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1.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(1): 60-65, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915337

RESUMO

In spite of the recommendation for rescue antenatal corticosteroids (ACS), the optimal time interval between primary and rescue courses has not been clearly demonstrated. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the effects of the interval between a single ACS (Dexamethasone) course and delivery on the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in neonates at Mymensingh Medical College Hospital Center from 1st January 2017 to 30th June 2017. Injection Dexamethasone 2 doses (12.5mg IM 12 hourly for 2 doses) or 4 doses (6mg IM every 12 hours for 4 doses) use to arrest preterm labor as well as to prevent RDS delivered beyond 48 hours after ACS administration between 24 and 34 weeks gestation. The risk of RDS was compared between patients who delivered within seven days (Group I) and 7-14 days (Group II) after ACS administration. We included 140 and 60 patients in Group I and Group II respectively. After adjusting for confounders, the ACS delivery interval was significantly associated with RDS in Group II (adjusted odds ratio 12.8, 95% confidence interval 1.31-164.7). A longer ACS delivery interval is associated with a higher risk of RDS. Thus, the use of a rescue course could be expected to reduce the incidence of RDS in patients beyond seven days after ACS administration who remain at risk for preterm delivery within seven days, especially in cases of placenta previa and/or women bearing a male fetus.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Gravidez , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Lancet ; 395(10220): 285-293, 2020 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth remains a common cause of neonatal mortality, with a disproportionately high burden in low-income and middle-income countries. Meta-analyses of low-dose aspirin to prevent pre-eclampsia suggest that the incidence of preterm birth might also be decreased, particularly if initiated before 16 weeks of gestation. METHODS: ASPIRIN was a randomised, multicountry, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial of low-dose aspirin (81 mg daily) initiated between 6 weeks and 0 days of pregnancy, and 13 weeks and 6 days of pregnancy, in nulliparous women with an ultrasound confirming gestational age and a singleton viable pregnancy. Participants were enrolled at seven community sites in six countries (two sites in India and one site each in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guatemala, Kenya, Pakistan, and Zambia). Participants were randomly assigned (1:1, stratified by site) to receive aspirin or placebo tablets of identical appearance, via a sequence generated centrally by the data coordinating centre at Research Triangle Institute International (Research Triangle Park, NC, USA). Treatment was masked to research staff, health providers, and patients, and continued until 36 weeks and 7 days of gestation or delivery. The primary outcome of incidence of preterm birth, defined as the number of deliveries before 37 weeks' gestational age, was analysed in randomly assigned women with pregnancy outcomes at or after 20 weeks, according to a modified intention-to-treat (mITT) protocol. Analyses of our binary primary outcome involved a Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test stratified by site, and generalised linear models to obtain relative risk (RR) estimates and associated confidence intervals. Serious adverse events were assessed in all women who received at least one dose of drug or placebo. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02409680, and the Clinical Trial Registry-India, CTRI/2016/05/006970. FINDINGS: From March 23, 2016 to June 30, 2018, 14 361 women were screened for inclusion and 11 976 women aged 14-40 years were randomly assigned to receive low-dose aspirin (5990 women) or placebo (5986 women). 5780 women in the aspirin group and 5764 in the placebo group were evaluable for the primary outcome. Preterm birth before 37 weeks occurred in 668 (11·6%) of the women who took aspirin and 754 (13·1%) of those who took placebo (RR 0·89 [95% CI 0·81 to 0·98], p=0·012). In women taking aspirin, we also observed significant reductions in perinatal mortality (0·86 [0·73-1·00], p=0·048), fetal loss (infant death after 16 weeks' gestation and before 7 days post partum; 0·86 [0·74-1·00], p=0·039), early preterm delivery (<34 weeks; 0·75 [0·61-0·93], p=0·039), and the incidence of women who delivered before 34 weeks with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (0·38 [0·17-0·85], p=0·015). Other adverse maternal and neonatal events were similar between the two groups. INTERPRETATION: In populations of nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies from low-income and middle-income countries, low-dose aspirin initiated between 6 weeks and 0 days of gestation and 13 weeks and 6 days of gestation resulted in a reduced incidence of preterm delivery before 37 weeks, and reduced perinatal mortality. FUNDING: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
3.
Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol ; 223(6): 373-394, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801169

RESUMO

AIMS: This is an official guideline of the German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG), the Austrian Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics (ÖGGG) and the Swiss Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics (SGGG). The aim of this guideline is to improve the prediction, prevention and management of preterm birth based on evidence obtained from recently published scientific literature, the experience of the members of the guideline commission and the views of self-help groups. METHODS: The members of the participating medical societies and organizations developed Recommendations and Statements based on the international literature. The Recommendations and Statements were adopted following a formal consensus process (structured consensus conference with neutral moderation, voting done in writing using the Delphi method to achieve consensus). RECOMMENDATIONS: Part 2 of this short version of the guideline presents Statements and Recommendations on the tertiary prevention of preterm birth and the management of preterm premature rupture of membranes.


Assuntos
Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Nascimento Prematuro , Sociedades Médicas , Prevenção Terciária , Incompetência do Colo do Útero , Áustria , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/prevenção & controle , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/terapia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Obstetrícia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Nascimento Prematuro/terapia , Sistema de Registros
4.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 292, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The herbal medicine Bryophyllum pinnatum has been used as a tocolytic agent in anthroposophic medicine and, recently, in conventional settings alone or as an add-on medication with tocolytic agents such as atosiban or nifedipine. We wanted to compare the inhibitory effect of atosiban and nifedipine on human myometrial contractility in vitro in the absence and in the presence of B. pinnatum press juice (BPJ). METHODS: Myometrium biopsies were collected during elective Caesarean sections. Myometrial strips were placed under tension into an organ bath and allowed to contract spontaneously. Test substances alone and at concentrations known to moderately affect contractility in this setup, or in combination, were added to the organ bath, and contractility was recorded throughout the experiments. Changes in the strength (measured as area under the curve (AUC) and amplitude) and frequency of contractions after the addition of all test substances were determined. Cell viability assays were performed with the human myometrium hTERT-C3 and PHM1-41 cell lines. RESULTS: BPJ (2.5 µg/mL), atosiban (0.27 µg/mL), and nifedipine (3 ng/mL), moderately reduced the strength of spontaneous myometrium contractions. When BPJ was added together with atosiban or nifedipine, inhibition of contraction strength was significantly higher than with the tocolytics alone (p = 0.03 and p < 0.001, respectively). In the case of AUC, BPJ plus atosiban promoted a decrease to 48.8 ± 6.3% of initial, whereas BPJ and atosiban alone lowered it to 70.9 ± 4.7% and to 80.9 ± 4.1% of initial, respectively. Also in the case of AUC, BPJ plus nifedipine promoted a decrease to 39.9 ± 4.6% of initial, at the same time that BPJ and nifedipine alone lowered it to 78.9 ± 3.8% and 71.0 ± 3.4% of initial. Amplitude data supported those AUC data. The inhibitory effects of BPJ plus atosiban and of BPJ plus nifedipine on contractions strength were concentration-dependent. None of the test substances, alone or in combination, decreased myometrial cell viability. CONCLUSIONS: BPJ enhances the inhibitory effect of atosiban and nifedipine on the strength of myometrial contractions, without affecting myometrium tissue or cell viability. The combination treatment of BPJ with atosiban or nifedipine has therapeutic potential.


Assuntos
Kalanchoe/química , Miométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Nifedipino/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Tocolíticos/antagonistas & inibidores , Contração Uterina/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasotocina/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Antagonismo de Drogas , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Miométrio/fisiopatologia , Nifedipino/farmacologia , Gravidez , Tocolíticos/farmacologia , Vasotocina/antagonistas & inibidores , Vasotocina/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol ; 223(5): 304-316, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623006

RESUMO

AIMS: This is an official guideline of the German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG), the Austrian Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics (ÖGGG) and the Swiss Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics (SGGG). The aim of this guideline is to improve the prediction, prevention and management of preterm birth based on evidence obtained from recent scientific literature, the experience of the members of the guideline commission and the views of self-help groups. METHODS: Based on the international literature, the members of the participating medical societies and organizations developed Recommendations and Statements. These were adopted following a formal process (structured consensus conference with neutral moderation, voting was done in writing using the Delphi method to achieve consensus). RECOMMENDATIONS: Part I of this short version of the guideline lists Statements and Recommendations on the epidemiology, etiology, prediction and primary and secondary prevention of preterm birth.


Assuntos
Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Nascimento Prematuro , Áustria , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária , Sistema de Registros , Prevenção Secundária , Sociedades Médicas
6.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593288

RESUMO

Late and moderately preterm infants, born between 32+0/7 and 36+6/7 gestational weeks, comprise more than 80 % of all preterm infants and account for almost 40 % of all days of neonatal care. While their total number of days of care has not changed, an increasing part of their neonatal stay (from 29 % in 2011 to 41 % in 2017) is now within home care programmes. Late and moderate preterm birth is often complicated by respiratory disorders, hyperbilirubinemia, hypothermia and feeding difficulties. These infants also have an increased risk of perinatal death and neurologic complications. In the long run, they have higher risks of cognitive impairment, neuropsychiatric diagnoses and need for asthma medication. As young adults, they have a lower educational level and a lower average salary than their full-term counterparts. They also have an increased risk of long-term sick leave, disability pension and need for economic assistance from society.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Educação Especial/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Tempo de Internação , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/economia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/mortalidade , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Tempo
7.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593290

RESUMO

Due to a low level of understanding of mechanisms involved in spontaneous preterm delivery there is a lack of reliable biomarkers. Existing biomarkers have a low positive predictive value but a high negative predictive value. Use of tests with high negative predictive value will reduce unnecessary interventions and hospitalization of women with threatening preterm delivery. When given to the right pregnant women, antenatal corticosteroid treatment are still the most important obstetrical intervention and reduces both neonatal mortality and short- and long-term morbidity.Several ongoing national Swedish multicenter studies may increase the understanding of the roles of cervical length, preeclampsia screening and magnesium sulfate dosage in the context of preterm delivery in a Nordic setting. Major development has been achieved in prediction and prevention of preterm preeclampsia at the cost of a 10% screen positive rate.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/análise , Cerclagem Cervical , Medida do Comprimento Cervical , Colo do Útero/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Fibronectinas/análise , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Sulfato de Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Pessários , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Nascimento Prematuro/terapia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Suécia , Tocolíticos/administração & dosagem
8.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 147(3): 382-388, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529463

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors associated with neonatal morbidity and mortality in pregnant women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) after cervical cerclage. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of singleton pregnancies with cervical insufficiency was conducted at a tertiary referral center in Taiwan from May 1, 2000 to July 31, 2017. Patients with PPROM after cerclage and delivered between 20 0/7 days and 36 6/7 days were recruited. Logistic and linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate various risk factors. RESULTS: Overall, 109 women were included. Mothers with a higher white blood cell count, a higher C-reactive protein (CRP) level, a lower amniotic fluid index, and chorioamnionitis were significantly associated with neonatal morbidity. Neonatal mortality was related to oligohydramnios (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-8.01) and chorioamnionitis (aOR 3.17, 95% CI 1.03-9.69). An elevated CRP level was associated with a shorter PPROM to delivery latency (adjusted B -16.64, 95% CI -29.88 to -3.41), but cerclage retention more than 12 hours after PPROM was associated with a prolonged latency (adjusted B 17.21, 95% CI 3.25-31.18). CONCLUSION: Oligohydramnios and chorioamnionitis are associated with neonatal mortality.


Assuntos
Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Incompetência do Colo do Útero/cirurgia , Adulto , Cerclagem Cervical/estatística & dados numéricos , Corioamnionite/mortalidade , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/mortalidade , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Oligo-Hidrâmnio/mortalidade , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan
9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD011192, 2019 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The hypertensive disorders of pregnancy include pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, chronic hypertension, and undefined hypertension. Pre-eclampsia is considerably more prevalent in low-income than in high-income countries. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is dietary differences, particularly calcium deficiency. Calcium supplementation in the second half of pregnancy reduces the serious consequences of pre-eclampsia, but has limited effect on the overall risk of pre-eclampsia. It is important to establish whether calcium supplementation before, and in early pregnancy (before 20 weeks' gestation) has added benefit. Such evidence could count towards justification of population-level interventions to improve dietary calcium intake, including fortification of staple foods with calcium, especially in contexts where dietary calcium intake is known to be inadequate. This is an update of a review first published in 2017. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of calcium supplementation, given before or early in pregnancy and for at least the first half of pregnancy, on pre-eclampsia and other hypertensive disorders, maternal morbidity and mortality, and fetal and neonatal outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Trials Register (31 July 2018), PubMed (13 July 2018), ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP; 31 July 2018), and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials (RCT) of calcium supplementation, including women not yet pregnant, or women in early pregnancy. Cluster-RCTs, quasi-RCTs, and trials published as abstracts were eligible, but we did not identify any. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data, and checked them for accuracy. They assessed the quality of the evidence for key outcomes using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: Calcium versus placeboWe included one study (1355 women), which took place across multiple hospital sites in Argentina, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. Most analyses were conducted only on 633 women from this group who were known to have conceived, or on 579 who reached 20 weeks' gestation; the trial was at moderate risk of bias due to high attrition rates pre-conception. Non-pregnant women with previous pre-eclampsia received either calcium 500 mg daily or placebo, from enrolment until 20 weeks' gestation. All participants received calcium 1.5 g daily from 20 weeks until birth.Primary outcomes: calcium supplementation commencing before conception may make little or no difference to the risk of pre-eclampsia (69/296 versus 82/283, risk ratio (RR) 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61 to 1.06; low-quality evidence). For pre-eclampsia or pregnancy loss or stillbirth (or both) at any gestational age, calcium may slightly reduce the risk of this composite outcome, however the 95% CI met the line of no effect (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.00; low-quality evidence). Supplementation may make little or no difference to the severe maternal morbidity and mortality index (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.26; low-quality evidence), pregnancy loss or stillbirth at any gestational age (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.61 to 1,14; low-quality evidence), or caesarean section (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.96 to 1,28; low-quality evidence).Calcium supplementation may make little or no difference to the following secondary outcomes: birthweight < 2500 g (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.30; low-quality evidence), preterm birth < 37 weeks (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.10), early preterm birth < 32 weeks (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.12), and pregnancy loss, stillbirth or neonatal death before discharge (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.10; low-quality evidence), no conception, gestational hypertension, gestational proteinuria, severe gestational hypertension, severe pre-eclampsia, severe pre-eclamptic complications index. There was no clear evidence on whether or not calcium might make a difference to perinatal death, or neonatal intensive care unit admission for > 24h, or both (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.60; low-quality evidence).It is unclear what impact calcium supplementation has on Apgar score < 7 at five minutes (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.15 to 1.21; very low-quality evidence), stillbirth, early onset pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, placental abruption, intensive care unit admission > 24 hours, maternal death, hospital stay > 7 days from birth, and pregnancy loss before 20 weeks' gestation. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The single included study suggested that calcium supplementation before and early in pregnancy may reduce the risk of women experiencing the composite outcome pre-eclampsia or pregnancy loss at any gestational age, but the results are inconclusive for all other outcomes for women and babies. Therefore, current evidence neither supports nor refutes the routine use of calcium supplementation before conception and in early pregnancy.To determine the overall benefit of calcium supplementation commenced before or in early pregnancy, the effects found in the study of calcium supplementation limited to the first half of pregnancy need to be added to the known benefits of calcium supplementation in the second half of pregnancy.Further research is needed to confirm whether initiating calcium supplementation pre- or in early pregnancy is associated with a reduction in adverse pregnancy outcomes for mother and baby. Research could also address the acceptability of the intervention to women, which was not covered by this review update.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD007235, 2019 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measurement of cervical length by ultrasound is predictive of preterm birth (PTB). There are three methods of ultrasound cervical assessment: transvaginal (TVU), transabdominal (TAU), and transperineal (TPU, also called translabial). Cervical length measured by TVU is a relatively new screening test, and has been associated with better prediction of PTB than previously available tests. It is unclear if cervical length measured by ultrasound is effective for preventing PTB. This is an update of a review last published in 2013. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of antenatal management based on transvaginal, transabdominal, and transperineal (also called translabial) ultrasound screening of cervical length for preventing preterm birth. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, we searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) to 30 August 2018; reviewed the reference lists of all articles, and contacted experts in the field for additional and ongoing trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included published and unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCT) including pregnant women between the gestational ages of 14 to 32 weeks, for whom the cervical length was screened for risk of PTB with TVU, TAU, or TPU. This review focused on studies based on knowledge versus no knowledge of cervical length results, or ultrasound versus no ultrasound for cervical length. We excluded studies based on interventions (e.g. progesterone, cerclage) for short cervical length. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed standard Cochrane methods. MAIN RESULTS: We included seven RCTs (N = 923): one examined asymptomatic women with twin pregnancies; four included women with singleton pregnancies and symptoms of preterm labour (PTL); one included women with singleton pregnancies and symptoms of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM); and one included asymptomatic singletons. All trials used TVU for screening.We assessed the risk of bias of the included studies as mixed, and the quality of the evidence for primary outcomes as very low for all populations.For asymptomatic women with twin pregnancies, it is uncertain whether knowledge of TVU-measured cervical length compared to no knowledge reduces PTB at less than 34 weeks (risk ratio (RR) 0.62, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.30 to 1.25; 1 study, 125 participants) because the quality of the evidence is very low. The results were also inconclusive for preterm birth at 36, 32, or 30 weeks; gestational age at birth, and other maternal and perinatal outcomes.Four trials examined knowledge of TVU-measured cervical length of singletons with symptoms of PTL versus no knowledge. We are uncertain of the effects because of inconclusive results and very low-quality evidence for: preterm births at less than 37 weeks (average RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.26 to 1.32; 2 studies, 242 participants; I² = 66%; Tau² = 0.23). Birth occurred about four days later in the knowledge groups (mean difference (MD) 0.64 weeks, 95% CI 0.03 to 1.25; 3 trials, 290 women). The results were inconclusive for the other outcomes for which there were available data: PTB at less than 34 or 28 weeks; birthweight less than 2500 g; perinatal death; maternal hospitalisation; tocolysis; and steroids for fetal lung maturity.The trial of singletons with PPROM (N = 92) evaluated safety of using TVU to measure cervical length in this population as its primary outcome, not its effect on management. The results were inconclusive for incidence of maternal and neonatal infections between the TVU and no ultrasound groups.In the trial of asymptomatic singletons (N = 296), in which women either received TVU or not, the results were inconclusive for preterm birth at less than 37 weeks (RR 1.27, 95% CI 0.61 to 2.61; I² = 0%), gestational age at birth, and other perinatal and maternal outcomes.We downgraded evidence for limitations in study design, inconsistency between the trials, and imprecision, due to small sample size and wide confidence intervals crossing the line of no effect.No trial compared the effect of knowledge of the CL with no knowledge of CL in other populations, such as asymptomatic women with singleton pregnancies, or symptomatic women with twin pregnancies. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There are limited data on the effects of knowing the cervical length, measured by ultrasound, for preventing preterm births, which preclude us from drawing any conclusions for women with asymptomatic twin or singleton pregnancies, singleton pregnancies with PPROM, or other populations and clinical scenarios.Limited evidence suggests that knowledge of transvaginal ultrasound-measured cervical length, used to inform the management of women with singleton pregnancies and symptoms of preterm labour, appears to prolong pregnancy by about four days over women in the no knowledge groups.Future studies could look at specific populations separately (e.g. singleton versus twins; symptoms versus no symptoms of PTL), report on all pertinent maternal and perinatal outcomes, and include cost-effectiveness analyses. Most importantly, future studies should include a clear protocol for management of women based on TVU-measured cervical length.


Assuntos
Medida do Comprimento Cervical/métodos , Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Gravidez Múltipla , Gravidez de Gêmeos , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico por imagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
N Engl J Med ; 381(11): 1035-1045, 2019 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that maternal supplementation with n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may reduce the incidence of preterm delivery but may also prolong gestation beyond term; however, more data are needed regarding the role of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy. METHODS: We performed a multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial in which women who were pregnant with single or multiple fetuses were assigned to receive either fish-oil capsules that contained 900 mg of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 group) or vegetable-oil capsules that contained trace n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (control group) daily, beginning before 20 weeks of gestation and continuing to 34 weeks of gestation or delivery, whichever occurred first. The primary outcome was early preterm delivery, defined as delivery before 34 completed weeks of gestation. Other pregnancy and neonatal outcomes were also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 5544 pregnancies in 5517 women were randomly assigned at six centers in Australia; 5486 pregnancies were included in the primary analysis. Early preterm delivery occurred in the case of 61 of 2734 pregnancies (2.2%) in the n-3 group and 55 of 2752 pregnancies (2.0%) in the control group; the between-group difference was not significant (adjusted relative risk, 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 1.63; P = 0.50). There were no significant differences between the groups in the incidence of interventions in post-term (>41 weeks of gestation) deliveries, in adverse events, or in other pregnancy or neonatal outcomes, except that a higher percentage of infants born to women in the n-3 group than in the control group were very large for gestational age at birth (adjusted relative risk, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.65). Percentages of serious adverse events did not differ between the groups. Minor gastrointestinal disturbances were more commonly reported in the n-3 group than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation with n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from early pregnancy (<20 weeks of gestation) until 34 weeks of gestation did not result in a lower incidence of early preterm delivery or a higher incidence of interventions in post-term deliveries than control. (Funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council and the Thyne Reid Foundation; ORIP Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12613001142729.).


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Macrossomia Fetal , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Falha de Tratamento
12.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 147(3): 363-367, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489626

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the contribution of blood transfusion management in the improvement of maternal and perinatal outcomes in pregnant women with sickle cell disease in Ouagadougou. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective study with data collected from February 2012 to January 2014 was used. Patients were differentiated into three groups: patients with at least one exchange transfusion, patients who received blood transfusion, and patients who did not receive any transfusion. Data were collected from patients' patient care documents. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-four patients were included, of whom 53 were in the first group, 32 in the second group, and 79 in the third group. Maternal complications in the last trimester of pregnancy were significantly less important (P=0.000) in the first group (58.5%) than in the second (78.5%) and third group (91.1%). The same trend was observed for postpartum maternal mortality (5.7%; 12.5%; 12.6%; P=0.009). Fetal complications such as preterm birth and early neonatal death were lower in the first group (15.1%; 1.8%) than in the second (40.6%; 23.1%) and third group (32.9%; 7.6%). CONCLUSION: Prophylactic blood transfusion is an important part of the management of pregnant patients with sickle cell disease.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/terapia , Adulto , Burkina Faso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Morte Materna/prevenção & controle , Morte Perinatal/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 147(2): 156-164, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth causes an increased risk for perinatal morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether mid-trimester 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC) reduces the risk of recurrent preterm birth and adverse perinatal outcomes. SEARCH STRATEGY: Systematic search to identify relevant studies published in different languages, registered after 2000, using appropriate MeSH terms. SELECTION CRITERIA: Inclusion criteria were women between 16 and 26+6  weeks of pregnancy with history of preterm delivery in any pregnancy randomized to either 17-OHPC or placebo/no treatment. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The number of preterm births and adverse outcomes in the 17-OHPC and placebo arms over the total number of patients in each randomized group were used to calculate the risk ratio (RR) by random-effects models using the Mantel-Haenszel method. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed using tau2 , χ2 (Cochrane Q), and I2 statistics. MAIN RESULTS: Four studies were included. There was a 29% (RR 0.71; 95% CI, 0.53-0.96; P=0.001), 26% (RR 0.74; 95% CI, 0.58-0.96; P=0.021), and 40% (RR 0.60; 95% CI, 0.42-0.85; P=0.004) reduction in recurrent preterm birth at <37, <35, and <32 weeks, respectively, in the 17-OHPC group compared with placebo. The reduction in neonatal death was 68% (RR 0.32; 95% CI, 0.15-0.66; P=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: 17-OHPC could reduce the risk of recurrent preterm birth at <37, <35, and <28 weeks and neonatal death. PROSPERO: CDR42017082190.


Assuntos
Caproato de 17 alfa-Hidroxiprogesterona/uso terapêutico , Morte Perinatal/prevenção & controle , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
Lancet ; 394(10201): 849-860, 2019 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, characterised by maternal pruritus and increased serum bile acid concentrations, is associated with increased rates of stillbirth, preterm birth, and neonatal unit admission. Ursodeoxycholic acid is widely used as a treatment without an adequate evidence base. We aimed to evaluate whether ursodeoxycholic acid reduces adverse perinatal outcomes in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. METHODS: We did a double-blind, multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial at 33 hospital maternity units in England and Wales. We recruited women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, who were aged 18 years or older and with a gestational age between 20 weeks and 40 weeks and 6 days, with a singleton or twin pregnancy and no known lethal fetal anomaly. Participants were randomly assigned 1:1 to ursodeoxycholic acid or placebo, given as two oral tablets a day at an equivalent dose of 500 mg twice a day. The dose could be increased or decreased at the clinician's discretion, to a maximum of four tablets and a minimum of one tablet a day. We recommended that treatment should be continued from enrolment until the infant's birth. The primary outcome was a composite of perinatal death (in-utero fetal death after randomisation or known neonatal death up to 7 days after birth), preterm delivery (<37 weeks' gestation), or neonatal unit admission for at least 4 h (from birth until hospital discharge). Each infant was counted once within this composite. All analyses were done according to the intention-to-treat principle. The trial was prospectively registered with the ISRCTN registry, number 91918806. FINDINGS: Between Dec 23, 2015, and Aug 7, 2018, 605 women were enrolled and randomly allocated to receive ursodeoxycholic acid (n=305) or placebo (n=300). The primary outcome analysis included 304 women and 322 infants in the ursodeoxycholic acid group, and 300 women and 318 infants in the placebo group (consent to use data was withdrawn for 1 woman and 2 infants). The primary composite outcome occurred in 74 (23%) of 322 infants in the ursodeoxycholic acid group and 85 (27%) of 318 infants in the placebo group (adjusted risk ratio 0·85 [95% CI 0·62-1·15]). Two serious adverse events were reported in the ursodeoxycholic acid group and six serious adverse events were reported in the placebo group; no serious adverse events were regarded as being related to treatment. INTERPRETATION: Treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid does not reduce adverse perinatal outcomes in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Therefore, its routine use for this condition should be reconsidered. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation Programme.


Assuntos
Colagogos e Coleréticos/administração & dosagem , Colestase Intra-Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Ursodesoxicólico/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colestase Intra-Hepática/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Nascimento Vivo/epidemiologia , Morte Perinatal/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Prurido/prevenção & controle , Natimorto/epidemiologia
15.
BJOG ; 126(13): 1569-1575, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The QUiPP algorithm combines cervical length, quantitative fetal fibronectin (qfFN) and medical history to quantify risk of preterm birth. We assessed the utility of QUiPP to inform preterm birth prevention treatment decisions. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study with a subsequent impact assessment using the QUiPP risk of birth before 34 weeks' gestation. SETTING: A UK tertiary referral hospital. SAMPLE: In all, 119 women with previous spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) or preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) before 34 weeks' gestation. METHODS: Cervical length and qfFN were measured at 19+0 to 23+0  weeks' gestation. Clinical management was based on history and cervical length. After birth, clinicians were unblinded to qfFN results and QUiPP analysis was undertaken. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Predictive statistics of QUiPP algorithm using 10% risk of sPTB before 34+0  weeks as treatment threshold. RESULTS: Fifteen of 119 women (13%) had PPROM or sPTB before 34 weeks. Of these, 53% (8/15) had QUiPP risk of sPTB before 34+0  weeks above 10%. Applying this treatment threshold in practice would have doubled our treatment rate (20 versus 42%). QUIPP threshold of 10% had positive likelihood ratio (LR) of 1.3 (95% CI 0.76-2.18), and negative LR of 0.8 (95% CI 0.45-1.40) for predicting sPTB before 34+0  weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Use of the QUiPP algorithm in this population may lead to substantial increase in interventions without evidence that currently available treatment options are beneficial for this particular group. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Independent study finds that the QUiPP algorithm could lead to substantial increases in treatment without evidence of benefit.


Assuntos
Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/epidemiologia , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez/fisiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , Algoritmos , Biomarcadores/análise , Medida do Comprimento Cervical , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/prevenção & controle , Fibronectinas/análise , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD008873, 2019 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy may be needed to protect against adverse pregnancy outcomes. This is an update of a review that was first published in 2012 and then in 2016. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether vitamin D supplementation alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals given to women during pregnancy can safely improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, we searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (12 July 2018), contacted relevant organisations (15 May 2018), reference lists of retrieved trials and registries at clinicaltrials.gov and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (12 July 2018). Abstracts were included if they had enough information to extract the data. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effect of supplementation with vitamin D alone or in combination with other micronutrients for women during pregnancy in comparison to placebo or no intervention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently i) assessed the eligibility of trials against the inclusion criteria, ii) extracted data from included trials, and iii) assessed the risk of bias of the included trials. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included 30 trials (7033 women), excluded 60 trials, identified six as ongoing/unpublished trials and two trials are awaiting assessments.Supplementation with vitamin D alone versus placebo/no interventionA total of 22 trials involving 3725 pregnant women were included in this comparison; 19 trials were assessed as having low-to-moderate risk of bias for most domains and three trials were assessed as having high risk of bias for most domains. Supplementation with vitamin D alone during pregnancy probably reduces the risk of pre-eclampsia (risk ratio (RR) 0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30 to 0.79; 4 trials, 499 women, moderate-certainty evidence) and gestational diabetes (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.97; 4 trials, 446 women, moderate-certainty evidence); and probably reduces the risk of having a baby with low birthweight (less than 2500 g) (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.87; 5 trials, 697 women, moderate-certainty evidence) compared to women who received placebo or no intervention. Vitamin D supplementation may make little or no difference in the risk of having a preterm birth < 37 weeks compared to no intervention or placebo (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.30; 7 trials, 1640 women, low-certainty evidence). In terms of maternal adverse events, vitamin D supplementation may reduce the risk of severe postpartum haemorrhage (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.91; 1 trial, 1134 women, low-certainty evidence). There were no cases of hypercalcaemia (1 trial, 1134 women, low-certainty evidence), and we are very uncertain as to whether vitamin D increases or decreases the risk of nephritic syndrome (RR 0.17, 95% CI 0.01 to 4.06; 1 trial, 135 women, very low-certainty evidence). However, given the scarcity of data in general for maternal adverse events, no firm conclusions can be drawn.Supplementation with vitamin D and calcium versus placebo/no interventionNine trials involving 1916 pregnant women were included in this comparison; three trials were assessed as having low risk of bias for allocation and blinding, four trials were assessed as having high risk of bias and two had some components having a low risk, high risk, or unclear risk. Supplementation with vitamin D and calcium during pregnancy probably reduces the risk of pre-eclampsia (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.78; 4 trials, 1174 women, moderate-certainty evidence). The effect of the intervention is uncertain on gestational diabetes (RR 0.33,% CI 0.01 to 7.84; 1 trial, 54 women, very low-certainty evidence); and low birthweight (less than 2500 g) (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.10 to 4.55; 2 trials, 110 women, very low-certainty evidence) compared to women who received placebo or no intervention. Supplementation with vitamin D and calcium during pregnancy may increase the risk of preterm birth < 37 weeks in comparison to women who received placebo or no intervention (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.28; 5 trials, 942 women, low-certainty evidence). No trial in this comparison reported on maternal adverse events.Supplementation with vitamin D + calcium + other vitamins and minerals versus calcium + other vitamins and minerals (but no vitamin D)One trial in 1300 participants was included in this comparison; it was assessed as having low risk of bias. Pre-eclampsia was not assessed. Supplementation with vitamin D + other nutrients may make little or no difference in the risk of preterm birth < 37 weeks (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.59; 1 trial, 1298 women, low-certainty evidence); or low birthweight (less than 2500 g) (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.51; 1 trial, 1298 women, low-certainty evidence). It is unclear whether it makes any difference to the risk of gestational diabetes (RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.10 to 1.73) or maternal adverse events (hypercalcaemia no events; hypercalciuria RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.02 to 3.97; 1 trial, 1298 women,) because the certainty of the evidence for both outcomes was found to be very low. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We included 30 trials (7033 women) across three separate comparisons. Our GRADE assessments ranged from moderate to very low, with downgrading decisions based on limitations in study design, imprecision and indirectness.Supplementing pregnant women with vitamin D alone probably reduces the risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, low birthweight and may reduce the risk of severe postpartum haemorrhage. It may make little or no difference in the risk of having a preterm birth < 37 weeks' gestation. Supplementing pregnant women with vitamin D and calcium probably reduces the risk of pre-eclampsia but may increase the risk of preterm births < 37 weeks (these findings warrant further research). Supplementing pregnant women with vitamin D and other nutrients may make little or no difference in the risk of preterm birth < 37 weeks' gestation or low birthweight (less than 2500 g). Additional rigorous high quality and larger randomised trials are required to evaluate the effects of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy, particularly in relation to the risk of maternal adverse events.


Assuntos
Resultado da Gravidez , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Gestacional/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados
17.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 236, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy increases the risk of adverse birth outcomes such as low birth weight (LBW), maternal and foetal anemia. In Tanzania, some areas have attained low malaria transmission. However, data on the burden of preterm delivery, LBW, maternal and foetal anemia following substantial reduction of malaria transmission in recent years is still scarce in these settings. METHODS: A study involving 631 pregnant women was conducted at Mwananyamala referral hospital in Dar es Salaam from April to August, 2018. Study enrollment was done prior to delivery. Structured interview and antenatal clinic cards were used to obtain data including the use of intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP). Infants birth weights were recorded, maternal venous and cord blood were taken for testing of malaria and determination of haemoglobin (Hb) levels. Chi-square test and regression analysis were done to identify risk factors for preterm delivery, LBW, maternal and foetal anemia. RESULTS: The prevalence of malaria among mothers who used at least one dose of IPTp-SP was 0.6% (4/631). Fourteen mothers (2.2%) did not use IPTp-SP and had no malaria infection. The prevalence of maternal anemia, LBW, foetal anemia and preterm delivery was 40.6, 6.5, 5.9 and 9.2% respectively. Participants who were malaria positive had 11 times more risk of LBW compared to those who were negative (AOR, 11; 95%, CI 1.07-132.2; p = 0.04). The risk of delivering babies with LBW was 1.12 times high among mothers who were ≤ 36 weeks of gestation (AOR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.06-0.25; p = < 0.001). The use of ≥3 doses of IPTp-SP was associated with 83% decrease in risk of LBW compared to those who did not use any dose of IPTp-SP (AOR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.03-0.88; p = 0.05). Severe anaemia at delivery was associated with seven times increased risk of preterm delivery compared to non-anemic participants (AOR, 6.5; 95% CI, 1.49-28.16; p = 0.013). CONCLUSION: Despite the reduced malaria transmission and use of IPTp-SP, prevalence of preterm delivery, maternal anemia, LBW and foetal anemia is still high in Tanzania. The recommended ≥3 doses of IPTp-SP should continue be provided even in areas with substantial reduction of malaria.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Malária/prevenção & controle , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Pirimetamina/uso terapêutico , Sulfadoxina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia/parasitologia , Anemia/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Malária/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/parasitologia , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/parasitologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Tanzânia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD006843, 2019 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetal fibronectin (FFN) is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein localized at the maternal-fetal interface of the amniotic membranes, between chorion and decidua, where it is concentrated in this area between decidua and trophoblast. In normal conditions, FFN is found at very low levels in cervicovaginal secretions. Levels greater than or equal to 50 ng/mL at or after 22 weeks have been associated with an increased risk of spontaneous preterm birth. In fact, FFN is one of the best predictors of preterm birth in all populations studied so far, and can help in selecting which women are at significant risk for preterm birth. This is an update of a review first published in 2008. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of management based on knowledge of FFN testing results for preventing preterm birth. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, we searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (7 September 2018), ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (7 September 2018), and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials of pregnant women screened with FFN for risk of preterm birth. Studies included are based exclusively on knowledge of FFN results versus no such knowledge, and we have excluded studies including women with only positive or only negative FFN results. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data, and checked them for accuracy. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 16 trials, of which six were eligible for inclusion. The six included studies randomized 546 women with singleton gestations and threatened preterm labor (PTL) at 23 0/7 to 34 6/7 weeks. A total of 277 women were randomized to knowledge and 269 to no knowledge of FFN. No trials were identified on asymptomatic women or multiple gestations.The risk of bias of included studies was mixed. For selected important outcomes, preterm birth before 37, 34, and 32 weeks, and maternal hospitalization, we graded the quality of the evidence and created a 'Summary of findings' table. For these outcomes, the evidence was graded as mainly low quality due to the imprecision of effect estimates.Management based on knowledge of FFN results may reduce preterm birth before 37 weeks (21.6%) versus controls without such knowledge (29.2%) (risk ratio (RR) 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52 to 1.01; 4 trials; 357 women; low-quality evidence). However, management based on knowledge of FFN results may make little or no difference to preterm birth before 34 (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.54 to 2.18; 4 trials; 357 women; low-quality evidence) or maternal hospitalization (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.43; 5 trials; 441 women; low-quality evidence). The evidence for preterm birth before 32 weeks is uncertain because the quality was found to be very low (average RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.16 to 3.96; 4 trials; 357 women; very low-quality evidence).For all other outcomes, for which there were available data (preterm birth less than 28 weeks; gestational age at delivery (weeks); birthweight less than 2500 g; perinatal death; tocolysis; steroids for fetal lung maturity; time to evaluate; respiratory distress syndrome; neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission; and NICU days), knowledge of FFN results may make little or no difference to the outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence from this review suggests that management based on knowledge of FFN results may reduce preterm birth before 37 weeks. However, our confidence in this result is limited as the evidence was found to be of low quality. Effects on other substantive outcomes are uncertain due to serious concerns in study design, inconsistency, and imprecision of effect estimates. No trials were identified on asymptomatic women, or multiple gestations.Future studies are needed that include specific populations (e.g. singleton gestations with symptoms of preterm labor), a study group managed with a protocol based on the FFN results, and that report not only maternal but also important perinatal outcomes. Cost-effectiveness analyses are also needed.


Assuntos
Fibronectinas/uso terapêutico , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Biomarcadores/análise , Feminino , Fibronectinas/análise , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/prevenção & controle
19.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 204, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No study has revealed the effectiveness of long-term tocolysis for patients diagnosed with threatened preterm birth, and the use of betamimetics in these patients has not been recommended in the United States or Europe because of the potential for severe maternal adverse effects. However, long-term tocolysis with intravenous infusion of ritodrine hydrochloride, a betamimetic, can be selected as the first-line tocolytic treatment in Japan. This study was performed to (i) examine the current status of long-term tocolytic treatment, particularly with intravenous infusion of betamimetics, for threatened preterm birth in Japan and (ii) clarify the association between long-term tocolytic treatment and maternal adverse effects. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted using a national inpatient database for acute-care inpatients in Japan. Among all pregnant women who were diagnosed with threatened preterm birth and admitted to the hospital from July 2010 to March 2016, we identified 134,959 eligible patients. The primary outcome was maternal serious adverse effects during hospitalization. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate factors associated with maternal adverse effects. RESULTS: Among all patients, 17.2% received intravenous infusion of ritodrine hydrochloride for ≤48 h and 28.7% received this treatment for ≥28 days. The proportion of maternal adverse effects was significantly higher among patients treated for ≥28 days than ≤48 h. A longer duration of tocolysis was significantly associated with increased maternal adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term tocolysis was associated with an increased incidence of maternal adverse effects in the current study using real-world data. Japanese clinicians should adjust their tocolytic treatment practices in accordance with the latest scientific evidence or make efforts to verify the effectiveness and safety of long-term tocolysis.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Edema Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Ritodrina/administração & dosagem , Tocolíticos/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Agranulocitose/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Prescrição Inadequada/estatística & dados numéricos , Infusões Intravenosas , Japão/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rabdomiólise/epidemiologia , Ritodrina/efeitos adversos , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Tocolíticos/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Ceska Gynekol ; 84(1): 55-60, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213059

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Contemporary role of cerclage as a preterm birth treatment. DESIGN: Review article. SETTING: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the First Faculty of Medicine and General Teaching Hospital in Prague. METHODS: Research of existing literature, predominantly foreign journal articles, but also Czech literature and personal experience with the method. RESULTS: Cerclage is one of the well-known surgical procedures carried out during pregnancy. Its aim is to provide a mechanical support to the cervical canal and to keep the cervix closed. The cervical mucous plug serves as a mechanical barrier between the vagina and the uterine cavity, but it also contains many immune components which protect the fetal compartment from ascendent infections. Application of a cervical stitch can help to retain the mucous plug and thus increases the immunity of the cervical canal. Results of 15 randomised studies (Cochraine Database of Systematic R) suggest that in women with increased risk of preterm birth, cerclage decreases the occurrence of preterm birth relative to the expectant management. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the decreasing numbers of cerclage surgeries, it is still a useful method of preterm birth prevention for a specific group of women. More recently, a progesterone treatment has gained popularity. Its application, however, must begin before the 16th week of pregnancy.


Assuntos
Cerclagem Cervical/métodos , Colo do Útero/cirurgia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Incompetência do Colo do Útero/cirurgia , Medida do Comprimento Cervical , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Incompetência do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Vagina
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