Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.858
Filtrar
1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1395: 379-384, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36527666

RESUMO

Reliable measurements using modern techniques and consensus in experimental design have enabled the assessment of novel data sets for normal maternal and foetal respiratory physiology at term. These data sets include (a) principal factors affecting placental gas transfer, e.g., maternal blood flow through the intervillous space (IVS) (500 mL/min) and foeto-placental blood flow (480 mL/min), and (b) O2, CO2 and pH levels in the materno-placental and foeto-placental circulation. According to these data, the foetus is adapted to hypoxaemic hypoxia. Despite flat oxygen partial pressure (pO2) gradients between the blood of the IVS and the umbilical arteries of the foetus, adequate O2 delivery to the foetus is maintained by the higher O2 affinity of the foetal blood, high foetal haemoglobin (HbF) concentrations, the Bohr effect, the double-Bohr effect, and high foeto-placental (=umbilical) blood flow. Again, despite flat gradients, adequate CO2 removal from the foetus is maintained by a high diffusion capacity, high foeto-placental blood flow, the Haldane effect, and the double-Haldane effect. Placental respiratory gas exchange is perfusion-limited, rather than diffusion-limited, i.e., O2 uptake depends on O2 delivery.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Feto , Troca Materno-Fetal , Oxigênio , Placenta , Circulação Placentária , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Dióxido de Carbono/fisiologia , Sangue Fetal/fisiologia , Hemoglobina Fetal/fisiologia , Feto/fisiologia , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Troca Materno-Fetal/fisiologia , Oxigênio/fisiologia , Oxiemoglobinas/fisiologia , Placenta/irrigação sanguínea , Placenta/fisiologia , Circulação Placentária/fisiologia , Nascimento a Termo/fisiologia
2.
Rom J Morphol Embryol ; 63(2): 357-367, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36374141

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to establish a correlation between placental histopathological and immunohistochemical (IHC) changes and preterm birth with fetal growth restriction (FGR, formerly called intrauterine growth restriction - IUGR). PATIENTS, MATERIALS, AND METHODS: This prospective study was performed on a group of 30 parturients, with singleton gestation, of which 15 patients gave birth at term, and the other 15 patients gave birth prematurely. After the statistical correlation of the clinical and demographic data with premature birth (PB) and term birth (TB), we performed histological and IHC research on the respective placentae. To observe normal and pathological microscopic placental structures, we used the Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) and Periodic Acid Schiff-Hematoxylin (PAS-H) classical stainings, but also special immunostaining with anti-cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34) and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibodies. RESULTS: We found a statistically significant difference between the TB∕PB categories and the age of the patients, their antepartum weight, the weight of the newborns, and the placenta according to the sex of the newborn. Histological analysis revealed in the case of TB, small areas of perivillous amyloid deposition, with the significant extension of these areas both intravillous and perivillous in the case of PB. Massive intravillous calcifications, syncytial knots, and intravillous vascular thrombosis were also frequently present in PB. With PAS-H staining were highlighted the intra∕extravillous vascular basement membranes, but especially the massive fibrin deposits rich in glycosaminoglycans. By the IHC technique with the anti-CD34 antibody, we noticed the numerical vascular density, higher in the case of TB, but in the case of PB, there were large areas of placental infarction, with a lack of immunostaining in these areas. Through the anti-VEGF antibody, we observed the presence of signal proteins that determined and stimulated the formation of neoformation vessels in the areas affected by the lack of post-infarction placental vascularization. We observed a highly significant difference between placental vascular density between TB∕PB and newborn weight, sex, or placental weight. CONCLUSIONS: Any direct proportional link between the clinical maternal-fetal and histological elements yet studied must be considered. Thus, establishing an antepartum risk group can prevent a poor pregnancy outcome.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Feminino , Placenta/patologia , Nascimento Prematuro/metabolismo , Nascimento Prematuro/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Hematoxilina/metabolismo , Nascimento a Termo , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/patologia , Complicações na Gravidez/patologia , Infarto/patologia
3.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(10): e00281121, 2022.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36449853

RESUMO

This study analyzed late-term and post-term birth, evaluating the maternal profile, its characteristics, and maternal and neonatal complications. A total of 23,610 babies were selected from the Birth in Brazil study (2011), and a descriptive analysis of the study population was performed. The association between late-term and post-term birth and their outcomes was performed using logistic regressions (p-value < 0.05). The prevalence found was 7.4% for late-term and 2.5% for post-term birth, both of which were more frequent in the North and Northeast regions, in adolescents, black women, with low schooling, multiparous, cared for by the public sector. Late term pregnancies had a higher chance of induction of vaginal delivery (OR = 2.02; 95%CI: 1.67-2.45), of cesarean section (OR = 1.32; 95%CI: 1.16-1.52), of severe laceration (OR = 3.75; 95%CI: 1.36-10.36), and of oxygen therapy for newborns (OR = 1.52; 95%CI: 1.02-2.26). In post-term pregnancies, newborns had a lower chance of breastfeeding at birth (OR = 0.74; 95%CI: 0.56-0.97) and during hospitalization (OR = 0.62; 95%CI: 0.40-0.97) and a higher chance of being born small for the gestational age (OR = 4.01; 95%CI: 2.83-5.70). The results using only ultrasound as a measure of gestational age confirmed the previous findings. Late-term and post-term pregnancies occur more frequently in the North and Northeast regions and in women with greater social vulnerability, being associated with maternal and neonatal complications.


Este estudo analisou o nascimento termo tardio e pós-termo, avaliando o perfil materno, suas características e as complicações maternas e neonatais. Foram selecionados 23.610 bebês do estudo Nascer no Brasil (2011), sendo realizada uma análise descritiva da população de estudo. A associação entre o nascimento termo tardio e pós-termo e seus desfechos foi efetuada pela utilização de regressões logísticas (valor de p < 0,05). A prevalência encontrada foi de 7,4% para o termo tardio e de 2,5% para o pós-termo, tendo ambos sido mais frequentes nas regiões Norte e Nordeste, em adolescentes, mulheres negras, de baixa escolaridade, multíparas, atendidas no setor público. As gestações termo tardio tiveram maior chance de indução do parto vaginal (OR = 2,02; IC95%: 1,67-2,45), de cesariana (OR = 1,32; IC95%: 1,16-1,52), de laceração grave (OR = 3,75; IC95%: 1,36-10,36) e de uso oxigenoterapia para os recém-nascidos (OR = 1,52; IC95%: 1,02-2,26). Nas gestações pós-termo, os recém-nascidos tiveram menor chance de amamentação ao nascer (OR = 0,74; IC95%: 0,56-0,97) e durante a hospitalização (OR = 0,62; IC95%: 0,40-0,97) e maior chance de nascerem pequenos para a idade gestacional (OR = 4,01; IC95%: 2,83-5,70). Os resultados utilizando somente a ultrassonografia como medida da idade gestacional confirmaram os achados anteriores. Gestações termo tardio e pós-termo ocorrem com maior frequência nas regiões Norte e Nordeste e em mulheres com maior vulnerabilidade social, associando-se a complicações maternas e neonatais.


Este estudio analizó los nacimientos a término tardío y postérmino, evaluando el perfil materno, sus características y las complicaciones maternas y neonatales. Se seleccionó a 23.610 bebés del estudio Nacer en Brasil (2011) para realizar un análisis descriptivo de la población de estudio. La asociación entre el nacimiento a término tardío y postérmino y sus desenlaces se realizó mediante regresiones logísticas (valor de p < 0,05). Se encontró una prevalencia del 7,4% para nacimientos a término tardío y del 2,5% para postérmino, ambas más frecuentes en las regiones Norte y Nordeste brasileño, en adolescentes, mujeres negras, con bajo nivel de estudios, multíparas y atendidas en el sector público de salud. Los embarazos a término tardío tuvieron una mayor probabilidad de inducir el parto vaginal (OR = 2,02; IC95%: 1,67-2,45), cesárea (OR = 1,32; IC95%: 1,16-1,52), laceración severa (OR = 3,75; IC95%: 1,36-10,36) y uso de oxigenoterapia en los recién nacidos (OR = 1,52; IC95%: 1,02-2,26). En los embarazos postérmino, los recién nacidos tuvieron menos probabilidad de ser amamantados al nacer (OR = 0,74; IC95%: 0,56-0,97) y durante la hospitalización (OR = 0,62; IC95%: 0,40-0,97), y más probabilidad de nacer pequeños para la edad gestacional (OR = 4,01; IC95%: 2,83-5,70). Los resultados que utilizaron solo la ecografía como medición para la edad gestacional confirmaron estos hallazgos. Los embarazos a término tardío y postérmino ocurren con mayor frecuencia en las regiones Norte y Nordeste brasileño, en mujeres con mayor vulnerabilidad social y están asociados a complicaciones maternas y neonatales.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Nascimento a Termo , Recém-Nascido , Adolescente , Lactente , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Família
4.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 767, 2022 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36224532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Birth asphyxia is one of the leading causes of neonatal mortality worldwide. In Uganda, it accounts for 28.9% of all neonatal deaths. With a view to inform policy and practice interventions to reduce adverse neonatal outcomes, we aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with birth asphyxia at two referral hospitals in Northern Uganda. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, involving women who gave birth at two referral hospitals. Women in labour were consecutively enrolled by the research assistants, who also attended the births and determined Apgar scores. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, pregnancy history and care during labour, were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Participants were tested for; i) malaria (peripheral and placental blood samples), ii) syphilis, iii) white blood cell counts (WBC), and iv) haemoglobin levels. The prevalence of birth asphyxia was determined as the number of newborns with Apgar scores < 7 at 5 min out of the total population of study participants. Factors independently associated with birth asphyxia were determined using multivariable logistic regression analysis and a p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 2,930 mother-newborn pairs were included, and the prevalence of birth asphyxia was 154 [5.3% (95% confidence interval: 4.5- 6.1)]. Factors associated with birth asphyxia were; maternal age ≤ 19 years [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.92 (1.27-2.91)], syphilis infection [aOR 2.45(1.08-5.57)], and a high white blood cell count [aOR 2.26 (1.26-4.06)], while employment [aOR 0.43 (0.22-0.83)] was protective. Additionally, referral [aOR1.75 (1.10-2.79)], induction/augmentation of labour [aOR 2.70 (1.62-4.50)], prolonged labour [aOR 1.88 (1.25-2.83)], obstructed labour [aOR 3.40 (1.70-6.83)], malpresentation/ malposition [aOR 3.00 (1.44-6.27)] and assisted vaginal delivery [aOR 5.54 (2.30-13.30)] were associated with birth asphyxia. Male newborns [aOR 1.92 (1.28-2.88)] and those with a low birth weight [aOR 2.20 (1.07-4.50)], were also more likely to develop birth asphyxia. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of birth asphyxia was 5.3%. In addition to the known intrapartum complications, teenage motherhood, syphilis and a raised white blood cell count were associated with birth asphyxia. This indicates that for sustained reduction of birth asphyxia, appropriate management of maternal infections and improved intrapartum quality of care are essential.


Assuntos
Asfixia Neonatal , Sífilis , Adolescente , Asfixia/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hemoglobinas , Hospitais , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Apresentação no Trabalho de Parto , Masculino , Placenta , Gravidez , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Fatores de Risco , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Nascimento a Termo , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271952, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35976808

RESUMO

Preterm birth (<37 weeks' gestation) is a risk factor for poor educational outcomes. A dose-response effect of earlier gestational age at birth on poor primary school attainment has been observed, but evidence for secondary school attainment is limited and focused predominantly on the very preterm (<32 weeks) population. We examined the association between gestational age at birth and academic attainment at the end of primary and secondary schooling in England. Data for children born in England from 2000-2001 were drawn from the population-based UK Millennium Cohort Study. Information about the child's birth, sociodemographic factors and health was collected from parents. Attainment on national tests at the end of primary (age 11) and secondary school (age 16) was derived from linked education records. Data on attainment in primary school was available for 6,950 pupils and that of secondary school was available for 7,131 pupils. Adjusted relative risks (aRRs) for these outcomes were estimated at each stage separately using modified Poisson regression. At the end of primary school, 17.7% of children had not achieved the expected level in both English and Mathematics and this proportion increased with increasing prematurity. Compared to full term (39-41 weeks) children, the strongest associations were among children born moderately (32-33 weeks; aRR = 2.13 (95% CI 1.44-3.13)) and very preterm (aRR = 2.06 (95% CI 1.46-2.92)). Children born late preterm (34-36 weeks) and early term (37-38 weeks) were also at higher risk with aRR = 1.18 (95% CI 0.94-1.49) and aRR = 1.21 (95% CI 1.05-1.38), respectively. At the end of secondary school, 45.2% had not passed at least five General Certificate of Secondary Education examinations including English and Mathematics. Following adjustment, only children born very preterm were at significantly higher risk (aRR = 1.26 (95% CI 1.03-1.54)). All children born before full term are at risk of poorer attainment during primary school compared with term-born children, but only children born very preterm remain at risk at the end of secondary schooling. Children born very preterm may require additional educational support throughout compulsory schooling.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Nascimento Prematuro , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Nascimento a Termo
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(8): e2226531, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35960517

RESUMO

Importance: Little is known about changes in obstetric outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: To assess whether obstetric outcomes and pregnancy-related complications changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included pregnant patients receiving care at 463 US hospitals whose information appeared in the PINC AI Healthcare Database. The relative differences in birth outcomes, pregnancy-related complications, and length of stay (LOS) during the pandemic period (March 1, 2020, to April 31, 2021) were compared with the prepandemic period (January 1, 2019, to February 28, 2020) using logistic and Poisson models, adjusting for patients' characteristics, and comorbidities and with month and hospital fixed effects. Exposures: COVID-19 pandemic period. Main Outcomes and Measures: The 3 primary outcomes were the relative change in preterm vs term births, mortality outcomes, and mode of delivery. Secondary outcomes included the relative change in pregnancy-related complications and LOS. Results: There were 849 544 and 805 324 pregnant patients in the prepandemic and COVID-19 pandemic periods, respectively, and there were no significant differences in patient characteristics between periods, including age (≥35 years: 153 606 [18.1%] vs 148 274 [18.4%]), race and ethnicity (eg, Hispanic patients: 145 475 [47.1%] vs 143 905 [17.9%]; White patients: 456 014 [53.7%] vs 433 668 [53.9%]), insurance type (Medicaid: 366 233 [43.1%] vs 346 331 [43.0%]), and comorbidities (all standardized mean differences <0.10). There was a 5.2% decrease in live births during the pandemic. Maternal death during delivery hospitalization increased from 5.17 to 8.69 deaths per 100 000 pregnant patients (odds ratio [OR], 1.75; 95% CI, 1.19-2.58). There were minimal changes in mode of delivery (vaginal: OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.996-1.02; primary cesarean: OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04; vaginal birth after cesarean: OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.95-1.00; repeated cesarean: OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.95-0.97). LOS during delivery hospitalization decreased by 7% (rate ratio, 0.931; 95% CI, 0.928-0.933). Lastly, the adjusted odds of gestational hypertension (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.06-1.11), obstetric hemorrhage (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04-1.10), preeclampsia (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.06), and preexisting chronic hypertension (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.03-1.09) increased. No significant changes in preexisting racial and ethnic disparities were observed. Conclusions and Relevance: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there were increased odds of maternal death during delivery hospitalization, cardiovascular disorders, and obstetric hemorrhage. Further efforts are needed to ensure risks potentially associated with the COVID-19 pandemic do not persist beyond the current state of the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Morte Materna , Complicações na Gravidez , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Nascimento a Termo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792368

RESUMO

Obstetric research is often criticized for using surrogate or combined outcomes with a disproportionately heavy weight of less relevant components. The objective of this methodological systematic review was to assess the choice and reporting of short-term perinatal outcomes for management of labor at or near term and evaluate if there is any need and possibility to harmonize them. A systematic methodological review of Cochrane reviews was performed. The review was registered prospectively at International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO), registration number212954. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was searched by topics and group browsing and by combination of free-text words and standardized subject terms. Cochrane Systematic Reviews with focus on management of labor at or near term, including timing, type of labor onset, mode of delivery and intrapartum care were included while those focused on prenatal care, postnatal interventions, and preterm deliveries were excluded. Prespecified and reported non-prespecified short-term perinatal (foetal and newborn) outcomes were collected. The outcomes were grouped into domains and classified independently by two authors into five prespecified groups regarding their anticipated importance for patients. Outcomes reflecting how a patient feels, functions, and survives were deemed patient-important. We also evaluated whether any of the outcomes were salutogenic (reflecting positive health and well-being rather than illness or adverse event prevention or avoidance). Our search resulted in 806 Cochrane Systematic Reviews, of which we included 141 published between the years 1996 and 2020. We identified 348 unique outcomes, of which 15 (4.3%) were prespecified and 13 (3.7%) were reported in at least 10% of the reviews. Only half of the prespecified outcomes were reported. In total, 88 (25.3%) of the 348 outcomes were classified as patient important, reflecting how a patient feels, functions, and survives. Salutogenic outcomes were rare (3.4%). To conclude, variation in the choice of outcomes for management of term labor as well as the discrepancy between chosen and reported outcomes were large. Harmonization of perinatal outcome measures, based on consensus between researchers, clinicians, and families, is needed.


Assuntos
Trabalho de Parto , Resultado da Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Nascimento a Termo , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos
8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 873683, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35646730

RESUMO

Background: Periodontal disease in pregnancy is considered a risk factor for adverse birth outcomes. Periodontal disease has a microbial etiology, however, the current state of knowledge about the subgingival microbiome in pregnancy is not well understood. Objective: To characterize the structure and diversity of the subgingival microbiome in early and late pregnancy and explore relationships between the subgingival microbiome and preterm birth among pregnant Black women. Methods: This longitudinal descriptive study used 16S rRNA sequencing to profile the subgingival microbiome of 59 Black women and describe microbial ecology using alpha and beta diversity metrics. We also compared microbiome features across early (8-14 weeks) and late (24-30 weeks) gestation overall and according to gestational age at birth outcomes (spontaneous preterm, spontaneous early term, full term). Results: In this sample of Black pregnant women, the top twenty bacterial taxa represented in the subgingival microbiome included a spectrum representative of various stages of biofilm progression leading to periodontal disease, including known periopathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia. Other organisms associated with periodontal disease reflected in the subgingival microbiome included several Prevotella spp., and Campylobacter spp. Measures of alpha or beta diversity did not distinguish the subgingival microbiome of women according to early/late gestation or full term/spontaneous preterm birth; however, alpha diversity differences in late pregnancy between women who spontaneously delivered early term and women who delivered full term were identified. Several taxa were also identified as being differentially abundant according to early/late gestation, and full term/spontaneous early term births. Conclusions: Although the composition of the subgingival microbiome is shifted toward complexes associated with periodontal disease, the diversity of the microbiome remains stable throughout pregnancy. Several taxa were identified as being associated with spontaneous early term birth. Two, in particular, are promising targets of further investigation. Depletion of the oral commensal Lautropia mirabilis in early pregnancy and elevated levels of Prevotella melaninogenica in late pregnancy were both associated with spontaneous early term birth.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Doenças Periodontais , Nascimento Prematuro , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Porphyromonas gingivalis/genética , Gravidez , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Nascimento a Termo
9.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; 42(6): 1693-1702, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35653800

RESUMO

We investigated whether nonsurgical termination of pregnancy after 14 weeks of gestation increases the risk of preterm delivery in a subsequent pregnancy. We conducted a two-centre retrospective case-control study. Patients who underwent non-surgical termination of pregnancy after 14 weeks of gestation between 2012 and 2015 and who gave birth after 14 weeks of gestation to a live-born singleton infant were included. Control patients were those who gave birth after 37 weeks of gestation (the same month as a case patient) and had a second delivery of a singleton foetus after 14 weeks of gestation. The primary outcome was preterm delivery during the second pregnancy period. We included 151 cases and 302 controls and observed 13 (8.6%) preterm births during the second pregnancy in the case group versus 8 (2.6%) (odds ratio: 3.62; 95% confidence interval: 1.40-8.65, p < .001) in the control group. This result remained significant after multivariate analysis. Impact statementWhat is already known about this topic? Many studies have evaluated the association between first-trimester surgical or non-surgical termination of pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth in the subsequent pregnancy. However, no study has evaluated the association between second- or third-trimester non-surgical termination of pregnancy due to foetal disease and the risk of preterm birth in the subsequent pregnancy. A small number of studies have included a small proportion of patients who previously underwent non-surgical termination of pregnancy after 14 weeks of gestation and later experienced first-trimester termination during their second pregnancy. These studies focussed on the impact of the interpregnancy interval or pharmacological induction of labour on the risk of preterm delivery in the subsequent pregnancy.What did the results of this study add? This is the first study to specifically evaluate the association between second- and third-trimester non-surgical terminations of pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth in the subsequent pregnancy. When compared with term birth, nonsurgical termination of pregnancy was associated with the risk of spontaneous preterm birth and hospitalisation in the neonatal intensive care unit in the subsequent pregnancy.What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and further research? Further studies are required to confirm our results, but information delivered to patients with a late termination of pregnancy and during their pregnancy follow-up for the subsequent pregnancy could be modified to provide this information.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Nascimento a Termo
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10148, 2022 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35710793

RESUMO

Ureaplasma and Prevotella infections are well-known bacteria associated with preterm birth. However, with the development of metagenome sequencing techniques, it has been found that not all Ureaplasma and Prevotella colonizations cause preterm birth. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between Ureaplasma and Prevotella colonization with the induction of preterm birth even in the presence of Lactobacillus. In this matched case-control study, a total of 203 pregnant Korean women were selected and their cervicovaginal fluid samples were collected during mid-pregnancy. The microbiome profiles of the cervicovaginal fluid were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene amplification. Sequencing data were processed using QIIME1.9.1. Statistical analyses were performed using R software, and microbiome analysis was performed using the MicrobiomeAnalyst and Calypso software. A positive correlation between Ureaplasma and other genera was highly related to preterm birth, but interestingly, there was a negative correlation with Lactobacillus and term birth, with the same pattern observed with Prevotella. Ureaplasma and Prevotella colonization with Lactobacillus abundance during pregnancy facilitates term birth, although Ureaplasma and Prevotella are associated with preterm birth. Balanced colonization between Lactobacillus and Ureaplasma and Prevotella is important to prevent preterm birth.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Infecções por Ureaplasma , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactobacillus/genética , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/microbiologia , Prevotella/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Nascimento a Termo , Ureaplasma/genética , Vagina/microbiologia
11.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 88(3): e13589, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750632

RESUMO

PROBLEM: Hyperhomocysteinemia (hypHcy) due to impaired folate metabolism is shown to be a risk factor for preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) in mothers. However, the relationship of fetal hypHcy with adverse pregnancy outcomes is under-represented. The present study aims to investigate the association of fetal hypHcy with oxidative stress and placental inflammation that can contribute to an early breakdown of maternal-fetal tolerance in pre-term birth (PTB). METHODS: Cord blood and placenta tissue were collected from PTB and term infant group. Levels of homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12 and oxidative stress markers (MDA, T-AOC, 8-OHdG) were measured in cord blood serum using ELISA and respective standard assay kits. Relative expression of candidate genes (TNF-α, IL-6, IL1-ß, VEGF-A, MMP2 and MMP9) was also checked using RT-PCR and immunoblotting/immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: PTB infants showed significantly higher levels of homocysteine (P = .02) and lower levels of vitamin B12 (P = .005) as compared to term infants. We also found that PTB infants with hypHcy had lower T-AOC (P = .003) and higher MDA (P = .04) levels as compared to term infants with normal homocysteine levels. The mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α, VEGF-A, MMP2 and MMP9 were significantly higher in hypHcy PTB infants. CONCLUSION: Our results show that fetal hypHcy is associated with oxidative stress and an increase in inflammatory markers in the placenta. Thus, in conclusion, our study demonstrates that fetal hypHcy during pregnancy is a potential risk factor that may initiate an early breakdown of uterine quiescence due to activation of inflammatory processes leading to PTB.


Assuntos
Hiper-Homocisteinemia , Nascimento Prematuro , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Homocisteína/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/complicações , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/metabolismo , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Inflamação/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/metabolismo , Nascimento a Termo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Vitamina B 12/metabolismo
12.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 419, 2022 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35585522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nulliparous women contribute to increasing cesarean delivery in the Nordic countries and advanced maternal age has been suggested as responsible for rise in cesarean delivery rates in many developed countries. The aim was to describe changes in cesarean delivery rates among nulliparous women with singleton, cephalic, term births by change in sociodemographic factors across 50 years in Norway. METHODS: We used data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway and included 1 067 356 women delivering their first, singleton, cephalic, term birth between 1967 and 2020. Cesarean delivery was described by maternal age (5-year groups), onset of labor (spontaneous, induced and pre-labor CD), and time periods: 1967-1982, 1983-1998 and 1999-2020. We combined women's age, onset of labor and time period into a compound variable, using women of 20-24 years, with spontaneous labor onset during 1967-1982 as reference. Multivariable regression models were used to estimate adjusted relative risk (ARR) of cesarean delivery with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Overall cesarean delivery increased both in women with and without spontaneous onset of labor, with a slight decline in recent years. The increase was mainly found among women < 35 years while it was stable or decreased in women > = 35 years. In women with spontaneous onset of labor, the ARR of CD in women > = 40 years decreased from 14.2 (95% CI 12.4-16.3) in 1967-82 to 6.7 (95% CI 6.2-7.4) in 1999-2020 and from 7.0 (95% CI 6.4-7.8) to 5.0 (95% CI 4.7-5.2) in women aged 35-39 years, compared to the reference population. Despite the rise in induced onset of labor over time, the ARR of CD declined in induced women > = 40 years from 17.6 (95% CI 14.4-21.4) to 13.4 (95% CI 12.5-14.3) while it was stable in women 35-39 years. CONCLUSION: Despite growing number of Norwegian women having their first birth at a higher age, the increase in cesarean delivery was found among women < 35 years, while it was stable or decreased in older women. The increase in cesarean delivery cannot be solely explained by the shift to an older population of first-time mothers.


Assuntos
Trabalho de Parto , Nascimento a Termo , Adulto , Idoso , Cesárea , Feminino , Humanos , Idade Materna , Paridade , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nutrients ; 14(9)2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35565813

RESUMO

Mother and newborn skin-to-skin contact (SSC) after birth has numerous protective effects. Although positive associations between SSC and breastfeeding behavior have been reported, the evidence for such associations between early SSC and breastfeeding success was limited in high-income countries. This quasi-experimental intervention design study aimed to evaluate the impact of different SSC regimens on newborn breastfeeding outcomes in Taiwan. In total, 104 healthy mother-infant dyads (52 in the intervention group and 52 in the control group) with normal vaginal delivery were enrolled from 1 January to 30 July 2019. The intervention group received 60 min of immediate SSC, whereas the control group received routine care (early SSC with 20 min duration). Breastfeeding performance was evaluated by the IBFAT and BSES-Short Form. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. In the intervention group, the breastfeeding ability of newborns increased significantly after 5 min of SSC and after SSC. The intervention also improved the total score for breastfeeding self-efficacy (0.18 point; p = 0.003). GEE analysis revealed that the interaction between group and time was significant (0.65 point; p = 0.003). An initial immediate SSC regimen of 60 min can significantly improve neonatal breastfeeding ability and maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy in the short term after birth.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Mães , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Relações Mãe-Filho , Gravidez , Autoeficácia , Pele , Nascimento a Termo
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3085, 2022 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361790

RESUMO

Preterm birth affects approximately 5% to 7% of live births worldwide and is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Amniotic fluid supernatant (AFS) contains abundant cell-free nucleic acids (cfNAs) that can provide genetic information associated with pregnancy complications. In the current study, cfNAs of AFS in the early second-trimester before the onset of symptoms of preterm birth were analyzed, and we compared gene expression levels between spontaneous preterm birth (n = 5) and term birth (n = 5) groups using sequencing analysis. Differential expression analyses detected 24 genes with increased and 6 genes with decreased expression in the preterm birth group compared to term birth. Upregulated expressions of RDH14, ZNF572, VOPP1, SERPINA12, and TCF15 were validated in an extended AFS sample by quantitative PCR (preterm birth group, n = 21; term birth group, n = 40). Five candidate genes displayed a significant increase in mRNA expression in immortalized trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cell with H2O2 treatment. Moreover, the expression of five candidate genes was increased to more than twofold by pretreatment with lipopolysaccharide in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Changes in gene expression between preterm birth and term birth is strongly correlated with oxidative stress and infection during pregnancy. Specific expression patterns of genes could be used as potential markers for the early identification of women at risk of having a spontaneous preterm birth.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Serpinas , Líquido Amniótico/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Serpinas/metabolismo , Nascimento a Termo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
15.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 272: 220-225, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395615

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine the capacity of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) to predict cumulative live birth rate (CLBR) following IVF/ICSI within 36 months since start of treatment. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cohort study of women seeking IVF/ICSI fertility treatment in a private Australian IVF clinic in a single calendar year. Live births were monitored over three years following start date of IVF/ICSI. The impact of serum AMH level on the CLBR was assessed using Cox's proportional hazard models, and its incremental values in the prediction of CLBR were evaluated. RESULTS: The CLBRs were significantly higher in women with AMH levels in the highest (>44.5 pmol/L; 87.0%, 95% CI 79.2% - 95.1%) and in the middle two quartiles (between 11.5 and 44.5 pmol/L; 81.0%, 95% CI 74.2% - 87.6%), compared with AMH levels below the 25th percentile (≤11.5 pmol/L; 63.2%, 95% CI 53.2% - 74.5%). Approximately half of the women with AMH in the lowest quartile conceived a live birth within 12 months of starting IVF compared with two-thirds of the women in the upper three quartiles. After adjusting for confounders, AMH remained a significant, albeit slight predictor of CLBR with a fall of 3 pmol/L equating to an 1% decrease in CLBR. The AMH's added values into the prediction of live birth were slight, indicated by a net reclassification improvement of 13.8%. The value is lower than that of maternal age (35.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Serum AMH level was a significant slight predictor of CLBR following IVF/ICSI. AMH should not be used to exclude women from IVF/ICSI however, women with low AMH should be counselled on the likelihood of taking longer to achieve a live birth than individuals with normal AMH levels.


Assuntos
Hormônio Antimülleriano , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas , Austrália , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Humanos , Nascido Vivo , Indução da Ovulação , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Nascimento a Termo
16.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 227(2): 280.e1-280.e15, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35341727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2016 the Antenatal Late Preterm Steroids study was published, demonstrating that antenatal corticosteroid therapy given to women at risk of late preterm delivery reduces respiratory morbidity in infants. However, the administration of antenatal corticosteroid therapy in late-preterm infants remains controversial. Late-preterm infants do not suffer from the same rates of morbidity as early-preterm infants, and the short-term benefits of antenatal corticosteroid therapy are less pronounced; consequently, the risk of possible harm is more difficult to balance. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the association between the publication of the Antenatal Late Preterm Steroids study or the subsequent changes in guidelines and the rates of antenatal corticosteroid therapy administration in late-preterm infants in the United States. STUDY DESIGN: Data analyzed were publicly available US birth certificate data from January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2018. An interrupted time series design was used to analyze the association between publication of the Antenatal Late Preterm Steroids study and changes in monthly rates of antenatal corticosteroid administration in late preterm gestation (34+0 to 36+6 weeks). Births at 28+0 to 31+6 weeks' gestation were used as a control. Antenatal corticosteroid therapy administration in women with births at 32+0 to 34+6 weeks was explored to analyze whether the intervention influenced antenatal corticosteroid therapy administration in women in the subgroup approaching 34 weeks' gestation. Antenatal corticosteroid therapy administration in women with term births (>37 weeks' gestation) was analyzed to explore if the intervention influenced the number of term babies exposed to antenatal corticosteroid therapy. Our regression model allowed analysis of both step and slope changes. February 2016 was chosen as the intervention period. RESULTS: Our sample size was 18,031,950 total births. Of these, 1,056,047 were births at 34+0 to 36+6 weeks' gestation, 123,788 at 28+0 to 31+6 weeks, 153,708 at 32 to 33 weeks, and 16,602,699 were term births. There were 95,708 births at <28 weeks' gestation. There was a statistically significant increase in antenatal corticosteroid therapy administration rates in late preterm births following the online publication of the Antenatal Late Preterm Steroids study (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.36-1.61; P=.00). A significant increase in antenatal corticosteroid therapy administration rates was also seen in full-term births following the online publication of the Antenatal Late Preterm Steroids study. No significant changes were seen in antenatal corticosteroid administration rates in gestational age groups of 32+0 to 33+6 weeks or 28+0 to 31+6 weeks. CONCLUSION: Online publication of the Antenatal Late Preterm Steroids study was associated with an immediate and sustained increase in the rates of antenatal corticosteroid therapy administration in late preterm births across the United States, demonstrating a swift and successful implementation of the Antenatal Late Preterm Steroids study guidance into clinical practice. However, there is an unnecessary increase in full-term infants receiving antenatal corticosteroid therapy. Given that the long-term consequences of antenatal corticosteroid therapy are yet to be elucidated, efforts should be made to minimize the number of infants unnecessarily exposed to antenatal corticosteroid therapy.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/tratamento farmacológico , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Nascimento a Termo
17.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 202, 2022 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35287624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited studies have used cervical shear wave elastography (SWE) as a tool to investigate the predictive effect of cervical changes on preterm delivery (PTD) in twin pregnancy. This study is aimed to predict the risk of PTD by cervical SWE in dichorionic diamniotic (DCDA) twin pregnancy. METHODS: A total of 138 women with dichorionic diamniotic (DCDA) twins were included in this prospective study. The mean SWE value of the cervix was obtained from the inner, middle and outer regions of the anterior and posterior cervical lips using a transvaginal ultrasound transducer and measured consecutively across three different gestations (20-23+ 6 weeks, 24-27+ 6 weeks, and 28-32 weeks). Follow-up was performed on all subjects, and we compared the mean SWE value between the PTD and term delivery (TD) groups. RESULTS: A total of 1656 cervical mean SWE data were collected for analysis. Among the 138 twin pregnant women, only 92 women completed the three elastography examinations; PTD occurred in 58.7% (54/92), and TD in 41.3% (38/92). The mean (SD) maternal age was 33.1 ± 4.1 years, and the mean (SD) body mass index was 21.1 ± 2.6 kg/m2. As gestational age increased, the mean SWE value of each part of the cervix decreased. The cervical mean SWE value was lower in the preterm group than in the term group in all three gestations, except for the anterior cervical lip at 28-32 weeks. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves showed the sensitivity of mean SWE value of the anterior cervical lip was 83.3% (95% CI, 70.7-92.1) with a specificity of 57.9% (95% CI, 40.8-73.7) for predicting PTD at a cutoff value of 7.94 kPa. The positive likelihood ratio (LR+) was 1.67 (95% CI, 1.19-2.34), and the negative likelihood ratio (LR-) was 0.33 (95% CI, 0.17-0.64). CONCLUSIONS: There is a significant negative correlation between cervical stiffness and gestational age in DCDA twin pregnancy. SWE is a potential tool for assessing cervical stiffness and predicting PTD in DCDA twin pregnancy.


Assuntos
Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Gravidez de Gêmeos , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico , Nascimento a Termo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol ; 62(4): 494-499, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35156708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is known that a previous preterm birth increases the risk of a subsequent preterm birth, but a limited number of studies have examined this beyond two consecutive pregnancies. AIMS: This study aimed to assess the risk and patterns of (recurrent) preterm birth up to the fourth pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used Western Australian routinely linked population health datasets to identify women who had two or more consecutive singleton births (≥20 weeks gestation) from 1980 to 2015. A log-binomial model was used to calculate risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence interval (CIs) for preterm birth risk in the third and fourth deliveries by the combined outcomes of previous pregnancies. RESULTS: We analysed 255 435 women with 651 726 births. About 7% of women had a preterm birth in the first delivery, and the rate of continuous preterm birth recurrence was 22.9% (second), 44.9% (third) and 58.5% (fourth) deliveries. The risk of preterm birth at the third delivery was highest for women with two prior indicated preterm births (RR 12.5, 95% CI: 11.3, 13.9) and for those whose first pregnancy was 32-36 weeks gestation, and second pregnancy was less than 32 weeks gestation (RR 11.8, 95% CI: 10.3, 13.5). There were similar findings for the second and fourth deliveries. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that women with any prior preterm birth were at greater risk of preterm birth in subsequent pregnancies compared with women with only term births, and the risk increased with shorter gestational length, and the number of previous preterm deliveries, especially sequential ones.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Austrália , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento a Termo , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
19.
BJOG ; 129(10): 1779-1789, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35137528

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: What are the costs, benefits and harms of immediate birth compared with expectant management in women with prolonged preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM) at 34+0 -36+6  weeks of gestation and detection of vaginal or urine group B streptococcus (GBS)? DESIGN: Mathematical decision model comprising three independent decision trees. SETTING: UK National Health Service (NHS) and personal social services perspective. POPULATION: Women testing positive for GBS with PPROM at 34+0 -36+6  weeks of gestation. METHODS: The model estimates lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) using evidence from randomised trials, UK NHS data sources and further observational studies. Simulated events include neonatal infections, morbidity associated with preterm birth and consequences of caesarean birth. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSAs) were performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: QALYs, costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). RESULTS: In this population, immediate birth dominates expectant management: it is more effective (average lifetime QALYs, 24.705 versus 24.371) and it is cheaper (average lifetime costs, £14,372 versus £19,311). In one-way sensitivity analysis, results are robust to all but the odds ratio estimating the relative effect on incidence of infections. Threshold analysis shows that the odds of infection only need to be >1.5% with expectant management for the benefit of avoiding infections to outweigh the disadvantages of immediate birth. In PSA, immediate birth is the preferred option in >80% of simulations. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal GBS infections are expensive to treat and may result in substantial adverse health consequences. Therefore, immediate birth, which is associated with a reduced risk of neonatal infection compared with expectant management, is expected to generate better health outcomes and decreased lifetime costs. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: For women with preterm prelabour rupture of membranes and group B streptococcus in vaginal or urine samples, immediate birth is associated with improved health in their babies and reduced costs, compared with expectant management.


Assuntos
Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais , Nascimento Prematuro , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/terapia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Medicina Estatal , Streptococcus agalactiae , Nascimento a Termo
20.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(5): 2109-2116, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35166933

RESUMO

Twins involve a higher risk of perinatal complications compared to singletons. We compared the risk of under five mortality between twins and singletons among late preterm and term births. The national birth data of South Korea pertaining to the years 2010-2014 linked with the mortality record of children aged under 5 years in 2010-2019 was analyzed. The final study population was 2,199,632 singletons and 62,351 twins. We conducted a survival analysis of under-five mortality with adjustment for neonatal and familial factors. Overall under-five mortality rates during the study period were 3.6 and 2.0 for twins and singletons, respectively. Although the unadjusted overall under-five mortality was higher in twins (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.80, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.57, 2.06, overall risk), twin birth was associated with comparable or lower risk (HR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.58, 0.85, overall; 0.70, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.87, excluding neonatal mortality; 0.59, 95% CI: 0.40, 0.86, excluding infant mortality) after controlling for both neonatal and familial factors. Twins born at a gestational age of 34-35 weeks showed a generally lower risk of under-five mortality than their singleton counterparts, regardless of model specification.Conclusion: Among late preterm and term birth, under-5-year mortalities for twins were lower than singleton births when adjusted for neonatal and familial risk factors. This highlights the differential implication of gestational age at birth between twin and singleton in the child mortality.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança , Nascimento a Termo , Criança , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Gêmeos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...