Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.342
Filtrar
1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 725, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Commencing lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) immediately following HIV diagnosis (Option B+), has greatly improved maternal-infant health. Thus, large and increasing numbers of HIV-infected women are on ART during pregnancy, a situation concurrently increasing numbers of HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU) infants. Compared to their HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) counterparts, HEU infants show higher rates of adverse birth outcomes, mortality, infectious/non-communicable diseases including impaired growth and neurocognitive development. There is an urgent need to understand the impact of HIV and early life ART exposures, immune-metabolic dysregulation, comorbidities and environmental confounders on adverse paediatric outcomes. METHODS: Six hundred (600) HIV-infected and 600 HIV-uninfected pregnant women ≥20 weeks of gestation will be enrolled from four primary health centres in high density residential areas of Harare. Participants will be followed up as mother-infant-pairs at delivery, week(s) 1, 6, 10, 14, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 after birth. Clinical, socio-economic, nutritional and environmental data will be assessed for adverse birth outcomes, impaired growth, immune/neurodevelopment, vertical transmission of HIV, hepatitis-B/C viruses, cytomegalovirus and syphilis. Maternal urine, stool, plasma, cord blood, amniotic fluid, placenta and milk including infant plasma, dried blood spot and stool will be collected at enrolment and follow-up visits. The composite primary endpoint is stillbirth and infant mortality within the first two years of life in HEU versus HUU infants. Maternal mortality in HIV-infected versus -uninfected women is another primary outcome. Secondary endpoints include a range of maternal and infant outcomes. Sub-studies will address maternal stress and malnutrition, maternal-infant latent tuberculosis, Helicobacter pylori infections, immune-metabolomic dysregulation including gut, breast milk and amniotic fluid dysbiosis. DISCUSSION: The University of Zimbabwe-College of Health-Sciences-Birth-Cohort study will provide a comprehensive assessment of risk factors and biomarkers for HEU infants' adverse outcomes. This will ultimately help developing strategies to mitigate effects of maternal HIV, early-life ART exposures and comorbidities on infants' mortality and morbidity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrial.gov Identifier: NCT04087239 . Registered 12 September 2019.


Assuntos
Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Helicobacter pylori , Hepatite B/complicações , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Leite Humano , Morbidade , Parto , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Natimorto , Sífilis/complicações , Universidades , Zimbábue
2.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 56(3): 378-389, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959805

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The study was implemented to provide guidance to decision-makers and clinicians by describing hospital care offered to women who gave birth with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: National population-based prospective cohort study involving all women with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who gave birth between February 25 and April 22, 2020 in any Italian hospital. RESULTS: The incidence rate of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in women who gave birth was 2.1 per 1000 maternities at a national level and 6.9/1000 in the Lombardy Region. Overall one third of the women developed a pneumonia and 49.7% assumed at least one drug against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Caesarean rate was 32.9%, no mothers nor newborns died. Six percent of the infants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at birth. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical features and outcomes of COVID-19 in women who gave birth are similar to those described for the general population, most women developing mild to moderate illness.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/congênito , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Maturidade dos Órgãos Fetais/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pulmão/embriologia , Pneumonia Viral/congênito , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas , Estudos Prospectivos , Natimorto/epidemiologia
3.
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD012871, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (PTB) remains the foremost global cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Thus, the prevention of spontaneous PTB still remains of critical importance. In an attempt to prevent PTB in singleton pregnancies, cervical cerclage, in combination with other treatments, has been advocated. This is because, cervical cerclage is an intervention that is commonly recommended in women with a short cervix at high risk of preterm birth but, despite this, many women still deliver prematurely, as the biological mechanism is incompletely understood. Additionally, previous Cochrane Reviews have been published on the effectiveness of cervical cerclage in singleton and multiple pregnancies, however, none has evaluated the effectiveness of using cervical cerclage in combination with other treatments. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether antibiotics administration, vaginal pessary, reinforcing or second cerclage placement, tocolytic, progesterone, or other interventions at the time of cervical cerclage placement prolong singleton gestation in women at high risk of pregnancy loss based on prior history and/or ultrasound finding of 'short cervix' and/or physical examination. History-indicated cerclage is defined as a cerclage placed usually between 12 and 15 weeks gestation based solely on poor prior obstetrical history, e.g. multiple second trimester losses due to painless dilatation. Ultrasound-indicated cerclage is defined as a cerclage placed usually between 16 and 23 weeks gestation for transvaginal ultrasound cervical length < 20 mm in a woman without cervical dilatation. Physical exam-indicated cerclage is defined as a cerclage placed usually between 16 and 23 weeks gestation because of cervical dilatation of one or more centimetres detected on physical (manual) examination. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (26 September 2019), and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included published, unpublished or ongoing randomised controlled trial (RCTs). Studies using a cluster-RCT design were also eligible for inclusion in this review but none were identified. We excluded quasi-RCTs (e.g. those randomised by date of birth or hospital number) and studies using a cross-over design. We also excluded studies that specified addition of the combination therapy after cervical cerclage because the woman subsequently became symptomatic. We included studies comparing cervical cerclage in combination with one, two or more interventions with cervical cerclage alone in singleton pregnancies. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts of all retrieved articles, selected studies for inclusion, extracted data, assessed risk of bias, and evaluated the certainty of the evidence for this review's main outcomes. Data were checked for accuracy. Standard Cochrane review methods were used throughout. MAIN RESULTS: We identified two studies (involving a total of 73 women) comparing cervical cerclage alone to a different comparator. We also identified three ongoing studies (one investigating vaginal progesterone after cerclage, and two investigating cerclage plus pessary). One study (20 women), conducted in the UK, comparing cervical cerclage in combination with a tocolytic (salbutamol) with cervical cerclage alone in women with singleton pregnancy did not provide any useable data for this review. The other study (involving 53 women, with data from 50 women) took place in the USA and compared cervical cerclage in combination with a tocolytic (indomethacin) and antibiotics (cefazolin or clindamycin) versus cervical cerclage alone - this study did provide useable data for this review (and the study authors also provided additional data on request) but meta-analyses were not possible. This study was generally at a low risk of bias, apart from issues relating to blinding. We downgraded the certainty of evidence for serious risk of bias and imprecision (few participants, few events and wide 95% confidence intervals). Cervical cerclage in combination with an antibiotic and tocolytic versus cervical cerclage alone (one study, 50 women/babies) We are unclear about the effect of cervical cerclage in combination with antibiotics and a tocolytic compared with cervical cerclage alone on the risk of serious neonatal morbidity (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.31 to 1.24; very low-certainty evidence); perinatal loss (data for miscarriage and stillbirth only - data not available for neonatal death) (RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.64; very low-certainty evidence) or preterm birth < 34 completed weeks of pregnancy (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.44 to 1.40; very low-certainty evidence). There were no stillbirths (intrauterine death at 24 or more weeks). The trial authors did not report on the numbers of babies discharged home healthy (without obvious pathology) or on the risk of neonatal death. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Currently, there is insufficient evidence to evaluate the effect of combining a tocolytic (indomethacin) and antibiotics (cefazolin/clindamycin) with cervical cerclage compared with cervical cerclage alone for preventing spontaneous PTB in women with singleton pregnancies. Future studies should recruit sufficient numbers of women to provide meaningful results and should measure neonatal death and numbers of babies discharged home healthy, as well as other important outcomes listed in this review. We did not identify any studies looking at other treatments in combination with cervical cerclage. Future research needs to focus on the role of other interventions such as vaginal support pessary, reinforcing or second cervical cerclage placement, 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate or dydrogesterone or vaginal micronised progesterone, omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation and bed rest.


Assuntos
Cerclagem Cervical/métodos , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Albuterol/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Viés , Cefazolina/uso terapêutico , Clindamicina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Indometacina/uso terapêutico , Ópio/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Tocolíticos/uso terapêutico
5.
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi ; 55(8): 510-515, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854474

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the perinatal outcomes of unicornuate uterus pregnancy. Methods: The clinical data of patients with unicornuate uterus pregnancy who delivered between January 2009 and December 2018 in Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, were reviewed retrospectively. Live birth was defined as the delivery of a baby after at least 28 weeks gestational age. Ninety-eight patients were diagnosed as unicornuate uterus, while 4 cases of stillbirth and 4 cases of twin pregnancy and 10 cases of incomplete data were excluded, and 80 patients with unicornuate uterus were included in the observation group. By matching the age, gestational age and delivery mode, 160 patients were randomly selected as the control group. The perinatal outcomes such as delivery mode, cesarean section indication sequence, postpartum hemorrhage, vaginal delivery time, newborn birth weight and Apgar score were analyzed retrospectively. Results: In the unicornuate uterus group, there were 10 cases of vaginal delivery and 70 cases of cesarean section, among which the primary indication of premature cesarean section and full-term cesarean section was abnormal fetal position, accounting for 7/18 and 50.0% (26/52), respectively. While in the control group, there were 20 cases of vagianl delivery and 140 cases of cesarean section, among which the main indications of premature cesarean section were placenta previa, intrahepatic cholestasis during pregnancy and scar uterus, accounting for 19.4% (7/36), and the primary indication of full-term cesarean section was abnormal fetal position, accounting for 23.1% (24/104). The postpartum hemorrhage of the vaginal delivery in the unicornuate uterus group and the control group was (319±161) and (261±152) ml, respectively, and the postpartum hemorrhage of the cesarean section delivery was (257±106) and (272±123) ml, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups statistically (all P>0.05). The time of the first stage of labor was (502±386) and (465±296) minutes in the unicornuate uterus group and the control group, and the time of the second stage was (74±73) and (47±30) minutes, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups statistically (all P>0.05). The neonatal birth weight in the unicornuate uterus group and the control group was (3 018±548) and (3 080±562) g, respectively, and there was no significant difference between the two groups statistically (P=0.42). According to preterm birth and different pre-pregnancy body mass index, the neonatal birth weight of the two groups were compared, and the differences were not statistically significant (all P>0.05). One-minute Apgar score of premature in the unicornuate uterus group and the control group were 10 (9.25-10) and 10 (10-10), 5-minute Apgar score were 10 (10-10) and 10 (10-10), respectively. One-minute Apgar score of full-term in the unicornuate uterus group and the control group were 10 (10-10) and 10 (10-10), 5-minute Apgar score were 10 (10-10) and 10 (10-10), respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups, respectively (all P>0.05). Conclusions: The patients with unicornuate uterus could give birth vaginally in the absence of other operation indications. The perinatal outcome of women with unicornuate uterus is similar to that of women with non-uterine abnormalities. It is found that the abnormal fetal position with unicornuate uterus is the main reason for cesarean section.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Trabalho de Parto , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Útero/anormalidades , Adulto , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Assistência Perinatal , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Natimorto/epidemiologia
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 601, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Listeriosis is a rare but severe foodborne infectious disease. Perinatal listeriosis is often associated with septicemia, central nervous system (CNS) infection, and serious adverse pregnancy outcomes (miscarriage and neonate death). Here we report the characteristics and outcomes of perinatal listeriosis cases treated over 6 years at Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital (BOGH), the largest maternity hospital in China. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of laboratory-confirmed, pregnancy-associated listeriosis cases treated from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2018. The clinical manifestations, laboratory results, perinatal complications and outcomes (post-natal follow-up of 6 months) were investigated. RESULTS: In BOGH, 12 perinatal listeriosis cases were diagnosed based on Listeria monocytogenes positive culture, including 10 single pregnancies and 2 twin pregnancies. The corresponding incidence of pregnancy-associated listeriosis was 13.7/100,000 deliveries. Among those cases, four pregnant women and four newborns had septicemia, and two of the neonates with septicemia also suffered CNS infection. All the maternal patients recovered. Two inevitable miscarriages and four fetal stillbirths occurred. Of the eight delivered newborns, six survived, and two died within 2 days from birth. None of the survivors had neurological sequelae during a 6-month follow-up. The overall feto-neonatal fatality rate was 57.1%; notably, this rate was 100% for infections occurring during the second trimester of pregnancy and only 14.3% for those occurring in the third trimester. CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal listeriosis is associated with high feto-neonatal mortality, and thus, a public health concern. Additional large-scale studies are needed to strengthen the epidemiological understanding of listeriosis in China.


Assuntos
Listeriose/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Pequim/epidemiologia , Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central/microbiologia , Feminino , Maternidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Listeriose/diagnóstico , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Morte Perinatal , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/etiologia , Natimorto
7.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 36(7): 607-609, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842412

RESUMO

One 24 years old female patient who suffered extremely severe burn in the third trimester of pregnancy was admitted to the Department of Burns and Skin Repair Surgery of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University on 9th May, 2015. Intrauterine distress occurred after injury and stillbirth was confirmed within 12 hours. In cooperation with the obstetrician, the labor was induced on post injury day (PID) 5. Septic shock and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome occurred on PID 8. Through treatments including anti-infection, ventilator-assisted ventilation, cardiotonic diuresis, and escharectomy and skin grafting, the patient was finally cured. This case indicates that it is crucial to grasp the right time and choose a reasonable induction of labor to deal with stillbirth. The scheme of transvaginal induction of labor after shock is a worthy question to explore. The main characteristics of this patient include the extreme paroxysmal changes in breath, circulation, and urine volume within 24 hours after induced labor, which should be monitored dynamically for effective and timely adjustment of respiratory circulation support. This may be another key point for the rescue of this type of patient. To seize the opportunities to perform escharectomy, cover the wound with xenogenic skin graft, and perform skin grafting in time for wound repair remain the top priority.


Assuntos
Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos , Natimorto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Pele , Transplante de Pele , Adulto Jovem
8.
N Engl J Med ; 383(12): 1182-1183, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786182
10.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(10): e1273-e1281, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic response is affecting maternal and neonatal health services all over the world. We aimed to assess the number of institutional births, their outcomes (institutional stillbirth and neonatal mortality rate), and quality of intrapartum care before and during the national COVID-19 lockdown in Nepal. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, we collected participant-level data for pregnant women enrolled in the SUSTAIN and REFINE studies between Jan 1 and May 30, 2020, from nine hospitals in Nepal. This period included 12·5 weeks before the national lockdown and 9·5 weeks during the lockdown. Women were eligible for inclusion if they had a gestational age of 22 weeks or more, a fetal heart sound at time of admission, and consented to inclusion. Women who had multiple births and their babies were excluded. We collected information on demographic and obstetric characteristics via extraction from case notes and health worker performance via direct observation by independent clinical researchers. We used regression analyses to assess changes in the number of institutional births, quality of care, and mortality before lockdown versus during lockdown. FINDINGS: Of 22 907 eligible women, 21 763 women were enrolled and 20 354 gave birth, and health worker performance was recorded for 10 543 births. From the beginning to the end of the study period, the mean weekly number of births decreased from 1261·1 births (SE 66·1) before lockdown to 651·4 births (49·9) during lockdown-a reduction of 52·4%. The institutional stillbirth rate increased from 14 per 1000 total births before lockdown to 21 per 1000 total births during lockdown (p=0·0002), and institutional neonatal mortality increased from 13 per 1000 livebirths to 40 per 1000 livebirths (p=0·0022). In terms of quality of care, intrapartum fetal heart rate monitoring decreased by 13·4% (-15·4 to -11·3; p<0·0001), and breastfeeding within 1 h of birth decreased by 3·5% (-4·6 to -2·6; p=0·0032). The immediate newborn care practice of placing the baby skin-to-skin with their mother increased by 13·2% (12·1 to 14·5; p<0·0001), and health workers' hand hygiene practices during childbirth increased by 12·9% (11·8 to 13·9) during lockdown (p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Institutional childbirth reduced by more than half during lockdown, with increases in institutional stillbirth rate and neonatal mortality, and decreases in quality of care. Some behaviours improved, notably hand hygiene and keeping the baby skin-to-skin with their mother. An urgent need exists to protect access to high quality intrapartum care and prevent excess deaths for the most vulnerable health system users during this pandemic period. FUNDING: Grand Challenges Canada.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Parto Obstétrico , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Nepal/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
N Engl J Med ; 383(12): 1107-1116, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the majority of cases, the cause of stillbirth remains unknown despite detailed clinical and laboratory evaluation. Approximately 10 to 20% of stillbirths are attributed to chromosomal abnormalities. However, the causal nature of single-nucleotide variants and small insertions and deletions in exomes has been understudied. METHODS: We generated exome sequencing data for 246 stillborn cases and followed established guidelines to identify causal variants in disease-associated genes. These genes included those that have been associated with stillbirth and strong candidate genes. We also evaluated the contribution of 18,653 genes in case-control analyses stratified according to the degree of depletion of functional variation (described here as "intolerance" to variation). RESULTS: We identified molecular diagnoses in 15 of 246 cases of stillbirth (6.1%) involving seven genes that have been implicated in stillbirth and six disease genes that are good candidates for phenotypic expansion. Among the cases we evaluated, we also found an enrichment of loss-of-function variants in genes that are intolerant to such variation in the human population (odds ratio, 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46 to 3.06). Loss-of-function variants in intolerant genes were concentrated in genes that have not been associated with human disease (odds ratio, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.41 to 3.34), findings that differ from those in two postnatal clinical populations that were also evaluated in this study. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings establish the diagnostic utility of clinical exome sequencing to evaluate the role of small genomic changes in stillbirth. The strength of the novel risk signal (as generated through the stratified analysis) was similar to that in known disease genes, which indicates that the genetic cause of stillbirth remains largely unknown. (Funded by the Institute for Genomic Medicine.).


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Mutação , Natimorto/genética , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Gravidez , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
12.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(14): 7804-7815, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical manifestations and outcomes of neonates born to women who had Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted on PubMed and Embase till April 15, 2020, by combining the terms (COVID-19, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2, Novel Coronavirus, 2019-nCov, Wuhan pneumonia) and (pregnancy, pregnant women, mother, fetus, neonate, newborn, infant). RESULTS: We included 16 case series and 12 case reports describing a total of 223 pregnant women and 201 infants. Four newborns born to mothers affected by COVID-19 were reported to have laboratory-confirmed Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection within 48 hours after birth. However, Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction tests of the breast milk, placenta, amniotic fluids, and cord blood and maternal vaginal secretions were all negative for SARS-CoV-2 in the reported cases. Fetal death was reported in two cases, and 48 of 185 newborns (25.9%) were born prematurely. Infants born small for gestational age and low birth weight (< 2,500 g) accounted for 8.3% and 15.6% of reported cases, respectively. Birth asphyxia and respiratory distress syndrome were observed in 1.8% and 6.4% of neonates, respectively. There was one neonatal death due to intractable gastric bleeding among the SARS-CoV-2-negative infants. CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence suggests that COVID-19 during pregnancy rarely affects fetal and neonatal mortality, but can be associated with adverse neonatal morbidities. Vertical transmission has not been observed in the majority of the reported cases. The infants born to mothers with COVID-19 are carefully monitored for accompanying complication, and quarantine of infected mothers is warranted.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Asfixia Neonatal/diagnóstico , Asfixia Neonatal/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Mães , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Natimorto
13.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(8): e1061-e1070, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although gains in newborn survival have been achieved in many low-income and middle-income countries, reductions in stillbirth and neonatal mortality have been slow. Prematurity complications are a major driver of stillbirth and neonatal mortality. We aimed to assess the effect of a quality improvement package for intrapartum and immediate newborn care on stillbirth and preterm neonatal survival in Kenya and Uganda, where evidence-based practices are often underutilised. METHODS: This unblinded cluster-randomised controlled trial was done in western Kenya and eastern Uganda at facilities that provide 24-h maternity care with at least 200 births per year. The study assessed outcomes of low-birthweight and preterm babies. Eligible facilities were pair-matched and randomly assigned (1:1) into either the intervention group or the control group. All facilities received maternity register data strengthening and a modified WHO Safe Childbirth Checklist; facilities in the intervention group additionally received provider mentoring using PRONTO simulation and team training as well as quality improvement collaboratives. Liveborn or fresh stillborn babies who weighed between 1000 g and 2500 g, or less than 3000 g with a recorded gestational age of less than 37 weeks, were included in the analysis. We abstracted data from maternity registers for maternal and birth outcomes. Follow-up was done by phone or in person to identify the status of the infant at 28 days. The primary outcome was fresh stillbirth and 28-day neonatal mortality. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03112018. FINDINGS: Between Oct 1, 2016, and April 30, 2019, 20 facilities were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (n=10) or the control group (n=10). Among 5343 eligible babies in these facilities, we assessed outcomes of 2938 newborn and fresh stillborn babies (1447 in the intervention and 1491 in the control group). 347 (23%) of 1491 infants in the control group were stillborn or died in the neonatal period compared with 221 (15%) of 1447 infants in the intervention group at 28 days (odds ratio 0·66, 95% CI 0·54-0·81). No harm or adverse effects were found. INTERPRETATION: Fresh stillbirth and neonatal mortality among low-birthweight and preterm babies can be decreased using a package of interventions that reinforces evidence-based practices and invests in health system strengthening. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil/organização & administração , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Uganda/epidemiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236020, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated associations of area-level deprivation with obstetric and perinatal outcomes in a large population-based routine dataset. METHODS: We used the data of n = 827,105 deliveries who were born in hospitals between 2009 to 2016 in Bavaria, Germany. The Bavarian Index of Multiple Deprivation (BIMD) on district level was assigned to each mother by the zip code of her residential address. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for preterm deliveries, Caesarian sections (CS), stillbirths, small for gestational age (SGA) births and low 5-minute Apgar scores by BIMD quintiles with and without adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: We observed a significantly increased risk for preterm deliveries in mothers from the most deprived compared to the least deprived districts (e.g. OR [95% CI] for highest compared to lowest deprivation quintile: 1.06 [1.03, 1.09]) in adjusted analyses. Increased deprivation was also associated with higher SGA and secondary CS rates, but with lower proportions of stillbirths, primary CS and low Apgar scores. When one large clinic with an unusually high stillbirth rate was excluded, the association of BIMD with stillbirths was attenuated and almost disappeared. CONCLUSIONS: We found that area-level deprivation in Bavaria was positively associated with preterm and SGA births, confirming previous studies. In contrast, the finding of an inverse association between deprivation and both stillbirth rates and low Apgar score came somewhat surprising. However, we conclude that the stillbirths finding is spurious and reflects regional bias due to a clinic which seems to specialize in termination of pregnancies.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Áreas de Pobreza , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235840, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702025

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Maternal protein malnutrition is associated with impaired fetal growth, and lifetime consequences for the offspring. Our group has previously developed a model of protein-restriction in the non-human primate, which was associated with fetal growth restriction, stillbirth, decreased placental perfusion, and evidence of fetal hypoxia, suggesting perturbed vascular development. Our objective was to histologically characterize the micro-anatomic alterations associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes taking an approach that permits investigation of the 3D vascular structure and surrounding histology without the requirement for 3D vascular casting or relying on 2D stereology which both have methodological limitations. METHODS: Rhesus macaques were assigned in the pre-gestational period to a control diet that contained 26% protein, or study diet containing 13% protein (50% PR diet). Placental tissue was collected at delivery and processed using a clarification, immunohistochemistry, and confocal microscopy protocol published previously by our group. Three dimensional reconstructions and quantitative assessment of the vascular micro-anatomy was performed using analysis software (Imaris®) and statistical analysis accounted for maternal and fetal confounders. RESULTS: In unadjusted analysis, when comparing those pregnancies on a 50% PR diet (n = 4) with those on a control diet (n = 4), protein-restriction diet was associated with decreased maternal pre-pregnancy weight (difference of -1.975kg, 95% CI -3.267 to -0.6826). When controlling for maternal pre-pregnancy weight, fetal sex, and latency from tissue collection to imaging, a gestational protein-restriction diet was associated with decreases in total vascular length, total vascular surface area, total vascular volume, and vascular density. CONCLUSION: In this pilot study, a gestational protein-restriction diet altered the placental micro-vasculature with decreased vascular caliber and density, which may be related to the observed adverse pregnancy outcomes and perturbed placental perfusion previously demonstrated in this model.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/efeitos adversos , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/patologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Fetal/patologia , Placenta/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Fetal/etiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Macaca mulatta/embriologia , Macaca mulatta/fisiologia , Projetos Piloto , Circulação Placentária , Gravidez , Natimorto
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236670, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722708

RESUMO

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a social problem in Bangladesh with adverse effects on maternal healthcare. This study analyzed the sociodemographic factors responsible for intimate partner violence and its overall association with reproductive healthcare-specifically miscarriages, stillbirths and induced abortions (MSA)-using Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey 2007, which contains the latest available intimate partner violence data till date, with the hypothesis that intimate partner violence is associated with miscarriages, stillbirths and induced abortions. The generalized linear regression model was fitted to 3,920 women adjusting survey weights and cluster/strata variations. The study concluded that 1 out of every 4 women who reported experiencing intimate partner violence also reported having one or more of miscarriages, stillbirths and induced abortions. The results revealed that intimate partner violence and miscarriages, stillbirths and induced abortions were significantly associated with the age of the women, residence, age of the women at their first birth, sex of household head and the household's financial condition. Furthermore, the odds of having one or more miscarriages, stillbirths and abortions was increased by 35% for women who were victims to intimate partner violence, establishing a significant association between miscarriages, stillbirths and abortions and intimate partner violence. There appeared to be a need to address the issue in both paradigms, particularly for the poor rural women in Bangladeshi patriarchal society. These findings demand a combined intervention effort in the vulnerable cohorts, especially if Bangladesh intends to attain the goals 3.1 and 5.2 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) by 2030.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Aborto Espontâneo , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Natimorto , Aborto Induzido/psicologia , Aborto Espontâneo/psicologia , Adulto , Bangladesh , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD004945, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risks of stillbirth or neonatal death increase as gestation continues beyond term (around 40 weeks' gestation). It is unclear whether a policy of labour induction can reduce these risks. This Cochrane Review is an update of a review that was originally published in 2006 and subsequently updated in 2012 and 2018. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of a policy of labour induction at or beyond 37 weeks' gestation compared with a policy of awaiting spontaneous labour indefinitely (or until a later gestational age, or until a maternal or fetal indication for induction of labour arises) on pregnancy outcomes for the infant and the mother. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, we searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (17 July 2019), and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in pregnant women at or beyond 37 weeks, comparing a policy of labour induction with a policy of awaiting spontaneous onset of labour (expectant management). We also included trials published in abstract form only. Cluster-RCTs, quasi-RCTs and trials using a cross-over design were not eligible for inclusion in this review. We included pregnant women at or beyond 37 weeks' gestation. Since risk factors at this stage of pregnancy would normally require intervention, only trials including women at low risk for complications, as defined by trialists, were eligible. The trials of induction of labour in women with prelabour rupture of membranes at or beyond term were not considered in this review but are considered in a separate Cochrane Review. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. We assessed the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: In this updated review, we included 34 RCTs (reporting on over 21,000 women and infants) mostly conducted in high-income settings. The trials compared a policy to induce labour usually after 41 completed weeks of gestation (> 287 days) with waiting for labour to start and/or waiting for a period before inducing labour. The trials were generally at low to moderate risk of bias. Compared with a policy of expectant management, a policy of labour induction was associated with fewer (all-cause) perinatal deaths (risk ratio (RR) 0.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15 to 0.64; 22 trials, 18,795 infants; high-certainty evidence). There were four perinatal deaths in the labour induction policy group compared with 25 perinatal deaths in the expectant management group. The number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) with induction of labour, in order to prevent one perinatal death, was 544 (95% CI 441 to 1042). There were also fewer stillbirths in the induction group (RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.75; 22 trials, 18,795 infants; high-certainty evidence); two in the induction policy group and 16 in the expectant management group. For women in the policy of induction arms of trials, there were probably fewer caesarean sections compared with expectant management (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.95; 31 trials, 21,030 women; moderate-certainty evidence); and probably little or no difference in operative vaginal births with induction (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.10; 22 trials, 18,584 women; moderate-certainty evidence). Induction may make little or difference to perineal trauma (severe perineal tear: RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.26; 5 trials; 11,589 women; low-certainty evidence). Induction probably makes little or no difference to postpartum haemorrhage (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.15, 9 trials; 12,609 women; moderate-certainty evidence), or breastfeeding at discharge (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.04; 2 trials, 7487 women; moderate-certainty evidence). Very low certainty evidence means that we are uncertain about the effect of induction or expectant management on the length of maternal hospital stay (average mean difference (MD) -0.19 days, 95% CI -0.56 to 0.18; 7 trials; 4120 women; Tau² = 0.20; I² = 94%). Rates of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission were lower (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.96; 17 trials, 17,826 infants; high-certainty evidence), and probably fewer babies had Apgar scores less than seven at five minutes in the induction groups compared with expectant management (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.96; 20 trials, 18,345 infants; moderate-certainty evidence). Induction or expectant management may make little or no difference for neonatal encephalopathy (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.31; 2 trials, 8851 infants; low-certainty evidence, and probably makes little or no difference for neonatal trauma (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.49; 5 trials, 13,106 infants; moderate-certainty evidence) for induction compared with expectant management. Neurodevelopment at childhood follow-up and postnatal depression were not reported by any trials. In subgroup analyses, no differences were seen for timing of induction (< 40 versus 40-41 versus > 41 weeks' gestation), by parity (primiparous versus multiparous) or state of cervix for any of the main outcomes (perinatal death, stillbirth, NICU admission, caesarean section, operative vaginal birth, or perineal trauma). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is a clear reduction in perinatal death with a policy of labour induction at or beyond 37 weeks compared with expectant management, though absolute rates are small (0.4 versus 3 deaths per 1000). There were also lower caesarean rates without increasing rates of operative vaginal births and there were fewer NICU admissions with a policy of induction. Most of the important outcomes assessed using GRADE had high- or moderate-certainty ratings. While existing trials have not yet reported on childhood neurodevelopment, this is an important area for future research. The optimal timing of offering induction of labour to women at or beyond 37 weeks' gestation needs further investigation, as does further exploration of risk profiles of women and their values and preferences. Offering women tailored counselling may help them make an informed choice between induction of labour for pregnancies, particularly those continuing beyond 41 weeks - or waiting for labour to start and/or waiting before inducing labour.


Assuntos
Trabalho de Parto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Gravidez Prolongada , Conduta Expectante , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Morte Perinatal , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Risco , Natimorto/epidemiologia
19.
Autoimmun Rev ; 19(9): 102620, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682986

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in secondary prevention of pregnancy complications for patients with obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and history of stillbirth. METHODS: We described three cases of obstetric APS patients with history of stillbirth treated with IVIg in four pregnancies. In addition, we conducted a systematic literature review on the use of IVIg in obstetric APS with history of stillbirth. RESULTS: Three patients with obstetric APS and history of stillbirth were treated with prophylactic IVIg, in addition to standard treatment (hydroxychloroquine, low-dose aspirin, low molecular weight heparin, and prednisone), in four pregnancies (three singleton and one twin). All pregnancies resulted in live healthy newborns. Long-term follow-up re-evaluations (24-53 months) did not shown any sign or symptom of active systemic disease, and the children were healthy. The systematic literature review retrieved only three cases of use of IVIg in obstetric APS patients with history of stillbirth. All three cases resulted in live healthy newborns. Only in one case, mild thrombocytopenia occurred during treatment, although this event was unlikely to be related to IVIg. CONCLUSION: Our experience suggests that IVIg as secondary prevention of APS-related stillbirth is associated with good pregnancy and long-term outcomes, with no relevant safety concerns. However, the literature evidence on this topic is limited to few isolated cases, and further studies are needed to clarify which obstetric APS patients may benefit the most from IVIg.


Assuntos
Síndrome Antifosfolipídica , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Complicações na Gravidez , Prevenção Secundária , Natimorto , Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos , Anticoagulantes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD000493, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a liver disorder that can develop in pregnancy. It occurs when there is a build-up of bile acids in the maternal blood. It has been linked to adverse maternal and fetal/neonatal outcomes. As the pathophysiology is poorly understood, therapies have been largely empiric. As ICP is an uncommon condition (incidence less than 2% a year), many trials have been small. Synthesis, including recent larger trials, will provide more evidence to guide clinical practice. This review is an update of a review first published in 2001 and last updated in 2013. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of pharmacological interventions to treat women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, on maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, we searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (13 December 2019), and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials, including cluster-randomised trials and trials published in abstract form only, that compared any drug with placebo or no treatment, or two drug intervention strategies, for women with a clinical diagnosis of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The review authors independently assessed trials for eligibility and risks of bias. We independently extracted data and checked these for accuracy. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included 26 trials involving 2007 women. They were mostly at unclear to high risk of bias. They assessed nine different pharmacological interventions, resulting in 14 different comparisons. We judged two placebo-controlled trials of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in 715 women to be at low risk of bias. The ten different pharmacological interventions were: agents believed to detoxify bile acids (UCDA) and S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe); agents used to bind bile acids in the intestine (activated charcoal, guar gum, cholestyramine); Chinese herbal medicines (yinchenghao decoction (YCHD), salvia, Yiganling and Danxioling pill (DXLP)), and agents aimed to reduce bile acid production (dexamethasone) Compared with placebo, UDCA probably results in a small improvement in pruritus score measured on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) (mean difference (MD) -7.64 points, 95% confidence interval (CI) -9.69 to -5.60 points; 2 trials, 715 women; GRADE moderate certainty), where a score of zero indicates no itch and a score of 100 indicates severe itching. The evidence for fetal distress and stillbirth were uncertain, due to serious limitations in study design and imprecision (risk ratio (RR) 0.70, 95% CI 0.35 to 1.40; 6 trials, 944 women; RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.37; 6 trials, 955 women; GRADE very low certainty). We found very few differences for the other comparisons included in this review. There is insufficient evidence to indicate if SAMe, guar gum, activated charcoal, dexamethasone, cholestyramine, Salvia, Yinchenghao decoction, Danxioling and Yiganling, or Yiganling alone or in combination are effective in treating women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: When compared with placebo, UDCA administered to women with ICP probably shows a reduction in pruritus. However the size of the effect is small and for most pregnant women and clinicians, the reduction may fall below the minimum clinically worthwhile effect. The evidence was unclear for other adverse fetal outcomes, due to very low-certainty evidence. There is insufficient evidence to indicate that SAMe, guar gum, activated charcoal, dexamethasone, cholestyramine, YCHD, DXLP, Salvia, Yiganling alone or in combination are effective in treating women with cholestasis of pregnancy. There are no trials of the efficacy of topical emollients. Further high-quality trials of other interventions are needed in order to identify effective treatments for maternal itching and preventing adverse perinatal outcomes. It would also be helpful to identify those women who are mostly likely to respond to UDCA (for example, whether bile acid concentrations affect how women with ICP respond to treatment with UDCA).


Assuntos
Colestase/terapia , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Prurido/terapia , Carvão Vegetal/uso terapêutico , Colagogos e Coleréticos/uso terapêutico , Colestase/complicações , Resina de Colestiramina/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Sofrimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Galactanos/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Mananas/uso terapêutico , Gomas Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Prurido/etiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , S-Adenosilmetionina/uso terapêutico , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Ácido Ursodesoxicólico/uso terapêutico
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA