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2.
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi ; 56(2): 89-95, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631879

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinical outcomes of different treatment options on singleton short cervix and its influence factors. Methods: Totally 435 cases of singleton pregnancies who were diagnosed with short cervix (≤25 mm) between 12 to 33+6 gestational weeks in Peking University First Hospital from January 2018 to December 2018 were enrolled, including 21 cases with cervical length <10 mm, 414 cases with cervical length between 10 to 25 mm. The onset time was <24 gestational weeks in 106 cases, while 104 cases were at 24-29+6 gestational weeks and 225 cases of ≥30 gestational weeks. Gestational outcomes including delivery before 37 weeks, delivery before 34 weeks, neonatal birth weight (NBW) and adverse neonatal outcome (ANO) were compared among three treatment groups: rest group, progesterone group and cerclage group. Influence factors were also investigated. Results: (1) The incidence of short cervix in pregnancy was 7.07% (435/6 155), while 106 cases were at <24 gestational weeks (1.72%, 106/6 155), 104 cases (1.69%, 104/6 155) at 24-29+6 gestational weeks and 225 cases (3.66%, 225/6 155) at ≥30 gestational weeks. (2) In the group of cervical length <10 mm, rate of delivery before 37 and 34 weeks were 62% (13/21) and 57% (12/21) respectively. One case of progesterone treatment underwent miscarriage. Compared with rest group (n=8), delivery weeks [28.5 (25.0-40.0) vs 37.0 (28.0-40.0), P=0.020] and NBW [1 245 g (630-3 830 g) vs 2 648 g (1 560-3 830 g), P=0.028] were higher in cerclage group (n=9), while ANO was not statistically different (P>0.05). (3) In the group of cervical length ≥10 mm before 24 gestational weeks, the delivery weeks, incidence of delivery before 34 weeks, adjusted incidence of delivery before 37 weeks, NBW and ANO were not statistically different (P>0.05) among rest group (n=36), progesterone group (n=26) and cerclage group (n=34). In vitro fertilization (OR=11.97, 95%CI: 1.88-76.44, P=0.009), infection (OR=46.03, 95%CI: 5.12-413.58, P=0.001), sludge on sonography (OR=9.87, 95%CI: 1.69-57.60, P=0.011) and history of short cervix (OR=7.24, 95%CI: 1.04-50.24, P=0.045) were independent risk factors of preterm birth. (4) In the group of cervical length ≥10 mm and gestational weeks between 24-29+6, the delivery weeks, incidence of delivery before 37 weeks, incidence of delivery before 34 weeks, NBW and ANO were not statistically different (P>0.05) among rest group (n=52), progesterone group (n=34) and cerclage group (n=9). Infection was an independent risk factor of preterm birth (OR=56.40, 95%CI: 4.67-680.61, P=0.002). (5) Outcomes of 223 cases were relatively good in the group of cervical length ≥10 mm beyond 30 gestational weeks. The incidence of delivery before 34 weeks was 6.3% (14/223). The delivery weeks, incidence of delivery before 37 and 34 weeks, NBW and ANO were not statistically different (P>0.05) among 3 groups. Infection (OR=10.91, 95%CI: 2.21-53.96, P=0.003) and history of preterm birth (OR=8.63, 95%CI: 1.25-59.65, P=0.029) were independent risk factors of preterm birth. Conclusions: Short cervix is a common complication of pregnancy. Cervical cerclage is related with better outcome for patients with cervical length <10 mm. Neither progesterone nor cervical cerclage improves pregnancy outcome for >10 mm cervical length patients comparing with rest. Infection, sludge, in vitro fertilization, history of short cervix and history of preterm birth are independent risk factors of preterm birth in short cervix pregnancies.


Assuntos
Cerclagem Cervical/métodos , Colo do Útero/cirurgia , Complicações na Gravidez/cirurgia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Cerclagem Cervical/efeitos adversos , Colo do Útero/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/patologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Técnicas de Sutura
4.
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi ; 56(1): 58-63, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486929

RESUMO

Objective: To conduct a systematic review of the association of levothyroxine treatment with pregnancy outcomes in euthyroid women who are thyroid autoantibody positive. Methods: Medline, Excerpta Medica (EMBASE), Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Biology Medicine (CBM), Wanfang data and VIP database were searched from inception until Jan. 28, 2020. All published randomized controlled trials assessing the association of levothyroxine treatment with pregnancy outcomes in euthyroid women with thyroid autoantibody-positive were included. STATA 11.0 and RevMan 5.3 softwares were used to perform this Meta-analysis. Results: A total of 6 studies met the inclusion criteria, with 2 188 women randomized. Meta-analysis showed that there was no significantly association between miscarriage (OR=0.85, 95%CI: 0.65-1.11, P=0.234) and preterm birth (OR=0.79, 95%CI: 0.54-1.16, P=0.224) with levothyroxine treatment. Conclusions: Levothyroxine therapy could not reduce the risk of miscarriage and preterm birth in euthyroid women with thyroid autoantibody-positive. Therefore, levothyroxine should be used with caution for these pregnant women.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Hipotireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico , Autoanticorpos/fisiologia , China , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/sangue , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Tiroxina/administração & dosagem , Tiroxina/efeitos adversos , Tiroxina/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Harefuah ; 160(1): 13-18, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474873

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preterm labor is defined as delivery before 37 weeks of gestation. Up to 17% of twin pregnancy are preterm. Arabin cervical pessary has been proven as preventing preterm labor in singleton pregnancies. The benefit of it in twin pregnancy is controversial. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the rate of preterm delivery in twin gestation with short cervical length in Israel- one center utilized the combined treatment of Arabin cervical pessary and vaginal progesterone (study group) and the others utilized vaginal progesterone approach (control group). METHODS: Multi-center retrospective cohort study, including "Shamir", "Wolfson", "Shaare Zedek" and "Galilee" medical centers, between the years 2012-2016. Inclusion criteria were twin gestations and short cervical length (<25mm) between 16-28 weeks' gestation. RESULTS: The study group included 68 women, the control group 78 women. The study group had shorter cervical length at intervention in comparison to the control group (13.6 ± 5.9 vs. 16.5 ± 5.7, respectively, p = .002). The treatment started later for the study group compared to the control group (23.2 +2.2 vs 22.6 +3.0). CONCLUSIONS: Despite having shorter cervical length at recruitment, the rate of spontaneous delivery < 34-weeks' gestation was similar in both groups (36.8 vs. 37.2%, respectively). DISCUSSION: Considering the conclusion in this research it seems that the combination of the mechanical effect of the pessary by embracing the cervix, keeping the cervical mucus, bending it in a way that the pressure is towards the anterior cervical wall together with the progestative effect which increases the estrogen/progesterone ratio, creating uterine quiescence and keeping the structural connective tissue of the cervix have an added benefit. It seems that the combined use of Arabin cervical pessary and vaginal progesterone in twin pregnancy with short cervical length have a synergic effect which may have a benefit in preventing preterm labor. The combination of cervical pessary and progesterone does not negatively affect twin pregnancy outcome and does not cause preterm birth.


Assuntos
Gravidez de Gêmeos , Nascimento Prematuro , Administração Intravaginal , Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Israel , Pessários , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Progesterona , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 134: 111135, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352448

RESUMO

Currently, the clinical treatment of preterm birth, mainly using uterine contraction inhibitors, does not fundamentally reduce the incidence of premature birth (PTB). Premature cervical ripening is an important factor in PTB. We previously found that nicotine-treated pregnant murine had significant cervical resistance to stretch and higher collagen cross-links compared to the control animals, and nicotine prolonged gestation and inhibited cervical ripening. However, the regulatory effects of nicotine on premature cervical ripening and its role in PTB remain unclear. To investigate the effects of nicotine on cervical TGF-ß1/Smad3 pathway and fibroblast-myofibroblast differentiation regulated by this pathway in PTB-like models. Intraperitoneal injection with 15 µg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in 200 µl PBS into pregnant mice was used to induce the PTB-like model. Mice were randomly divided into four groups: control group, LPS-treated group, LPS + Nicotine co-treated group and LPS + Nicotine+α-BGT co-treated group. Pregnancy outcomes were monitored. The collagen content was assessed by Picrosirius red staining. Expressions of genes and proteins in the TGF-ß/Smad3 pathway were detected by double immunofluorescence staining and quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). myofibroblast differentiation were investigated by double immunofluorescence staining and qRT-PCR. Ultrastructures were analyzed by conventional transmission electron microscopy. The rate of PTB and neonatal mortality at birth was significantly higher in the LPS-treated group than in the control group; collagen content also decreased remarkably; the expression of TGF-ß1 in macrophages and p-Smad3 in fibroblasts were reduced; the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, markers for activated fibroblasts) was down-regulated while the expression of calponin and smoothelin (markers for fibroblasts at rest) was up-regulated. Nicotine improved pregnancy outcomes and inhibited collagen degradation, activated the TGF-ß1/Smad3 pathway and promoted cervical fibroblast-myofibroblast differentiation in PTB-like mice; such effects could be reversed by α-bungarotoxin (α-BGT). Nicotine inhibited premature cervical ripening in PTB-like models in relation with up-regulating the TGF-ß/Smad3 pathway and promoting fibroblast to differentiate into myofibroblasts.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Maturidade Cervical/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo do Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Miofibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicotina/farmacologia , Agonistas Nicotínicos/farmacologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Colo do Útero/metabolismo , Colo do Útero/ultraestrutura , Colágeno/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/ultraestrutura , Fosforilação , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Nascimento Prematuro/metabolismo , Nascimento Prematuro/patologia , Proteólise , Transdução de Sinais
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2029655, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337494

RESUMO

Importance: Worldwide, preterm birth (PTB) is the single largest cause of deaths in the perinatal and neonatal period and is associated with increased morbidity in young children. The cause of PTB is multifactorial, and the development of generalizable biological models may enable early detection and guide therapeutic studies. Objective: To investigate the ability of transcriptomics and proteomics profiling of plasma and metabolomics analysis of urine to identify early biological measurements associated with PTB. Design, Setting, and Participants: This diagnostic/prognostic study analyzed plasma and urine samples collected from May 2014 to June 2017 from pregnant women in 5 biorepository cohorts in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs; ie, Matlab, Bangladesh; Lusaka, Zambia; Sylhet, Bangladesh; Karachi, Pakistan; and Pemba, Tanzania). These cohorts were established to study maternal and fetal outcomes and were supported by the Alliance for Maternal and Newborn Health Improvement and the Global Alliance to Prevent Prematurity and Stillbirth biorepositories. Data were analyzed from December 2018 to July 2019. Exposures: Blood and urine specimens that were collected early during pregnancy (median sampling time of 13.6 weeks of gestation, according to ultrasonography) were processed, stored, and shipped to the laboratories under uniform protocols. Plasma samples were assayed for targeted measurement of proteins and untargeted cell-free ribonucleic acid profiling; urine samples were assayed for metabolites. Main Outcomes and Measures: The PTB phenotype was defined as the delivery of a live infant before completing 37 weeks of gestation. Results: Of the 81 pregnant women included in this study, 39 had PTBs (48.1%) and 42 had term pregnancies (51.9%) (mean [SD] age of 24.8 [5.3] years). Univariate analysis demonstrated functional biological differences across the 5 cohorts. A cohort-adjusted machine learning algorithm was applied to each biological data set, and then a higher-level machine learning modeling combined the results into a final integrative model. The integrated model was more accurate, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.83 (95% CI, 0.72-0.91) compared with the models derived for each independent biological modality (transcriptomics AUROC, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.61-0.83]; metabolomics AUROC, 0.59 [95% CI, 0.47-0.72]; and proteomics AUROC, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.64-0.85]). Primary features associated with PTB included an inflammatory module as well as a metabolomic module measured in urine associated with the glutamine and glutamate metabolism and valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis pathways. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that, in LMICs and high PTB settings, major biological adaptations during term pregnancy follow a generalizable model and the predictive accuracy for PTB was augmented by combining various omics data sets, suggesting that PTB is a condition that manifests within multiple biological systems. These data sets, with machine learning partnerships, may be a key step in developing valuable predictive tests and intervention candidates for preventing PTB.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Assistência Perinatal , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Adulto , Causalidade , Regras de Decisão Clínica , Países em Desenvolvimento , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Aprendizado de Máquina , Assistência Perinatal/métodos , Assistência Perinatal/normas , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez/sangue , Gravidez/urina , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle
8.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244087, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of direct maternal mortality globally and in Suriname. We aimed to study the prevalence, risk indicators, causes, and management of PPH to identify opportunities for PPH reduction. METHODS: A nationwide retrospective descriptive study of all hospital deliveries in Suriname in 2017 was performed. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify risk indicators for PPH (≥ 500ml blood loss). Management of severe PPH (blood loss ≥1,000ml or ≥500ml with hypotension or at least three transfusions) was evaluated via a criteria-based audit using the national guideline. RESULTS: In 2017, the prevalence of PPH and severe PPH in Suriname was 9.2% (n = 808/8,747) and 2.5% (n = 220/8,747), respectively. PPH varied from 5.8% to 15.8% across the hospitals. Risk indicators associated with severe PPH included being of African descent (Maroon aOR 2.1[95%CI 1.3-3.3], Creole aOR 1.8[95%CI 1.1-3.0]), multiple pregnancy (aOR 3.4[95%CI 1.7-7.1]), delivery in Hospital D (aOR 2.4[95%CI 1.7-3.4]), cesarean section (aOR 3.9[95%CI 2.9-5.3]), stillbirth (aOR 6.4 [95%CI 3.4-12.2]), preterm birth (aOR 2.1[95%CI 1.3-3.2]), and macrosomia (aOR 2.8 [95%CI 1.5-5.0]). Uterine atony (56.7%, n = 102/180[missing 40]) and retained placenta (19.4%, n = 35/180[missing 40]), were the main causes of severe PPH. A criteria-based audit revealed that women with severe PPH received prophylactic oxytocin in 61.3% (n = 95/155[missing 65]), oxytocin treatment in 68.8% (n = 106/154[missing 66]), and tranexamic acid in 4.9% (n = 5/103[missing 117]). CONCLUSIONS: PPH prevalence and risk indicators in Suriname were similar to international and regional reports. Inconsistent blood loss measurement, varied maternal and perinatal characteristics, and variable guideline adherence contributed to interhospital prevalence variation. PPH reduction in Suriname can be achieved through prevention by practicing active management of the third stage of labor in every birth and considering risk factors, early recognition by objective and consistent blood loss measurement, and prompt treatment by adequate administration of oxytocin and tranexamic acid according to national guidelines.


Assuntos
Parto , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/mortalidade , Nascimento Prematuro/mortalidade , Inércia Uterina/mortalidade , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/etiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suriname/epidemiologia , Inércia Uterina/prevenção & controle
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2030207, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355674

RESUMO

Importance: Prepregnancy diabetes is associated with higher perinatal and maternal morbidity, especially if periconception glycemic control is suboptimal. It is not known whether improved glycemic control from preconception to early pregnancy and midpregnancy periods can reduce the risk of adverse perinatal and maternal outcomes. Objective: To determine whether a net decline in glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) from preconception to the first half of pregnancy is associated with a lower risk of adverse outcomes for mother and child. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study was completed in all of Ontario, Canada, from 2007 to 2018. Included were births among women with prepregnancy diabetes whose HbA1c was measured within 90 days preconception and again from conception through 21 weeks completed gestation (early pregnancy to midpregnancy). Statistical analysis was performed from July to September 2020. Exposures: Net decrease in HbA1c from preconception to early pregnancy and midpregnancy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was a congenital anomaly from birth to age 1 year. Other outcomes included preterm birth or perinatal mortality among offspring as well as severe maternal morbidity (SMM) or death among mothers. Adjusted relative risks (aRRs) were calculated per 0.5% absolute net decline in HbA1c from preconception up to early pregnancy and midpregnancy, adjusting for maternal age at conception, preconception HbA1c and hemoglobin concentration, and gestational age at HbA1c measurement. Results: A total of 3459 births were included, with a mean (SD) maternal age of 32.6 (5.0) years at conception. Overall, the mean (SD) HbA1c decreased from 7.2% (1.6%) preconception to 6.4% (1.1%) in early pregnancy to midpregnancy. There were 497 pregnancies (14.4%) with a congenital anomaly, with an aRR of 0.94 (95% CI, 0.89-0.98) per 0.5% net decrease in HbA1c, including for cardiac anomalies (237 infants; aRR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.84-0.95). The risk was also reduced for preterm birth (847 events; aRR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.86-0.91). SMM or death occurred among 191 women (5.5%), with an aRR of 0.90 (95% CI, 0.84-0.96) per 0.5% net decrease in HbA1c. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that women with prepregnancy diabetes who achieve a reduction in HbA1c may have improved perinatal and maternal outcomes. Further study is recommended to determine the best combination of factors, such as lifestyle changes and/or glucose-lowering medications, that can influence periconception HbA1c reduction.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional/métodos , Complicações na Gravidez , Risco Ajustado/métodos , Adulto , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ontário/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle
10.
J. obstet. gynaecol. Can ; 42(11): 1394-1413, Nov. 01, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | BIGG - guias GRADE | ID: biblio-1146596

RESUMO

To assess the association between sonography-derived cervical length measurement and preterm birth. To describe the various techniques to measure cervical length using sonography. To review the natural history of the short cervix. To review the clinical uses, predictive ability, and utility of sonography-measured short cervix. Reduction in rates of prematurity and/or better identification of those at risk, as well as possible prevention of unnecessary interventions. Intended Users Clinicians involved in the obstetrical management or cervical imaging of patients at increased risk of a short cervix. Women at increased risk of a short cervix or at risk of preterm birth. Literature published up to June 2019 was retrieved through searches of PubMed and the Cochrane Library using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words (preterm labour, ultrasound, cervix, cervical insufficiency, transvaginal, transperineal, cervical length, fibronectin). Results were restricted to general and systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The evidence and this guideline were reviewed by the Diagnostic Imaging Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada, and the recommendations were made and graded according to the rankings of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care ( Online Appendix Table A1). Preterm birth is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Use of the sonographic technique reviewed in this guideline may help identify women at risk of preterm birth and, in some circumstances, lead to interventions that may reduce the rate of preterm birth.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Útero/anatomia & histologia , Colo do Útero/cirurgia , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Cerclagem Cervical/métodos , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle
11.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(712): 2026-2030, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112514

RESUMO

Vaginal cerclage can be used to treat cervical incompetence, thus reducing the risk of an unfavourable outcome. However, in some cases, it can be ineffective. One of the challenges for the gynaecologist-obstetrician is how to deal with a subsequent pregnancy after a failure of vaginal cerclage. The recently published MAVRIC study shows that performing abdominal cerclage prior or at the beginning of pregnancy reduces the rate of late miscarriage and premature delivery compared to vaginal cerclage. This implies a birth by caesarean section, and therefore a second surgery for the woman. However, it remains to determine the best surgical technique for abdominal cerclage. In the MAVIRC study, cerclage was done by laparotomy. It shall be elucidated whether this technique is superior to laparoscopy.


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Cerclagem Cervical , Incompetência do Colo do Útero/cirurgia , Vagina/cirurgia , Aborto Espontâneo/prevenção & controle , Cesárea , Feminino , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Laparotomia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039310

RESUMO

Preterm birth (PTB), which occurs in about 12% of pregnancies worldwide, is the main cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Symptomatic treatment of pregnancies presenting in preterm labor with corticosteroids and antibiotics has improved neonatal outcomes but has not reduced the incidence of PTB. Evidence suggests that the rate of PTB may be reduced by the prophylactic use of progesterone in women with a previous history of preterm delivery and in those with a short cervical length identified by routine transvaginal ultrasound. This review summarizes the evidence (level A evidence) of the effectiveness of progesterone on the rate of PTB.


Assuntos
Trabalho de Parto Prematuro , Nascimento Prematuro , Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Progesterona , Ultrassonografia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238748, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970697

RESUMO

Antenatal progesterone prevents preterm birth (PTB) in women with a short cervix or prior PTB in daily vaginal or weekly injectable formulations, respectively. Neither has been tested for the indication of maternal HIV, which is associated with an elevated risk of PTB. The Vaginal Progesterone (VP) Trial was a pilot feasibility study of VP to prevent HIV-related PTB in Lusaka, Zambia. Using mixed methods, we concurrently evaluated the acceptability of the trial and the study product among participants. Over a 1-year period, we enrolled 140 pregnant women living with HIV into a double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of daily self-administered VP or placebo. We administered an endline questionnaire to all participants and conducted in-depth interviews with 30 participants to assess barriers and facilitators to uptake and retention in the trial and to study product adherence. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, translated into English as needed, and independently coded by two analysts to capture emerging themes. Of 131 participants who completed the questionnaire, 128 (98%) reported that nothing was difficult when asked the hardest part about using the study product. When given a hypothetical choice between vaginal and injectable progesterone, 97 (74%) chose vaginal, 31 (24%) injectable, and 3 (2%) stated no preference. Most interviewees reported no difficulties with using the study product; others cited minor side effects and surmountable challenges. Strategies that supported adherence included setting alarms, aligning dosing with antiretrovirals, receiving encouragement from friends and family, sensing a benefit to their unborn baby, and positive feedback from study staff. Participants who reported preference of a vaginal medication over injectable described familiarity with the vaginal product, a fear of needles and resulting pain, and inconvenience of a weekly clinic visit. Those who would prefer weekly injections cited fewer doses to remember. Perceived barriers to study participation included mistrust about the motivations behind research, suspicion of Satanism, and futility or possible harm from a placebo. We report key influences on acceptability of a randomized trial of VP to prevent PTB among HIV-infected women in Zambia, which should inform methods to promote uptake, adherence, and retention in a full-scale trial.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Nascimento Prematuro/virologia , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Progesterona/farmacologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/psicologia , Administração Intravaginal , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Preferência do Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Zâmbia
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD012871, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (PTB) remains the foremost global cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Thus, the prevention of spontaneous PTB still remains of critical importance. In an attempt to prevent PTB in singleton pregnancies, cervical cerclage, in combination with other treatments, has been advocated. This is because, cervical cerclage is an intervention that is commonly recommended in women with a short cervix at high risk of preterm birth but, despite this, many women still deliver prematurely, as the biological mechanism is incompletely understood. Additionally, previous Cochrane Reviews have been published on the effectiveness of cervical cerclage in singleton and multiple pregnancies, however, none has evaluated the effectiveness of using cervical cerclage in combination with other treatments. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether antibiotics administration, vaginal pessary, reinforcing or second cerclage placement, tocolytic, progesterone, or other interventions at the time of cervical cerclage placement prolong singleton gestation in women at high risk of pregnancy loss based on prior history and/or ultrasound finding of 'short cervix' and/or physical examination. History-indicated cerclage is defined as a cerclage placed usually between 12 and 15 weeks gestation based solely on poor prior obstetrical history, e.g. multiple second trimester losses due to painless dilatation. Ultrasound-indicated cerclage is defined as a cerclage placed usually between 16 and 23 weeks gestation for transvaginal ultrasound cervical length < 20 mm in a woman without cervical dilatation. Physical exam-indicated cerclage is defined as a cerclage placed usually between 16 and 23 weeks gestation because of cervical dilatation of one or more centimetres detected on physical (manual) examination. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (26 September 2019), and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included published, unpublished or ongoing randomised controlled trial (RCTs). Studies using a cluster-RCT design were also eligible for inclusion in this review but none were identified. We excluded quasi-RCTs (e.g. those randomised by date of birth or hospital number) and studies using a cross-over design. We also excluded studies that specified addition of the combination therapy after cervical cerclage because the woman subsequently became symptomatic. We included studies comparing cervical cerclage in combination with one, two or more interventions with cervical cerclage alone in singleton pregnancies. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts of all retrieved articles, selected studies for inclusion, extracted data, assessed risk of bias, and evaluated the certainty of the evidence for this review's main outcomes. Data were checked for accuracy. Standard Cochrane review methods were used throughout. MAIN RESULTS: We identified two studies (involving a total of 73 women) comparing cervical cerclage alone to a different comparator. We also identified three ongoing studies (one investigating vaginal progesterone after cerclage, and two investigating cerclage plus pessary). One study (20 women), conducted in the UK, comparing cervical cerclage in combination with a tocolytic (salbutamol) with cervical cerclage alone in women with singleton pregnancy did not provide any useable data for this review. The other study (involving 53 women, with data from 50 women) took place in the USA and compared cervical cerclage in combination with a tocolytic (indomethacin) and antibiotics (cefazolin or clindamycin) versus cervical cerclage alone - this study did provide useable data for this review (and the study authors also provided additional data on request) but meta-analyses were not possible. This study was generally at a low risk of bias, apart from issues relating to blinding. We downgraded the certainty of evidence for serious risk of bias and imprecision (few participants, few events and wide 95% confidence intervals). Cervical cerclage in combination with an antibiotic and tocolytic versus cervical cerclage alone (one study, 50 women/babies) We are unclear about the effect of cervical cerclage in combination with antibiotics and a tocolytic compared with cervical cerclage alone on the risk of serious neonatal morbidity (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.31 to 1.24; very low-certainty evidence); perinatal loss (data for miscarriage and stillbirth only - data not available for neonatal death) (RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.64; very low-certainty evidence) or preterm birth < 34 completed weeks of pregnancy (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.44 to 1.40; very low-certainty evidence). There were no stillbirths (intrauterine death at 24 or more weeks). The trial authors did not report on the numbers of babies discharged home healthy (without obvious pathology) or on the risk of neonatal death. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Currently, there is insufficient evidence to evaluate the effect of combining a tocolytic (indomethacin) and antibiotics (cefazolin/clindamycin) with cervical cerclage compared with cervical cerclage alone for preventing spontaneous PTB in women with singleton pregnancies. Future studies should recruit sufficient numbers of women to provide meaningful results and should measure neonatal death and numbers of babies discharged home healthy, as well as other important outcomes listed in this review. We did not identify any studies looking at other treatments in combination with cervical cerclage. Future research needs to focus on the role of other interventions such as vaginal support pessary, reinforcing or second cervical cerclage placement, 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate or dydrogesterone or vaginal micronised progesterone, omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation and bed rest.


Assuntos
Cerclagem Cervical/métodos , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Albuterol/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Viés , Cefazolina/uso terapêutico , Clindamicina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Indometacina/uso terapêutico , Ópio/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Tocolíticos/uso terapêutico
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237656, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866167

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Preterm birth is the primary driver of neonatal mortality worldwide, but it is defined by gestational age (GA) which is challenging to accurately assess in low-resource settings. In a commitment to reducing preterm birth while reinforcing and strengthening facility data sources, the East Africa Preterm Birth Initiative (PTBi-EA) chose eligibility criteria that combined GA and birth weight. This analysis evaluated the quality of the GA data as recorded in maternity registers in PTBi-EA study facilities and the strength of the PTBi-EA eligibility criteria. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of maternity register data from March-September 2016. GA data from 23 study facilities in Migori, Kenya and the Busoga Region of Uganda were evaluated for completeness (variable present), consistency (recorded versus calculated GA), and plausibility (falling within the 3rd and 97th birth weight percentiles for GA of the INTERGROWTH-21st Newborn Birth Weight Standards). Preterm birth rates were calculated using: 1) recorded GA <37 weeks, 2) recorded GA <37 weeks, excluding implausible GAs, 3) birth weight <2500g, and 4) PTBi-EA eligibility criteria of <2500g and between 2500g and 3000g if the recorded GA is <37 weeks. RESULTS: In both countries, GA was the least recorded variable in the maternity register (77.6%). Recorded and calculated GA (Kenya only) were consistent in 29.5% of births. Implausible GAs accounted for 11.7% of births. The four preterm birth rates were 1) 14.5%, 2) 10.6%, 3) 9.6%, 4) 13.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Maternity register GA data presented quality concerns in PTBi-EA study sites. The PTBi-EA eligibility criteria of <2500g and between 2500g and 3000g if the recorded GA is <37 weeks accommodated these concerns by using both birth weight and GA, balancing issues of accuracy and completeness with practical applicability.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/normas , Idade Gestacional , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Peso ao Nascer , Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Quênia/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Melhoria de Qualidade , Sistema de Registros/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Uganda/epidemiologia
16.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(3): 622-627, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769653

RESUMO

U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved 17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate therapy is currently available to reduce recurrent preterm birth in the United States. This commentary reviews the original landmark Meis trial ("Prevention of Recurrent Preterm Delivery by 17 Alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate"), which led to conditional approval of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate by the FDA in 2011. The recent PROLONG (Progestin's Role in Optimizing Neonatal Gestation) trial failed to confirm the original findings. The Meis trial was rigorously designed and conducted, with highly statistically significant results that should not be undermined by the negative results of PROLONG. Given that the United States has among the highest preterm birth rates in the world and that the predominant enrollment in PROLONG was outside the United States, the results of the "old" Meis trial should not be summarily dismissed. It would be detrimental to high-risk pregnant patients to inappropriately prioritize results of PROLONG over the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network's Meis trial (funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development). We assert PROLONG was underpowered, based on substantially lower observed preterm birth rates than anticipated, and therefore was a false-negative study, rather than the Meis trial being a false-positive study. Careful assessment of these two trials is critical as removal of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate from the U.S. marketplace may have substantial effects on public health.


Assuntos
Caproato de 17 alfa-Hidroxiprogesterona/uso terapêutico , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Progestinas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(10): 1015-1021, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Antenatal corticosteroids given prior to preterm deliveries reduce the risk of adverse neonatal outcomes. However, steroid administration in the setting of a viral respiratory infection can worsen maternal outcomes. Therefore, the decision to administer corticosteroids must balance the neonatal benefits with the potential harm to the mother if she is infected with the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to determine the gestational ages for which administering antenatal corticosteroids to women at high risk of preterm labor with concurrent COVID-19 infection results in improved combined maternal and infant outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: A decision-analytic model using TreeAge (2020) software was constructed for a theoretical cohort of hospitalized women with COVID-19 in the United States. All model inputs were derived from the literature. Outcomes included maternal intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death, along with infant outcomes of death, respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, and neurodevelopmental delay. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were assessed from the maternal and infant perspectives. Sensitivity analyses were performed to determine if the results were robust over a range of assumptions. RESULTS: In our theoretical cohort of 10,000 women delivering between 24 and 33 weeks of gestation with COVID-19, corticosteroid administration resulted in 2,200 women admitted to the ICU and 110 maternal deaths. No antenatal corticosteroid use resulted in 1,500 ICU admissions and 75 maternal deaths. Overall, we found that corticosteroid administration resulted in higher combined QALYs up to 31 weeks of gestation in all hospitalized patients, and up to 29 weeks of gestation in ICU patients. CONCLUSION: Administration of antenatal corticosteroids at less than 32 weeks of gestation for hospitalized patients and less than 30 weeks of gestation for patients admitted to the ICU resulted in higher combined maternal and infant outcomes compared with expectant management for women at high risk of preterm birth with COVID-19 infection. These results can guide clinicians in their counseling and management of these pregnant women. KEY POINTS: · Antenatal steroids reduce adverse neonatal outcomes.. · Steroids worsen maternal outcomes in COVID-19.. · Steroids given < 32 weeks result in improved outcomes..


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Morte Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Método de Monte Carlo , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Gravidez de Alto Risco , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos
18.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 302(4): 801-819, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671543

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Current data show that maternal mental conditions affect about 10% of pregnant women worldwide. Assessing timing and patterns of mental health illness, therefore, is critical to ensure the wellbeing of the mother, the new-born and the whole family. The aim of this review is to summarize the latest evidence linking maternal mental disorders and adverse reproductive outcomes. METHODS: Following the PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews, a literature search was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of mental health conditions on reproductive outcomes before and during pregnancy. The comprehensive strategy included cohort studies, randomised controlled trials and literature reviews on women with Primary Maternal Mental Illness (PMMI) and Secondary Maternal Mental Illness (SMMI) considering periconceptional, obstetric and foetal-neonatal outcomes. PubMed, WoS, CINAHL and Google scholar were used for the search. Cross-referencing in bibliographies of the selected papers ensured wider study capture. RESULTS: Evidence linking depressive disorders and infertility among PMMI is weak. Given this, women with prior mental conditions experience additional distress when undergoing fertility treatments. Primary mental disorders may also increase the risk of miscarriage and other pregnancy complications (e.g., gestational diabetes). For SMMI, there is more robust evidence correlating Preterm Birth (PTB) and Low Birth Weight (LBW) with common mental disorders which develop during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Prevention and management of maternal mental health diseases and minor mental conditions within the first 1000 days' timeframe, should have a place in the holistic approach to women going through reproductive decisions, infertility treatment and pregnancy.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Gestantes/psicologia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Saúde Materna , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234033, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2014, a whole-of-population and multi-faceted preterm birth prevention program was introduced in Western Australia with the single aim of safely lowering the rate of preterm birth. The program included new clinical guidelines, print and social media, and a dedicated new clinic. In the first full calendar year the rate of preterm birth fell by 7.6% and the reduction extended from the 28-31 week gestational age group upwards. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate outcomes in greater depth and to also include the first three years of the program. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective population-based cohort study of perinatal outcomes in singleton pregnancies before and after commencement of the program. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in preterm birth in the tertiary center which extended from 28 weeks gestation onwards and was ongoing. In non-tertiary centers there was an initial reduction, but this was not sustained past the first year. The greatest reduction was observed in pregnancies classified at first attendance as low risk. No benefit was observed in the private sector, but a significant reduction was seen in the remote region of the Kimberley where the program was first launched and vaginal progesterone had been made free-of-charge. CONCLUSION: Preterm birth rates can be safely reduced by a multi-faceted and whole-of-population program but the effectiveness requires continuing effort and will be greatest where the strategies are most targeted.


Assuntos
Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Segurança , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Austrália Ocidental , Adulto Jovem
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