Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 243
Filtrar
1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD007235, 2019 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measurement of cervical length by ultrasound is predictive of preterm birth (PTB). There are three methods of ultrasound cervical assessment: transvaginal (TVU), transabdominal (TAU), and transperineal (TPU, also called translabial). Cervical length measured by TVU is a relatively new screening test, and has been associated with better prediction of PTB than previously available tests. It is unclear if cervical length measured by ultrasound is effective for preventing PTB. This is an update of a review last published in 2013. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of antenatal management based on transvaginal, transabdominal, and transperineal (also called translabial) ultrasound screening of cervical length for preventing preterm birth. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, we searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) to 30 August 2018; reviewed the reference lists of all articles, and contacted experts in the field for additional and ongoing trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included published and unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCT) including pregnant women between the gestational ages of 14 to 32 weeks, for whom the cervical length was screened for risk of PTB with TVU, TAU, or TPU. This review focused on studies based on knowledge versus no knowledge of cervical length results, or ultrasound versus no ultrasound for cervical length. We excluded studies based on interventions (e.g. progesterone, cerclage) for short cervical length. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed standard Cochrane methods. MAIN RESULTS: We included seven RCTs (N = 923): one examined asymptomatic women with twin pregnancies; four included women with singleton pregnancies and symptoms of preterm labour (PTL); one included women with singleton pregnancies and symptoms of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM); and one included asymptomatic singletons. All trials used TVU for screening.We assessed the risk of bias of the included studies as mixed, and the quality of the evidence for primary outcomes as very low for all populations.For asymptomatic women with twin pregnancies, it is uncertain whether knowledge of TVU-measured cervical length compared to no knowledge reduces PTB at less than 34 weeks (risk ratio (RR) 0.62, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.30 to 1.25; 1 study, 125 participants) because the quality of the evidence is very low. The results were also inconclusive for preterm birth at 36, 32, or 30 weeks; gestational age at birth, and other maternal and perinatal outcomes.Four trials examined knowledge of TVU-measured cervical length of singletons with symptoms of PTL versus no knowledge. We are uncertain of the effects because of inconclusive results and very low-quality evidence for: preterm births at less than 37 weeks (average RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.26 to 1.32; 2 studies, 242 participants; I² = 66%; Tau² = 0.23). Birth occurred about four days later in the knowledge groups (mean difference (MD) 0.64 weeks, 95% CI 0.03 to 1.25; 3 trials, 290 women). The results were inconclusive for the other outcomes for which there were available data: PTB at less than 34 or 28 weeks; birthweight less than 2500 g; perinatal death; maternal hospitalisation; tocolysis; and steroids for fetal lung maturity.The trial of singletons with PPROM (N = 92) evaluated safety of using TVU to measure cervical length in this population as its primary outcome, not its effect on management. The results were inconclusive for incidence of maternal and neonatal infections between the TVU and no ultrasound groups.In the trial of asymptomatic singletons (N = 296), in which women either received TVU or not, the results were inconclusive for preterm birth at less than 37 weeks (RR 1.27, 95% CI 0.61 to 2.61; I² = 0%), gestational age at birth, and other perinatal and maternal outcomes.We downgraded evidence for limitations in study design, inconsistency between the trials, and imprecision, due to small sample size and wide confidence intervals crossing the line of no effect.No trial compared the effect of knowledge of the CL with no knowledge of CL in other populations, such as asymptomatic women with singleton pregnancies, or symptomatic women with twin pregnancies. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There are limited data on the effects of knowing the cervical length, measured by ultrasound, for preventing preterm births, which preclude us from drawing any conclusions for women with asymptomatic twin or singleton pregnancies, singleton pregnancies with PPROM, or other populations and clinical scenarios.Limited evidence suggests that knowledge of transvaginal ultrasound-measured cervical length, used to inform the management of women with singleton pregnancies and symptoms of preterm labour, appears to prolong pregnancy by about four days over women in the no knowledge groups.Future studies could look at specific populations separately (e.g. singleton versus twins; symptoms versus no symptoms of PTL), report on all pertinent maternal and perinatal outcomes, and include cost-effectiveness analyses. Most importantly, future studies should include a clear protocol for management of women based on TVU-measured cervical length.


Assuntos
Medida do Comprimento Cervical/métodos , Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Gravidez Múltipla , Gravidez de Gêmeos , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico por imagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
2.
Trials ; 20(1): 271, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High rates of preterm births remain a UK public health concern. Preterm birth is a major determinant of adverse infant and longer-term outcomes, including survival, quality of life, psychosocial effects on the family and health care costs. We aim to test whether a model of care combining continuity of midwife care with rapid referral to a specialist obstetric clinic throughout pregnancy, intrapartum and the postpartum period is feasible and improves experience and outcomes for women at increased risk of preterm birth. METHODS: This pilot, hybrid, type 2 randomised controlled implementation trial will recruit 350 pregnant women at increased risk of preterm birth to a midwifery continuity of care intervention or standard care. The intervention will be provided from recruitment (antenatal), labour, birth and the postnatal period, in hospital and community settings and in collaboration with specialist obstetric clinic care, when required. Standard care will be the current maternity care provision by NHS midwives and obstetricians at the study site. Participants will be followed up until 6-8 weeks postpartum. The composite primary outcome is the appropriate initiation of any specified interventions related to the prevention and/or management of preterm labour and birth. Secondary outcomes are related to: recruitment and attrition rates; implementation; acceptability to women, health care professionals and stakeholders; health in pregnancy and other complications; intrapartum outcomes; maternal and neonatal postnatal outcomes; psycho-social health; quality of care; women's experiences and health economic analysis. The trial has 80% power to detect a 15% increase in the rate of appropriate interventions (40 to 55%). The analysis will be by 'intention to treat' analysis. DISCUSSION: Little is known about the underlying reasons why and how models of midwifery continuity of care are associated with fewer preterm births, better maternal and infant outcomes and more positive experiences; nor how these models of care can be implemented successfully in the health services. This will be the first study to provide direct evidence regarding the effectiveness, implementation and evaluation of a midwifery continuity of care model and rapid access to specialist obstetric services for women at increased risk of preterm birth. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN37733900 . Retrospectively registered on 21 August 2017.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Tocologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Londres , Medição da Translucência Nucal , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico por imagem , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am ; 46(2): 367-378, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056137

RESUMO

Diagnostic ultrasound is a powerful tool in obstetrics/gynecology. It has multiple applications, but for every use there are potential pitfalls that can have significant deleterious effects. Guidelines and certifications have been implemented to enhance the safety of this technique.


Assuntos
Ginecologia/métodos , Obstetrícia/métodos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Ultrassonografia , Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Doenças Fetais/diagnóstico por imagem , Feto/anormalidades , Feto/diagnóstico por imagem , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Erros Médicos , Placenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico por imagem , Gravidez Múltipla , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(3): e00098918, 2019 04 08.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970098

RESUMO

The prevalence of preterm births has shown a growing trend in many countries, including developed ones. Studies in Brazil have shown that the Information System on Live Births (SINASC, in Portuguese), until 2010, underestimated the prevalence of preterm births, when compared with studies based on primary data. Starting in 2011, gestational age at birth has been calculated in SINASC according to the last menstrual period (LMP), when available. This study sought to evaluate the accuracy of the gestational age assessment using LMP, compared with two other estimates, and correlate it with birth weight. This is a population study with data from SINASC available from Brazilian Health Informatics Department between 2011 and 2015. Definitions of preterm birth, low birth weight and birth asphyxia were taken from the literature. Adequacy of birth weigh to gestational age was calculated based on Fenton and Intergrowth-21 curves. We compared weight means according to the presence or lack of preterm birth. gestational age assessment was based on LMP in 58.5% and 41.5% used another method. We found that the preterm proportion was 12% in the LMP group and 8.4% in the other method group, while low birth weight was 6.5% and 8.4%, respectively. Mean weight of preterm infants was higher in the LMP group. Use of LMP as a gestational age estimator overestimated the proportion of weight equal to or higher than 2,500g among preterm infants, which does not seem compatible with the expected distribution for this group. LMP favored "correction" of prematurity for the parameters that are comparable to those of primary data studies, though the distortions we found between gestational age and birth weigh may indicate that there are still problems with this estimator.


Assuntos
Idade Gestacional , Sistemas de Informação/estatística & dados numéricos , Nascimento Vivo/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Declaração de Nascimento , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico por imagem , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
5.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 22(2): 120-123, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023394

RESUMO

Planning for the preterm birth of a fetus with known anomalies can raise complex ethical issues. This is particularly true of multiple pregnancies, where the interests of each fetus and of the expectant parent(s) can conflict. In these complex situations, parental wishes and values can also conflict with the recommendations of treating clinicians. In this article, we consider the case of a dichorionic twin pregnancy complicated by the diagnosis of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM) in one of the twins at 28 weeks' gestation. Subsequent deterioration of the affected twin prompted the parents to request preterm delivery to prevent the imminent in-utero demise of the affected twin. However, given the associated risks of prematurity, complying with the parents' request may have disadvantaged the health and wellbeing of the unaffected twin. This article canvases the complex ethical issues raised when parents request preterm delivery of a multiple pregnancy complicated by a fetal anomaly in one twin, and the various ethical tools and frameworks that clinicians can draw on to guide their decision-making in such cases.


Assuntos
Doenças em Gêmeos/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Gravidez de Gêmeos/fisiologia , Malformações da Veia de Galeno/diagnóstico , Doenças em Gêmeos/epidemiologia , Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Doenças em Gêmeos/patologia , Feminino , Feto/diagnóstico por imagem , Feto/patologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações na Gravidez/genética , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Gravidez Múltipla/fisiologia , Gravidez de Gêmeos/genética , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico por imagem , Nascimento Prematuro/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Malformações da Veia de Galeno/diagnóstico por imagem , Malformações da Veia de Galeno/genética , Malformações da Veia de Galeno/fisiopatologia
6.
J Med Ultrason (2001) ; 46(2): 201-207, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30506488

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A prospective assessment of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (sPTD) by evaluating temporal changes in cervical measurements. METHODS: We analyzed clinical variables, focusing on cervical length (CL) and lower uterine segment (LUS) length (LUSL) as measured by transvaginal ultrasonography in 727 pregnant Japanese women. RESULTS: In women undergoing term deliveries, CL increased from gestational week (GW) 8-25. In contrast, the combination of CL and LUSL (ComL for "combined length") gradually decreased and sole LUSL became almost 0 mm by GW 25. Univariate logistic regression analysis suggested that a history of PTD was a risk factor for sPTD. CL, LUSL, and ComL were not significant predictors of sPTD. CONCLUSION: To assess the risk of sPTD in the second trimester, it is not necessary to distinguish the cervix from the LUS.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro/patologia , Adulto , Medida do Comprimento Cervical , Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Idade Materna , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Útero/diagnóstico por imagem
7.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 24(9): 933-937, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350455

RESUMO

AIM: Indigenous Australians have an increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD). Indigenous women have a higher rate of CKD than men. In a cohort of Indigenous and non-Indigenous preterm neonates, we assessed total renal volume (TRV) (a proxy indicator for nephron number). We hypothesized that there would be no difference in renal volume between these two groups at term corrected (37 weeks gestation). METHODS: Normally grown preterm neonates less than 32 weeks of gestation were recruited and at term corrected dates, the neonates underwent renal ultrasonography (TRV measurements), urine microalbumin-creatinine ratio and serum analysis for Cystatin C measurement for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculation. RESULTS: One hundred and five neonates (38 Indigenous; 67 non-Indigenous) were recruited. Indigenous neonates were significantly more premature and of lower birth weight. At term corrected age, Indigenous neonates had a significantly smaller TRV (18.5 (4.2) vs 21.4 (5.1) cm3 ; P = 0.027) despite no significant difference in body weight. Despite having a smaller TRV, there was no significant difference in eGFR between Indigenous and Non-indigenous neonates (47.8 [43.2-50.4] vs 46.2 [42.6-53.3] ml/min per 1.73 m2 ; P = 0.986). These infants achieve similar eGFR through hyperfiltration, which likely increases their future risk of CKD. There was no difference in microalbumin-creatinine ratio. Female Indigenous neonates, however, had significantly smaller TRV compared with Indigenous male neonates (15.9 (3.6) vs 20.6 (3.6) cm3 ; P = 0.006), despite no difference in eGFR, birth weight, gestational age, and weight at term corrected. CONCLUSION: The difference in TRV is likely to be an important risk factor for the difference in morbidity and mortality from renal disease reported between male and female Indigenous adults.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Falência Renal Crônica/etnologia , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico por imagem , Nascimento Prematuro/etnologia , Ultrassonografia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Rim/fisiopatologia , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Nascimento Prematuro/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Queensland/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
8.
Semin Fetal Neonatal Med ; 24(1): 60-65, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30342897

RESUMO

With increasing evidence of neurodevelopmental problems faced by late preterm children, there is a need to explore possible underlying brain structural changes. The use of brain magnetic resonance imaging has provided insights of smaller and less mature brains in infants born late preterm, associated with developmental delay at 2 years. Another useful tool in the newborn period is neurobehavioural assessment, which has also been shown to be suboptimal in late preterm infants compared with tern infants. Suboptimal neurobehaviour is also associated with poorer 2-year neurodevelopment in late preterm infants. More research into these tools will provide a better understanding of the underlying processes of developmental deficits of late preterm children. The value of their role in clinical care remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Comportamento do Lactente/fisiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroimagem
9.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol ; 53(3): 396-401, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29536576

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and results of introducing a policy of universal screening for preterm delivery (PTD) by mid-trimester cervical-length (CL) measurement. METHODS: In this retrospective cross-sectional study of singleton pregnancies, transvaginal sonography for CL measurement was performed at 20-24 weeks of gestation. Vaginal progesterone therapy was offered to women with CL ≤ 15 mm. The incidence of spontaneous PTD (sPTD) according to CL and the distribution of CL measurements were assessed. Rate of PTD before implementation of screening was compared with that after. RESULTS: A total of 10 506 singleton pregnancies were assessed. The decline rate was 1.32%. sPTD < 32 weeks, < 34 weeks and < 37 weeks occurred in 0.51%, 0.82% and 3.90% of pregnancies, respectively. CL measurement was best described by a mixture model distribution comprising a 'short' and a 'long' component. The percentage of the two components varied between subgroups of PTD, with the short component being greater the earlier the birth. CL, history of miscarriage, smoking status and prior PTD were independent predictors in the construction of a model predictive of PTD < 34 weeks (area under the curve = 0.74, P < 0.001). The rate of sPTD < 34 weeks in women with CL ≤ 15 mm receiving progesterone treatment was 20.4%. In the progesterone-treated group, a plateau was observed in the increase in risk for PTD for CL 9-13 mm, whereas below 9 mm the risk increased exponentially. Following the introduction of mid-trimester CL measurement, there was a trend for reduction in the rate of any PTD < 34 weeks of about 20% in comparison with the prescreening period (odds ratio = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.59-1.13). CONCLUSIONS: Universal screening for PTD by transvaginal sonographic measurement of CL at 20-24 weeks is feasible and well accepted by pregnant women. This policy identifies a very high-risk group that may benefit from intervention. Copyright © 2018 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Assuntos
Medida do Comprimento Cervical/instrumentação , Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Administração Intravaginal , Adolescente , Adulto , Medida do Comprimento Cervical/métodos , Colo do Útero/anatomia & histologia , Estudos Transversais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Progesterona/uso terapêutico , Progestinas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(3): e00098918, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001638

RESUMO

Resumo: A prevalência de nascimento pré-termo tem apresentado uma tendência crescente em vários países, inclusive naqueles desenvolvidos. Estudos no Brasil relatam que o Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC), até 2010, subestimava a prevalência de nascimentos pré-termo, quando comparada aos estudos baseados em dados primários. A partir de 2011, a idade gestacional ao nascer no SINASC tem sido calculada, quando disponível, pela data da última menstruação (DUM). O objetivo foi avaliar a acurácia da determinação da idade gestacional gerada pela DUM, comparando com a de outros estimadores, e correlacioná-la com o peso ao nascer. Estudo de base populacional com dados do SINASC disponíveis no Departamento de Informática do SUS entre 2011 e 2015. As definições de prematuridade, baixo peso e asfixia ao nascer foram aquelas determinadas na literatura. A adequação do peso ao nascer com a idade gestacional foi calculada baseando-se nas curvas de Fenton e Intergrowth-21. Compararam-se as médias de peso pela presença ou não de prematuridade. A estimação da idade gestacional foi realizada pela DUM em 58,5%, e 41,5% utilizaram outro método. Encontrou-se que a proporção de prematuridade foi de 12% no grupo DUM e 8,4% no grupo outro método, já o baixo peso ao nascer foi de 6,5% e 8,4%, respectivamente. A média de peso dos prematuros no grupo DUM foi maior. O uso da DUM como estimador da idade gestacional superestimou a proporção de peso maior ou igual a 2.500g nos prematuros, o que não parece compatível com a distribuição esperada para esta faixa. A DUM favoreceu a "correção" da prematuridade para os parâmetros comparáveis aos de estudos com dados primários, embora as distorções encontradas entre idade gestacional e peso ao nascer possam indicar que ainda existem problemas com este estimador.


Abstract: The prevalence of preterm births has shown a growing trend in many countries, including developed ones. Studies in Brazil have shown that the Information System on Live Births (SINASC, in Portuguese), until 2010, underestimated the prevalence of preterm births, when compared with studies based on primary data. Starting in 2011, gestational age at birth has been calculated in SINASC according to the last menstrual period (LMP), when available. This study sought to evaluate the accuracy of the gestational age assessment using LMP, compared with two other estimates, and correlate it with birth weight. This is a population study with data from SINASC available from Brazilian Health Informatics Department between 2011 and 2015. Definitions of preterm birth, low birth weight and birth asphyxia were taken from the literature. Adequacy of birth weigh to gestational age was calculated based on Fenton and Intergrowth-21 curves. We compared weight means according to the presence or lack of preterm birth. gestational age assessment was based on LMP in 58.5% and 41.5% used another method. We found that the preterm proportion was 12% in the LMP group and 8.4% in the other method group, while low birth weight was 6.5% and 8.4%, respectively. Mean weight of preterm infants was higher in the LMP group. Use of LMP as a gestational age estimator overestimated the proportion of weight equal to or higher than 2,500g among preterm infants, which does not seem compatible with the expected distribution for this group. LMP favored "correction" of prematurity for the parameters that are comparable to those of primary data studies, though the distortions we found between gestational age and birth weigh may indicate that there are still problems with this estimator.


Resumen: La prevalencia de nacimiento pretérmino está presentando una tendencia creciente en varios países, incluso en los desarrollados. Estudios en Brasil reflejan que el Sistema de Información sobre Nacidos Vivos (SINASC), hasta 2010, subestimaba la prevalencia de nacimientos pretérmino, cuando se compara con los estudios basados en datos primarios. A partir de 2011, la edad gestacional al nacer ha sido calculada en el SINASC, cuando se encontraba disponible, mediante la fecha de la última menstruación (DUM). El objetivo fue evaluar la precisión en la determinación de la edad gestacional generada por los DUM, comparándola con la de otros estimadores, y correlacionándola con el peso al nacer. Se trata de un estudio de base poblacional con datos del SINASC, disponibles en el Departamiento de Informática del Sistema Único de Salud entre 2011 y 2015. Las definiciones de prematuridad, bajo peso y asfixia al nacer fueron aquellas determinadas en la literatura. La adecuación del peso al nacer con la edad gestacional se calculó basándose en las curvas de Fenton e Intergrowth-21. Se compararon las medias de peso por la presencia o no de prematuridad. La estimación de la edade gestacional se realizó mediante DUM en un 58,5%, y un 41,5% utilizaron otro método. Se descubrió que la proporción de prematuridad fue de un 12% en el grupo DUM y un 8,4% en el grupo otro método, ya que el bajo peso al nacer fue un 6,5% y 8,4%, respectivamente. La media de peso de los prematuros en el grupo DUM fue mayor. El uso de la DUM, como estimador de la edad gestacional, sobreestimó la proporción de peso mayor o igual a 2.500g en los prematuros, lo que no parece compatible con la distribución esperada para esta franja. La DUM favoreció la "corrección" de la prematuridad en relación con los parámetros comparables a los de estudios con datos primarios, a pesar de que las distorsiones encontradas entre edad gestacional y peso al nacer puedan indicar que todavía existen problemas con este estimador.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Sistemas de Informação/estatística & dados numéricos , Idade Gestacional , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Vivo/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Declaração de Nascimento , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
J Pregnancy ; 2018: 8367571, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405914

RESUMO

There is not a single or combined screening method for preterm birth with high sensitivity which will truly identify the women at risk for preterm birth while also with high specificity to prevent unnecessary interventions and high treatment costs. Measurement of cervical length is the most cost-effective method that is used in clinical practice. Bedside tests have also been developed for detecting markers like fetal fibronectin, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), interleukin-6, and placental alpha-macroglobulin-1. Taking the maternal history, health condition, and sociodemographical factors into consideration is recommended. Ultrasound markers apart from cervical length measurements as uterocervical angle and placental strain ratio are studied. Investigations on metabolomics, proteomics, and microRNA profiling have brought a new aspect on this subject. Maybe in the future, with clear identification of women at true risk for preterm birth, development of more effective preventive strategies will not be unfeasible.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Medida do Comprimento Cervical , Feminino , Fibronectinas/sangue , Humanos , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Metabolômica , MicroRNAs , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico por imagem , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Proteômica , Ultrassonografia , alfa-Macroglobulinas
12.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 229: 57-63, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107361

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the mean transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) cervical length (CL) at midtrimester screening for spontaneous preterm birth in asymptomatic monochorionic diamniotic versus dichorionic diamniotic twin pregnancies STUDY DESIGN: This was a multicenter retrospective cohort study. Study subjects were identified at the time of a routine second trimester fetal ultrasound exam at 18 0/7-23 6/7 weeks gestation. We excluded women that received progesterone, pessary, or cerclage. Distribution of CL was determined and normality was examined. Mean of TVU CL were compared between monochorionic diamniotic and dichorionic diamniotic pregnancies. The relationship of TVU CL with gestational age (GA) at delivery and incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) at different TVU CL cut offs were assessed. Incidence of short TVU CL, defined as TVU CL ≤30 mm, was also calculated in the two groups. RESULTS: 580 women with diamniotic twin pregnancies underwent TVU CL screening between 18 0/6 and 23 6/7 weeks. 175 (30.2%) were monochorionic diamniotic pregnancies, and 405 (69.8%) were dichorionic pregnancies. The demographic characteristics were similar on both groups. The mean GA at TVU CL was about 20 week in both groups. The mean TVU CL was significantly lower in the monochorionic diamniotic (32.8 ± 10.1) compared to the dichorionic (34.9 ± 8.6) group (MD -2.10 mm, 95% CI -3.91 to -0.29). TVU CL ≤30 mm was 16.6% (29/175) in the monochorionic group, and 11.9% (48/405) in the dichorionic group (aOR 1.48, 95% CI 1.03-2.43). Twins with a monochorionic diamniotic pregnancy had a significantly higher incidence of SPTB (53.1% vs 44.9%; aOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.22-1.79). For any given CL measured between 18 0-7 and 23 6/7 weeks, gestational age at delivery for monochorionic diamniotic pregnancies was about 2 weeks earlier compared to dichorionic pregnancies (MD -2.1 weeks; ANCOVA P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancies had a higher rate of spontaneous preterm birth than dichorionic diamniotic pregnancies. The higher rate of spontaneous preterm delivery in monochorionic pregnancies is associated with lower midtrimester TVU CL when compared to dichorionic pregnancies.


Assuntos
Medida do Comprimento Cervical , Gravidez de Gêmeos , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Gêmeos Monozigóticos
13.
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep ; 18(8): 48, 2018 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907917

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Preterm birth is the leading cause of death worldwide in children < 5 years of age; however, technology and advances in medical knowledge are increasing the survival of children born even at the fringes of viability. With increased survival comes increased risk of long-term neurologic impairments. This paper aims to review recent findings related to changes in brain development associated with prematurity and its impact on neurodevelopmental disabilities. RECENT FINDINGS: Advanced imaging techniques, longitudinal follow-up of individuals born extremely preterm into adulthood and improved understanding of risk factors associated with neurologic impairment contribute to recent discoveries. Sensory impairments are often associated with later cognitive and social impairments and therefore represent targets for therapy. All aspects of neurologic development can be affected by preterm delivery. Future research is needed to further elucidate targets for prenatal and postnatal interventions for neuroprotection and to improve outcomes of prematurity.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/psicologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/fisiopatologia , Nascimento Prematuro/psicologia , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Perinat Med ; 46(5): 489-501, 2018 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29813033

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a soft cervix identified by shear-wave elastography between 18 and 24 weeks of gestation is associated with increased frequency of spontaneous preterm delivery (sPTD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 628 consecutive women with a singleton pregnancy. Cervical length (mm) and softness [shear-wave speed: (SWS) meters per second (m/s)] of the internal cervical os were measured at 18-24 weeks of gestation. Frequency of sPTD <37 (sPTD<37) and <34 (sPTD<34) weeks of gestation was compared among women with and without a short (≤25 mm) and/or a soft cervix (SWS <25th percentile). RESULTS: There were 31/628 (4.9%) sPTD<37 and 12/628 (1.9%) sPTD<34 deliveries. The combination of a soft and a short cervix increased the risk of sPTD<37 by 18-fold [relative risk (RR) 18.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.7-43.9); P<0.0001] and the risk of sPTD<34 by 120-fold [RR 120.0 (95% CI 12.3-1009.9); P<0.0001] compared to women with normal cervical length. A soft-only cervix increased the risk of sPTD<37 by 4.5-fold [RR 4.5 (95% CI 2.1-9.8); P=0.0002] and of sPTD<34 by 21-fold [RR 21.0 (95% CI 2.6-169.3); P=0.0003] compared to a non-soft cervix. CONCLUSIONS: A soft cervix at 18-24 weeks of gestation increases the risk of sPTD <37 and <34 weeks of gestation independently of cervical length.


Assuntos
Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Medida do Comprimento Cervical , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Michigan/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico por imagem , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Ultrasound Med ; 37(12): 2873-2879, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29663469

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a novel, noninvasive quantitative ultrasound (US) technique can detect differences in proximal and distal cervical tissue echogenicity in women with and without a shortened cervical length (CL). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case-control study of singleton pregnancies at 16 to 26 weeks' gestation in which a transvaginal US examination was performed to measure CL from 2013 to 2015. Initial CLs in cases and controls were less than 2.5 cm and 2.5 cm or greater, respectively. For each US image, a region of interest was selected in the proximal and distal cervical stroma, in both the anterior and posterior cervical lips. The Floyd-Steinberg dithering algorithm transformed grayscale pixels in each region of interest into a binary map. A histogram tabulated the number of black and white pixels, allowing determination of the percent echogenicity. The difference in the percent echogenicity was calculated by subtracting the distal cervical echogenicity (average of anterior and posterior lips) from the proximal cervical echogenicity (average of anterior and posterior lips). RESULTS: Ultrasound images from 177 women were analyzed. There was a difference in the percent echogenicity (P < .0001) when comparing women with a short cervix (mean ± SD, 9.8 ± 10.1; n = 102) to women with a normal CL (17.2 ± 9.5; n = 75). Differences were attributable to changes in proximal (P < .008) rather than distal cervical echogenicity. Regardless of CL, the proximal cervix was more echogenic than the distal cervix. CONCLUSIONS: A quantitative US analysis of cervical tissue can detect differences in echogenicity between the proximal and distal cervix in the second trimester. Proximal cervical echogenicity is lower with CL of less than 2.5 cm compared to a normal CL.


Assuntos
Medida do Comprimento Cervical/métodos , Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Int J Cardiol ; 258: 172-178, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29544927

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prognosis of pregnancy in patients with Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D) is poorly documented. The aim of this study is to assess the cardiac risks during pregnancy and the impact of ARVC/D on fetuses/neonates/children. METHODS: We included all ARVC/D women with a history of pregnancy from the ARVC/D Pitié-Salpêtrière registry. Cardiac and obstetrical events having occurred during pregnancy/delivery/post-partum periods and neonatal data/follow-up were collected. RESULTS: Sixty pregnancies in twenty-three patients were identified between 1968 and 2016. Only two major non-fatal cardiac events (one sustained non-documented tachycardia and one ventricular tachycardia) were recorded during pregnancy in two different mothers (3% of pregnancies, 9% of mothers). None occurred during delivery or in the postpartum period. No mother developed heart failure. Beta-blocker therapy during pregnancy (n=15) was associated with lower birthweight (2730 vs 3400g, p=0.004). Only two preterm deliveries occurred, unrelated to cardiac condition. Caesarean section was performed in 13% of cases. Premature sudden-death occurred in 10% (n=5) of children before 25years-old including two in the first year of life. CONCLUSION: ARVC/D is associated with a low rate of major cardiac events during pregnancy and vaginal delivery appears safe. The risk of sustained ventricular arrhythmia seems poorly predictable and supports the continuation of beta-blockers during pregnancy. Major cardiac events were frequent in childhood, justifying close cardiac monitoring.


Assuntos
Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/epidemiologia , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/diagnóstico por imagem , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/prevenção & controle , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico por imagem , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0193666, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29554145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is the leading cause of death among children <5 years of age. Accurate determination of prematurity is necessary to provide appropriate neonatal care and guide preventive measures. To estimate the most accurate method to identify infants at risk for adverse outcomes, we assessed the validity of two widely available methods-last menstrual period (LMP) and the New Ballard (NB) neonatal assessment-against ultrasound in determining gestational age and preterm birth in highland Guatemala. METHODS: Pregnant women (n = 188) were recruited with a gestational age <20 weeks and followed until delivery. Ultrasound was performed by trained physicians and LMP was collected during recruitment. NB was performed on infants within 96 hours of birth by trained study nurses. LMP and NB accuracy at determining gestational age and identifying prematurity was assessed by comparing them to ultrasound. RESULTS: By ultrasound, infant mean gestational age at birth was 38.3 weeks (SD = 1.6) with 16% born at less than 37 gestation. LMP was more accurate than NB (mean difference of +0.13 weeks for LMP and +0.61 weeks for NB). However, LMP and NB estimates had low agreement with ultrasound-determined gestational age (Lin's concordance<0.48 for both methods) and preterm birth (κ<0.29 for both methods). By LMP, 18% were judged premature compared with 6% by NB. LMP underestimated gestational age among women presenting later to prenatal care (0.18 weeks for each additional week). Gestational age for preterm infants was overestimated by nearly one week using LMP and nearly two weeks using NB. New Ballard neuromuscular measurements were more predictive of preterm birth than those measuring physical criteria. CONCLUSION: In an indigenous population in highland Guatemala, LMP overestimated prematurity by 2% and NB underestimated prematurity by 10% compared with ultrasound estimates. New, simple and accurate methods are needed to identify preterm birth in resource-limited settings worldwide.


Assuntos
Idade Gestacional , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Am J Perinatol ; 35(7): 648-654, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29190844

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Twin pregnancies are associated with an increased risk of spontaneous preterm birth. Our objective was to compare the performance of uterocervical angle to cervical length as predictors of spontaneous preterm birth in this population. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of twin gestations at a single center from May 2008 to 2016 who received a transvaginal ultrasound for the evaluation of the cervix between 16 0/7 and 23 0/7 weeks. The primary outcome was prediction of preterm birth <28 and <32 weeks by uterocervical angle and cervical length. RESULTS: Among 259 women with twin gestation, the mean gestational age at birth was 34.83 ± 3.48 weeks. Receiver operator characteristic curves demonstrated optimal prediction of spontaneous preterm birth prior to 32 weeks at a uterocervical angle >110° (80% sensitivity, 82% specificity) [odds ratio (OR), 15.7 (95% confidence interval (CI), 7.2-34.4)] versus cervical length <20 mm (53% sensitivity, 85% specificity; p < 0.001, OR, 6.4 [95% CI, 2.3-17.8]) and similarly, prior to 28 weeks at a uterocervical angle >114° (OR, 24.3 [95% CI, 6.7-88.5]) compared with cervical length <20 mm (OR, 11.4 [95% CI, 3.5-36.7]). CONCLUSION: Uterocervical angles >110° performed better than cervical length for the prediction of spontaneous preterm birth in twin gestations.


Assuntos
Medida do Comprimento Cervical , Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Gravidez de Gêmeos , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 31(14): 1881-1884, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28514880

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to determine whether the uterocervical angle (UCA) correlates with the risk of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) < 34 weeks and assess its interobserver variability. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study of 275 women including 34 who started labor spontaneously and gave birth before 34 weeks of gestation (preterm group) and 241 who gave birth at term (control group). Images used to report cervical length were re-measured for UCA. RESULTS: Mean UCA in the second trimester was wider in the preterm group (105.16°) compared with the control group (94.53°), p = .015. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.821 (95% CI: 0.74-0.97) for masked interobserver variability, which implies correct agreement among UCA measurements. Mean UCA increased from the first to the second trimester (84.2° versus 94.5°; p = .019). CONCLUSIONS: Wider UCA in the second trimester is related to sPTB. UCA measurement is a reproducible technique. UCA appears to increase from the first to the second trimester. Prospective studies, with ultrasound examinations aimed at measuring UCA in vivo, are needed to accurately assess the characteristics of this marker and its potential as a predictor of sPTB in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 31(2): 135-140, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28064548

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of our study is to determine prevalence and clinical significance of the presence of amniotic fluid "sludge" among asymptomatic patients at high-risk for spontaneous preterm delivery, prospectively. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In our study, 99 patients at high risk for spontaneous preterm delivery were evaluated for the presence of amniotic fluid sludge with transvaginal ultrasonography at 20-22, 26-28, and 32-34 gestational weeks, prospectively; between August 2009 and October 2010 in Hacettepe University Hospital. And, these patients were followed up for their delivery weeks and pregnancy outcomes. We defined the high-risk group as the patients possessing one or more of the followings; a history of spontaneous preterm delivery, recent urinary tract infections, polyhydramnios, uterine leiomyomas, müllerian duct anomalies, and history of cone biyopsy or LEEP. Patients with multiple gestations, placenta previa, fetal anomalies, or symptoms of preterm labor at first examination were excluded. We have obtained ethical board approval from Hacettepe University (16.07.2009-HEK/No:09-141-59). RESULTS: The prevalence of amniotic fluid sludge in the study population was 19,6% (18/92). The rates of spontaneous preterm delivery at <37 weeks of gestation were 66,7% (12/18), within the patients with sludge and 27,0% (20/74) within the patients without sludge. Patients with sludge had a higher rate of spontaneous preterm delivery (p = 0.002). A higher proportion of neonates born to patients with amniotic fluid sludge had a neonatal morbidity (50% (9/18) vs. 24,3% (18/74), p = 0.044) and died in the perinatal period, (p = 0,013) than those born to patients without sludge. When we combined sludge and cervical lenght (CL) (<25 mm) and used it as a screening test to identify women at risk for preterm delivery; it catched more women with preterm delivery, (p = 0.000). While sensitivity of sludge was 37,5%, and sensitivity of CL was 34%, sensitivity of "sludge positive or CL ≤25 mm" was 56% for preterm birth (PTB) in high-risk group. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of amniotic fluid sludge is 19,6% and "sludge" is an independent risk factor for spontaneous preterm delivery among asymptomatic patients at high-risk for spontaneous preterm delivery. PTB is by far the leading cause of infant mortality, and prevention of PTB has been an elusive goal. When sludge added to screening, we can catch more PTB.


Assuntos
Líquido Amniótico/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Feto/patologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , Líquido Amniótico/citologia , Líquido Amniótico/microbiologia , Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Feto/diagnóstico por imagem , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico por imagem , Nascimento Prematuro/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA