contribute to the overall spatial disorder which, in turn, dictates the overall bioactive potential. We have also demonstrated that nanotubular surfaces affect the quality of bone mineral deposited by differentiated stem cells. Lastly, we closed in on the integrated effects exerted by the superimposition of two dissimilar nanotubular arrays in the honeycomb architecture. Discussion: This work delineates a novel approach for the characterization of TiO2 nanotubes which supports the incorporation of critical spatial structural aspects that have been overlooked in previous research. This is a crucial aspect to interpret cellular behaviour on nanotubular substrates. Consequently, we anticipate that this strategy will contribute to the unification of studies focused on the use of such powerful nanostructured surfaces not only for biomedical applications but also in other technology fields, such as catalysis.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Nanotubos/química , Estatística como Assunto , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Adesões Focais/efeitos dos fármacos , Adesões Focais/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Minerais/análise , Nanotubos/ultraestrutura , Fator de Transcrição Sp7/metabolismo , Propriedades de Superfície , Titânio/química
15.
Chemosphere ; 252: 126586, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229359

RESUMO

Groundwater treatment sludge is an Fe-rich waste continuously generated in large amounts through potable water production at groundwater treatment plants. In this study, the sludge was converted to erdite nanorod particles via a one-step hydrothermal route with only adding Na2S. The sludge was a mixture of ferrihydrite, hematite and Si/Al oxides. After hyddrothemal treatment, erdite was primarily formed from ferrihydrite, which accounted for 91.2% of the Fe species in the sludge, whereas approximately 8.8% of hematite accounted for the Fe species that remained before and after the reaction. The produced erdite nanorods were approximately 200 nm in diameter and 1-3 µm in length. They also exhibited a superior efficiency in peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation. Nearly 100% quinoline removal (initail concentration = 10 mg L-1) was achieved when the eridite nanorods were used with PMS. The removal rate of quinoline was much higher than that of raw sludge, nano-scale zero-valent iron, FeS, hematite and magnetite. The erdite nanorods or the PMS alone had a quinoline removal rate of less than 20%. The erdite nanorods were spontaneously hydrolysed to generate Fe2+ for PMS activation and to form S species for the reductive cycling of Fe3+ to Fe2+, which likely promoted PMS activation. This study not only highlighted a facile method to recycle the sludge for erdite nanorod preparation but also presented a novel nanomaterial that could efficiently activate PMS for organic wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Nanotubos/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Água Potável , Compostos Férricos , Água Subterrânea , Ferro , Peróxidos , Esgotos , Águas Residuárias
16.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 2011-2026, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273699

RESUMO

Introduction: The bone regeneration of endosseous implanted biomaterials is often impaired by the host immune response, especially macrophage-related inflammation which plays an important role in the bone healing process. Thus, it is a promising strategy to design an osteo-immunomodulatory biomaterial to take advantage of the macrophage-related immune response and improve the osseointegration performance of the implant. Methods: In this study, we developed an antibacterial silver nanoparticle-loaded TiO2 nanotubes (Ag@TiO2-NTs) using an electrochemical anodization method to make the surface modification and investigated the influences of Ag@TiO2-NTs on the macrophage polarization, osteo-immune microenvironment as well as its potential molecular mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. Results: The results showed that Ag@TiO2-NTs with controlled releasing of ultra-low-dose Ag+ ions had the excellent ability to induce the macrophage polarization towards the M2 phenotype and create a suitable osteo-immune microenvironment in vitro, via inhibiting PI3K/Akt, suppressing the downstream effector GLUT1, and activating autophagy. Moreover, Ag@TiO2-NTs surface could improve bone formation, suppress inflammation, and promote osteo-immune microenvironment compared to the TiO2-NTs and polished Ti surfaces in vivo. These findings suggested that Ag@TiO2-NTs with controlled releasing of ultra-low-dose Ag+ ions could not only inhibit the inflammation process but also promote the bone healing by inducing healing-associated M2 polarization. Discussion: Using this surface modification strategy to modulate the macrophage-related immune response, rather than prevent the host response, maybe a promising strategy for implant surgeries in the future.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/metabolismo , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Prata/farmacocinética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/genética , Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Camundongos , Nanotubos/química , Osseointegração/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Próteses e Implantes , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Prata/química , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tíbia/cirurgia , Titânio/química , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 2095-2118, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273705

RESUMO

Purpose: Zinc (Zn), an essential trace element in the body, has stable chemical properties, excellent osteogenic ability and moderate immunomodulatory property. In the present study, a Zn-incorporated TiO2 nanotube (TNT) was fabricated on titanium (Ti) implant material. We aimed to evaluate the influence of nano-scale topography and Zn on behaviors of murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. Moreover, the effects of Zn-incorporated TNT surface-regulated macrophages on the behaviors and osteogenic differentiation of murine MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were also investigated. Methods: TNT coatings were firstly fabricated on a pure Ti surface using anodic oxidation, and then nano-scale Zn particles were incorporated onto TNTs by the hydrothermal method. Surface topography, chemical composition, roughness, hydrophilicity, Zn release pattern and protein adsorption ability of the Zn-incorporated TiO2 nanotube surface were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), surface profiler, contact angle test, Zn release test and protein adsorption test. The cell behaviors and both pro-inflammatory (M1) and pro-regenerative (M2) marker gene and protein levels in macrophages cultured on Zn-incorporated TNTs surfaces with different TNT diameters were detected. The supernatants of macrophages were extracted and preserved as conditioned medium (CM). Furthermore, the behaviors and osteogenic properties of osteoblasts cultured in CM on various surfaces were evaluated. Results: The release profile of Zn on Zn-incorporated TNT surfaces revealed a controlled release pattern. Macrophages cultured on Zn-incorporated TNT surfaces displayed enhanced gene and protein expression of M2 markers, and M1 markers were moderately inhibited, compared with the LPS group (the inflammation model). When cultured in CM, osteoblasts cultured on Zn-incorporated TNTs showed strengthened cell proliferation, adhesion, osteogenesis-related gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity and extracellular mineralization, compared with their TNT counterparts and the Ti group. Conclusion: This study suggests that the application of Zn-incorporated TNT surfaces may establish an osteogenic microenvironment and accelerate bone formation. It provided a promising strategy of Ti surface modification for a better applicable prospect.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanotubos , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/farmacocinética , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nanotubos/química , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteogênese/genética , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Células RAW 264.7 , Propriedades de Superfície , Titânio/química , Difração de Raios X , Zinco/química
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248046

RESUMO

The present study is the first report of in-situ growth and application of nanorods-flower like Co3O4 nanosorbent coated on the anodized aluminum substrate for thin film microextraction (TFME) approach. The flower like Co3O4 was successfully fabricated by conversion of Co-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursor to Co3O4 using the simple calcinations process. The cheap and available aluminum foil was electrochemically anodized and used as a porous substrate. Response surface methodology (RSM) was explored for optimization step. Different acidic drugs, including: paracetamol, ibuprofen, aspirin and diclofenac were extracted from biological fluids in order to investigate the capability of the prepared sorbent. The extracted analytes were then analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection were between 0.2 and 1.7 µg L-1 in different selected matrices. The obtained limits of quantification were also calculated to be between 0.8 and 5.1 µg L-1 in the selected matrices. In addition the enrichment factors were also in the range of 105-169. Batch-to-batch reproducibility at 100 µg L-1 concentration level was also evaluated to be lower than 5.2% (n = 3). Finally, the method was successfully used for analysis of these compounds in the biological fluids.


Assuntos
Ácidos/urina , Alumínio/química , Cobalto/química , Nanotubos/química , Óxidos/química , Acetaminofen/urina , Adsorção , Adulto , Aspirina/urina , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Diclofenaco/urina , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Eletrodos , Feminino , Humanos , Hidróxidos/química , Ibuprofeno/urina , Limite de Detecção , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Propriedades de Superfície
19.
Chemosphere ; 253: 126701, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302902

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the impact of a TiO2 nanotube (NT) interlayer on the electrochemical performance and service life of Sb and Bi-doped SnO2-coatings synthesized on a titanium mesh. Ti/SnO2-SbBi electrode was synthetized by a thermal decomposition method using ionic liquid as a precursor solvent. Ti/TiO2-NT/SnO2-SbBi electrode was obtained by a two-step electrochemical anodization, followed by the same process of thermal decomposition. The synthesized electrodes were electrochemically characterized and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Terephthalic acid (TA) experiments showed that Ti/SnO2-SbBi and Ti/TiO2-NT/SnO2-SbBi electrodes formed somewhat higher amounts of hydroxyl radicals (HO) compared with the mesh boron doped diamond (BDD) anode. Electrochemical oxidation experiments were performed using iodinated contrast media (ICM) as model organic contaminants persistent to oxidation. At current density of 50 A m-2, BDD clearly outperformed the synthesized mixed metal oxide (MMO) electrodes, with 2 to 3-fold higher oxidation rates observed for ICM. However, at 100 and 150 A m-2, Ti/SnO2-SbBi had similar performance to BDD, whereas Ti/TiO2-NT/SnO2-SbBi yielded even higher oxidation rates. Disappearance of the target ICM was followed by up to 80% removal of adsorbable organic iodide (AOI) for all three materials, further demonstrating iodine cleavage and thus oxidative degradation of ICM mediated by HO. The presence of a TiO2 NT interlayer yielded nearly 4-fold increase in anode stability and dislocated the oxygen evolution reaction by +0.2 V. Thus, TiO2 NT interlayer enhanced electrode stability and service life, and the electrocatalytic activity for the degradation of persistent organic contaminants.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Boro/química , Diamante/química , Eletrodos , Nanotubos/química , Oxirredução , Óxidos/química , Titânio/química
20.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 1837-1851, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32256063

RESUMO

Introduction: Gold nanorods are highly reactive, have a large surface-to-volume ratio, and can be functionalized with biomolecules. Gold nanorods can absorb infrared electromagnetic radiation, which is subsequently dispersed as local heat. Gold nanoparticles can be used as powerful tools for the diagnosis and therapy of different diseases. To improve the biological barrier permeation of nanoparticles with low cytotoxicity, in this study, we conjugated gold nanorods with cell-penetrating peptides (oligoarginines) and with the amphipathic peptide CLPFFD. Methods: We studied the interaction of the functionalized gold nanorods with biological membrane models (liposomes) by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and the Langmuir balance. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects on cell viability and permeability with an MTS assay and TEM. Results and Discussion: The interaction study by DLS, the Langmuir balance and cryo-TEM support that GNR-Arg7CLPFFD enhances the interactions between GNRs and biological membranes. In addition, cells treated with GNR-Arg7CLPFFD internalized 80% more nanoparticles than cells treated with GNR alone and did not induce cell damage. Conclusion: Our results indicate that incorporation of an amphipathic sequence into oligoarginines for the functionalization of gold nanorods enhances biological membrane nanoparticle interactions and nanoparticle cell permeability with respect to nanorods functionalized with oligoarginine. Overall, functionalized gold nanorods with amphipathic arginine rich peptides might be candidates for improving drug delivery by facilitating biological barrier permeation.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Penetradores de Células/química , Lipossomos/farmacocinética , Nanotubos/química , Arginina/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Peptídeos Penetradores de Células/farmacocinética , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Ouro/química , Humanos , Lipossomos/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Peptídeos/química
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