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1.
South Med J ; 115(9): 658-664, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055652

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although there are multiple ethnic subgroups of the Asian race, this population is usually treated as homogenous in public health research and practice. There is a dearth of information on fetal maturation and perinatal outcomes among Asian American women compared with their non-Hispanic (NH) White counterparts. This study aimed to determine whether fetal maturation, as captured by gestational age periods, influences the risk of stillbirth in Asian American fetuses, in general, as well as within different ethnic subgroups: Asian Indian, Korean, Chinese, Vietnamese, Japanese, and Filipino, using NH Whites as referent. METHODS: We included singleton births within 37 to 44 gestational weeks occurring in Asian American and NH White mothers from 2014 to 2017. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to quantify the association between mother's race/ethnicity and risk of stillbirth by gestational age phenotypes: early-term, full-term, late-term, and postterm. RESULTS: Compared with NH Whites, Asian Americans had 35% (adjusted odds ratio 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.53-0.76) and 28% (adjusted odds ratio 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.59-0.85) lower risk of early-term and full-term stillbirths, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests the existence of differential maturation of the fetoplacental unit as explanation for the decline in intrauterine survival advantage with advancing gestational age among Asian American subgroups.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos , Etnicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Brancos
2.
Ceska Gynekol ; 87(4): 269-273, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We hereby present a case of intrauterine death of a fetus due to placental damage by placentitis caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection in ongoing covid-19 disease and HELLP syndrome. CASE REPORT: In this case report, we describe a patient who experienced intrauterine death of a fetus and the development of HELLP syndrome in ongoing covid-19 infection. Placentitis caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection was identified as the cause of intrauterine death of a fetus. After the end of pregnancy, a patient experienced an improvement in the symptoms of covid-19 and also a gradual improvement and adjustment of laboratory and coagulation parameters. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy can be complicated by the development of SARS-CoV-2 placenitis, which can cause intrauterine death of a fetus. Covid-19 infection can even have similar signs to HELLP syndrome and therefore careful monitoring of pregnant women with covid-19 is recommended.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Síndrome HELLP , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , COVID-19/complicações , Feminino , Feto , Síndrome HELLP/diagnóstico , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Placenta , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2 , Natimorto
3.
Trials ; 23(1): 722, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia is a complex pregnancy disorder, characterised by new or worsening hypertension associated with multi-organ dysfunction. Adverse outcomes include eclampsia, liver rupture, stroke, pulmonary oedema, and acute kidney injury in the mother, and stillbirth, foetal growth restriction, and iatrogenic preterm delivery for the foetus. Angiogenic biomarkers, including placental growth factor (PlGF) and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1), have been identified as valuable biomarkers for preterm pre-eclampsia, accelerating diagnosis and reducing maternal adverse outcomes by risk stratification, with enhanced surveillance for high-risk women. PlGF-based testing for suspected preterm pre-eclampsia has been incorporated into national guidance. The role of repeat PlGF-based testing and its effect on maternal and perinatal adverse outcomes have yet to be evaluated. METHODS: The PARROT-2 trial is a multi-centre randomised controlled trial of repeat revealed PlGF-based testing compared to repeat concealed testing, in women presenting with suspected pre-eclampsia between 22+0 and 35+6 weeks' gestation. The primary objective is to establish whether repeat PlGF-based testing decreases a composite of perinatal severe adverse outcomes (stillbirth, early neonatal death, or neonatal unit admission). All women prior to enrolment in the trial will have an initial revealed PlGF-based test. Repeat PlGF-based tests will be performed weekly or two-weekly, depending on the initial PlGF-based test result, with results randomised to revealed or concealed. DISCUSSION: National guidance recommends that all women presenting with suspected preterm pre-eclampsia should have a single PlGF-based test when disease is first suspected, to help rule out pre-eclampsia. Clinical and cost-effectiveness of repeat PlGF-based testing has yet to be investigated. This trial aims to address whether repeat PlGF-based testing reduces severe maternal and perinatal adverse outcomes and whether repeat testing is cost-effective. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 85912420 . Registered on 25 November 2019.


Assuntos
Papagaios , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Fator de Crescimento Placentário , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Natimorto
4.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 35(23): 4543-4551, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36062520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnancies with reduced fetal movements (RFM) are at risk for poor neonatal outcomes and stillbirth. AIM: To investigate whether Doppler measurements or angiogenic factors are good predictors of adverse neonatal outcomes in pregnancies with RFM. METHODS: This is a prospective pilot cohort study of 3243 women seeking care for RFM. Standard care was carried out in all cases. An extra Doppler examination was performed in 128 women to assess the flow in the middle cerebral artery, the umbilical artery, and the uterine artery. In 62/128 pregnancies, a maternal blood sample was obtained for angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors. The composite neonatal outcome of the study was one or more of the following factors: Apgar score <7 at 5', arterial aPh in the umbilical cord ≤7.1, transfer to Neonatal Intensive Care (NICU), stillbirth, and small for gestational age (SGA). RESULTS: In 14.1% (18/128) of the Doppler group and 11.7% (365/3115) of the standard care group, there was an adverse neonatal outcome (p = .51). A higher intervention rate was found in the Doppler group (28% vs. 5.4%, p < .01). The predictive model of adverse neonatal outcomes in women with RFM with angiogenic factors was 0.73 (95% CI 0.54-0.92). The area under the curve improved to 0.89 (CI 95% 0.81-0.97) when parity was added to the model. CONCLUSION: Angiogenic factors may have a place in the prediction of the neonatal outcome of RFM pregnancies. The prediction model's capacity was driven by parity. The obstetrical intervention rate increased with additional Doppler examinations.


Assuntos
Movimento Fetal , Natimorto , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
5.
Ann Palliat Med ; 11(8): 2738-2744, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a common infectious disease among women of childbearing age, with the incidence of pregnancy with tuberculosis (PWT) is approximately 5-7%. PWT has a serious impact on pregnant women, fetuses and infants, and is also one of the main causes of maternal and infant mortality. Early detection, early diagnosis and early treatment often indicate the end of the disease. CASE DESCRIPTION: The reported patient was admitted to our hospital following 2 weeks of fever plus 6 days of dyspnea during early pregnancy. An abdominal B-mode ultrasound after admission revealed intrauterine fetal death. The diagnosis of pregnancy with acute hematogenous disseminated pulmonary TB was confirmed by several examinations used in combination, such as chest CT, pathological section of the placental specimen, Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid next-generation sequencing (BALF-NGS) and so on. After anti-TB therapy with isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol for 7 days, there were diffuse small nodules lesions in the lungs and mild pericardial effusion, which were partly more reduced than before. During the treatment, the patient had no adverse drug reactions. The patient was finally discharged from the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should pay special attention to fever and dyspnea during pregnancy, and confirm the diagnosis of PWT through the combined use of various diagnostic tools as soon as possible. The active treatment and management of PWT, including multidrug-resistant TB, will contribute to maternal and fetal health.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Dispneia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Pulmão , Placenta , Gravidez , Natimorto , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico
6.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 64(1): e1-e7, 2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:  In South Africa (SA), approximately 16 000 stillbirths occur annually. Most are classified as unexplained and occur in district hospitals. Many of these deaths may be caused by undetected foetal growth restriction. Continuous wave Doppler ultrasound of the umbilical artery (CWDU-UmA) is a simple method for assessing placental function. This screening method may detect the foetus at risk of dying and growth-restricted foetuses, allowing for appropriate management. METHODS:  A cohort study was conducted across South Africa. Pregnant women attending primary health care clinics at 28-34 weeks gestation were screened using CWDU-UmA. Women not screened at those antenatal clinics served as control group 1. Control group 2 consisted of the subset of control group 1 with women detected with antenatal complications excluded. Women with foetuses identified with an abnormal CWDU-UmA test were referred and managed according to a standardised protocol. A comparison between the study and control groups was performed. RESULTS:  The study group consisted of 6536 pregnancies, and there were 66 stillbirths (stillbirth rate [SBR]: 10.1/1000 births). In control group 1, there were 193 stillbirths in 10 832 women (SBR: 17.8/1000 births), and in control group 2, 152 stillbirths in 9811 women (SBR: 15.5/1000 births) (risk ratio: 0.57, 95% confidence intervals: 0.29-0.85 and 0.65, 0.36-0.94, respectively). CONCLUSION:  Screening a low-risk pregnant population identified the low-risk mother with a high-risk foetus, and acting on the information as described was associated with a significant reduction (35% - 43%) in stillbirths. This demonstrates a step-change reduction in stillbirths and warrants screening in SA.


Assuntos
Placenta , Natimorto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Gravidez , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Natimorto/epidemiologia
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 692, 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Almost two million stillbirths occur annually, most occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Nigeria is reported to have one of the highest stillbirth rates on the African continent. The aim was to identify sociodemographic, living environment, and health status factors associated with stillbirth and determine the associations between pregnancy and birth factors and stillbirth in the Murtala Mohammed Specialist Hospital, Kano, Nigeria. METHODS: A three-month single-site prospective observational feasibility study. Demographic and clinical data were collected. We fitted bivariable and multivariable models for stillbirth (yes/no) and three-category livebirth/macerated stillbirth/non-macerated stillbirth outcomes to explore their association with demographic and clinical factors. FINDINGS: 1,998 neonates and 1,926 mothers were enrolled. Higher odds of stillbirth were associated with low-levels of maternal education, a further distance to travel to the hospital, living in a shack, maternal hypertension, previous stillbirth, birthing complications, increased duration of labour, antepartum haemorrhage, prolonged or obstructed labour, vaginal breech delivery, emergency caesarean-section, and signs of trauma to the neonate following birth. INTERPRETATION: This work has obtained data on some factors influencing stillbirth. This in turn will facilitate the development of improved public health interventions to reduce preventable deaths and to progress maternal health within this site.


Assuntos
Saúde Materna , Natimorto , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Atenção Terciária à Saúde
8.
J Pregnancy ; 2022: 2156835, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36120505

RESUMO

Background: Stillbirth adversely affects pregnancy outcomes in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Viral infections have been implicated as one of the causes of stillbirths. Despite high rates of stillbirths and high viral prevalence in LMICs, there is limited information regarding their association. This study investigated the magnitude of herpes simplex 2 virus (HSV-2) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) among women with macerated stillbirth. Methods: A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted involving 279 women with macerated stillbirth between July and August 2018 at different health facilities in Mwanza, Tanzania. Detection of HSV-2 was done by immunochromatographic test while that of HCMV was done using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Descriptive data analysis was done using STATA version 13. Results: A total of 28 (10.04%, 95% CI: 6.8-13.9) tested positive for HSV-2 IgG antibodies with only 4 (1.43%, 95% CL: 0.3-2.8) testing positive for HSV-2 IgM antibodies. HCMV IgG antibodies were detected in 131 (77.98%, 95% CI: 71-84) of 168 women tested. By multivariate logistic regulation analysis, advanced age (OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87-0.99, p = 0.025) was significantly associated with negative HSV-2 IgG antibodies. By log multinomial regression analysis, only urban residence (RRR.4.43: 95% CI 1.53-12.80, p = 0.006) independently predicted HCMV IgG seropositivity among women with stillbirth. Twenty-one (30.9%) of women with positive HCMV IgG antibodies had low avidity index (<40%) indicating recent infection. Conclusion: Significant proportion of women with macerated stillbirth residing in urban and with low age have HCMV and HSV antibodies, respectively. This calls for the need to consider introducing screening of these infections in the Tanzanian antenatal package and further studies to explore the role of these viruses in causing stillbirth in Tanzania.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Estudos Transversais , Citomegalovirus , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 2 , Hospitais , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina M , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
9.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1768, 2022 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115952

RESUMO

Considering the female preponderance of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and disease onset typically after the reproductive years, pregnancy and childbirth may play a role in the aetiology of the disease. Adverse outcomes of pregnancy have been found to precede the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases, including RA, but the evidence is scant and inconsistent. Therefore, we investigate whether pregnancy loss is associated with the risk of RA in Chinese women. Data from the China Kadoorie Biobank, conducted by the University of Oxford and the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, of 299,629 Chinese women who had been pregnant were used. Multivariable logistic regression and stratified analyses were employed to analyse the association between types of pregnancy loss with the risk of RA. Pregnancy loss was significantly associated with increased risk of RA (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06-1.18), specifically, spontaneous (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.20) and induced abortions (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.06-1.17). There was no significant association between stillbirth and the risk of RA (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.97-1.18). The risk of developing RA increases with the number of pregnancy losses: one loss confers an OR of 1.09 (95% CI 1.03-1.16), two an OR of 1.13 (95% CI 1.05-1.20), three or more an OR of 1.19 (95% CI 1.10-1.28) and OR of 1.06 (95% CI 1.03-1.08) for each additional. Spontaneous and induced abortions are associated with an increased risk of RA in Chinese women.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Artrite Reumatoide , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Natimorto/epidemiologia
10.
Contrast Media Mol Imaging ; 2022: 6748487, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36051930

RESUMO

Assisted reproductive technology has continued to develop in recent years, the technology has become more and more mature, and it has improved the total gestational age of the population. Assisted reproductive technology has improved twin pregnancy rates with the use of ovulation-inducing drugs. The risk factor of twins is much higher than singletons, and adverse pregnancy outcomes such as stillbirth and premature birth are more likely to occur than singletons, especially the special complications of monochorionic twins (MC), and the neonatal mortality and morbidity are also increased. Prenatal diagnosis and prognosis of twin pregnancy, as well as therapeutic interventions, are of current concern. Ultrasound can realize the understanding of intrauterine growth and development of twin pregnancy fetuses during pregnancy, can more accurately determine gestational age, organ function, and maturity, and timely detect fetal growth and development abnormalities in twin pregnancy, while the prognosis and treatment still need further improvement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical value and treatment progress of prenatal ultrasound monitoring in twin pregnancy.


Assuntos
Gravidez de Gêmeos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Natimorto/epidemiologia
11.
J Glob Health ; 12: 04072, 2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112509

RESUMO

Background: Considering the public health importance of stillbirth, this study quantified the trends in stillbirths over eight decades in England and Wales. Methods: This longitudinal study utilized the publicly available aggregated data from the Office for National Statistics that captured maternity information for babies delivered in England and Wales from 1940 to 2019. We computed the trends in stillbirth with the associated incidence risk difference, incidence risk ratio, and extra lives saved per decade. Results: From 1940-2019, 56 906 273 births were reported. The stillbirth rate declined (85%) drastically up to the early 1980s. In the initial five decades, the estimated number of deaths per decade further decreased by 67 765 (9.49/1000 births) in 1940-1949, 2569 (0.08/1000 births) in 1950-1959, 9121 (3.50/1000 births) in 1960-1969, 15 262 (2.31/1000 births) in 1970-1979, and 10 284 (1.57/1000 births) in 1980-1989. However, the stillbirth rate increased by an additional 3850 (0.58/1000 births) stillbirths in 1990-1999 and 693 (0.11/1000 births) stillbirths in 2000-2009. The stillbirth rate declined again during 2010-2019, with 3714 fewer stillbirths (0.54/1000 births). The incidence of maternal age <20 years reduced over time, but pregnancy among older women (>35 years) increased. Conclusions: The stillbirth rate declined drastically, but the rate of decline slowed in the last three decades. Though teenage pregnancy (<20 years) had reduced, the prevalence of women with a higher risk of stillbirth may have risen due to an increase in advanced maternal age. Improved, more personalised care is required to reduce the stillbirth rate further.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna , Natimorto , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Idade Materna , Gravidez , Natimorto/epidemiologia , País de Gales/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Glob Health Action ; 15(sup1): 2006421, 2022 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098950

RESUMO

This paper explains how The Lives Saved Tool (LiST), a computer-based model that estimates the impact of scaling up interventions on stillbirths, maternal, neonatal and child health, can contribute to evaluations of programs being delivered at scale to improve maternal and child health. LiST can be used to estimate the impact of a program in advance, allowing planners to refine, streamline and set appropriate program targets. LiST can also be used to estimate the impact of a program, which is particularly useful given the high costs of measuring changes in population health. Finally, LiST can be used to estimate the relative contributions of different interventions or sets of interventions within programs that are found to have a positive impact. The latest version of LiST allows users to manipulate both utilization and quality of service to generate estimates of effective coverage. In addition, a new, web-based version of LiST is now available, with a simpler and more streamlined interface designed to increase accessibility to beginning users. LiST modeling can help program planners, evaluators and funders respond to core evaluation questions related to program design and impact, providing evidence to support decisions about how best to use available resources to save the lives of women and children.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Mortalidade da Criança , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Materna , Gravidez , Natimorto/epidemiologia
13.
Implement Sci ; 17(1): 60, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reducing the rate of stillbirth is an international priority. At least half of babies stillborn in high-income countries are small for gestational-age (SGA). The Growth Assessment Protocol (GAP), a complex antenatal intervention that aims to increase the rate of antenatal detection of SGA, was evaluated in the DESiGN type 2 hybrid effectiveness-implementation cluster randomised trial (n = 13 clusters). In this paper, we present the trial process evaluation. METHODS: A mixed-methods process evaluation was conducted. Clinical leads and frontline healthcare professionals were interviewed to inform understanding of context (implementing and standard care sites) and GAP implementation (implementing sites). Thematic analysis of interview text used the context and implementation of complex interventions framework to understand acceptability, feasibility, and the impact of context. A review of implementing cluster clinical guidelines, training and maternity records was conducted to assess fidelity, dose and reach. RESULTS: Interviews were conducted with 28 clinical leads and 27 frontline healthcare professionals across 11 sites. Staff at implementing sites generally found GAP to be acceptable but raised issues of feasibility, caused by conflicting demands on resource, and variable beliefs among clinical leaders regarding the intervention value. GAP was implemented with variable fidelity (concordance of local guidelines to GAP was high at two sites, moderate at two and low at one site), all sites achieved the target to train > 75% staff using face-to-face methods, but only one site trained > 75% staff using e-learning methods; a median of 84% (range 78-87%) of women were correctly risk stratified at the five implementing sites. Most sites achieved high scores for reach (median 94%, range 62-98% of women had a customised growth chart), but generally, low scores for dose (median 31%, range 8-53% of low-risk women and median 5%, range 0-17% of high-risk women) were monitored for SGA as recommended. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of GAP was generally acceptable to staff but with issues of feasibility that are likely to have contributed to variation in implementation strength. Leadership and resourcing are fundamental to effective implementation of clinical service changes, even when such changes are well aligned to policy mandated service-change priorities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Primary registry and trial identifying number: ISRCTN 67698474. Registered 02/11/16. https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN67698474 .


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Natimorto , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Feto , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
15.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 295, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have reported maternal short/long sleep duration to be associated with adverse pregnancy and perinatal outcomes. However, it remains unclear whether there are nonlinear causal effects. Our aim was to use Mendelian randomization (MR) and multivariable regression to examine nonlinear effects of sleep duration on stillbirth (MR only), miscarriage (MR only), gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, perinatal depression, preterm birth and low/high offspring birthweight. METHODS: We used data from European women in UK Biobank (N=176,897), FinnGen (N=~123,579), Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (N=6826), Born in Bradford (N=2940) and Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa, N=14,584). We used 78 previously identified genetic variants as instruments for sleep duration and investigated its effects using two-sample, and one-sample nonlinear (UK Biobank only), MR. We compared MR findings with multivariable regression in MoBa (N=76,669), where maternal sleep duration was measured at 30 weeks. RESULTS: In UK Biobank, MR provided evidence of nonlinear effects of sleep duration on stillbirth, perinatal depression and low offspring birthweight. Shorter and longer duration increased stillbirth and low offspring birthweight; shorter duration increased perinatal depression. For example, longer sleep duration was related to lower risk of low offspring birthweight (odds ratio 0.79 per 1 h/day (95% confidence interval: 0.67, 0.93)) in the shortest duration group and higher risk (odds ratio 1.40 (95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.84)) in the longest duration group, suggesting shorter and longer duration increased the risk. These were supported by the lack of evidence of a linear effect of sleep duration on any outcome using two-sample MR. In multivariable regression, risks of all outcomes were higher in the women reporting <5 and ≥10 h/day sleep compared with the reference category of 8-9 h/day, despite some wide confidence intervals. Nonlinear models fitted the data better than linear models for most outcomes (likelihood ratio P-value=0.02 to 3.2×10-52), except for gestational diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show shorter and longer sleep duration potentially causing higher risks of stillbirth, perinatal depression and low offspring birthweight. Larger studies with more cases are needed to detect potential nonlinear effects on hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preterm birth and high offspring birthweight.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Peso ao Nascer , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/genética , Sono/genética , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Natimorto/genética
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(9): e2229532, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053536

RESUMO

Importance: Emergency department (ED) use during pregnancy may be associated with worse obstetrical outcomes, possibly because of differences in access to health care. It is not known whether ED use before pregnancy is associated with serious adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Objective: To study the association between prepregnancy ED use and adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study was conducted in Ontario, Canada, and included all livebirths and stillbirths from April 2003 to January 2020. Exposures: Main exposure was any ED encounter within 90 days preceding the start of the index pregnancy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome was a composite of severe maternal morbidity (SMM) from 20 weeks' gestation to 42 days' post partum. Secondary outcomes included severe neonatal morbidity (SNM) from 0 to 27 days, neonatal death, and stillbirth. Relative risks (RRs) were adjusted for maternal age, income, and rurality. Results: Of 2 130 245 births, there were 2 119 335 livebirths (99.5%) and 10 910 stillbirths (0.5%). The mean (SD) maternal age was 29.6 (5.4) years, 212 478 (9.9%) were rural dwelling, and 498 219 (23%) had 3 or more comorbidities. Among all births, 218 011 (9.7%) had a prepregnancy ED visit. The rate of SMM was higher among women with a prepregnancy ED visit than those without (22.3 vs 16.5 per 1000 births), with an RR of 1.34 (95% CI, 1.30-1.38) and an adjusted RR (aRR) of 1.37 (95% CI, 1.33-1.42). Compared with no prepregnancy ED visit, the aRR was higher in those with 1 (1.29; 95% CI, 1.24-1.34), 2 (1.51; 95% CI, 1.42-1.61), and 3 or more (1.74; 95% CI, 1.61-1.90) ED visits. Prepregnancy ED visits for a hematological (aRR, 13.60; 95% CI, 10.48-17.64), endocrine (aRR, 4.96; 95% CI, 3.72-6.62), and circulatory (aRR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.68-3.07) conditions were associated with the highest aRRs for SMM. The rate of SNM was higher among newborns whose mother visited the ED within 90 days before pregnancy (68.2 vs 55.4 per 1000 births; aRR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.22-1.26) as was the risk of neonatal death (aRR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.16-1.37) and stillbirth (aRR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.11-1.25). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, ED use was common before pregnancy. These findings suggest that ED use may not only reflect a woman's access to prepregnancy care but also higher future risk of severe maternal and perinatal morbidity, potentially offering a useful trigger for health system interventions to decrease adverse pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal , Natimorto , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Morbidade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Natimorto/epidemiologia
17.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 666, 2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36028798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are frequently used to treat pain, fever and inflammatory conditions. Due to evidenced fetotoxicity, treatment with NSAID and metamizole should be avoided in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. There is an ongoing debate on fetotoxic risk of 2nd trimester use which is why we have conducted this study. METHODS: In this observational cohort study outcome of pregnancies with NSAID and/or metamizole exposure in the 2nd and/or 3rd trimester (study cohort n = 1092) was compared with pregnancies exposed to NSAID and/or metamizole in the 1st trimester only (comparison cohort, n = 1154). The WHO-UMC system was used to assess causality between study medication and study endpoints. Prenatal study endpoints were constriction of ductus arteriosus Botalli, oligohydramnios, late spontaneous abortion (SAB) or stillbirth. Postnatal study endpoints were patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), anomalies of the right heart ventricle, primary pulmonary hypertension (PPHT), and neonatal impairment of kidney function. RESULTS: Ductus arteriosus constriction was diagnosed in 5/1092 (0.5%) in the study cohort versus 0/1154 pregnancies in the comparison cohort. In one fetus, ductus arteriosus constriction and oligohydramnios occurred already in the late 2nd trimester after long-term NSAID exposure. Oligohydramnios was diagnosed in 41/1092 (3.8%) in the study cohort versus 29/1154 (2.5%) cases in the comparison cohort [RR, 1.5 (95% CI 0.9-2.4)]. Limited to 2nd trimester, oligohydramnios occurred in 8/904 (0.9%) versus 2/1154 (0.2%) pregnancies [RR, 5.1 (95% CI 1.1-24.0)]. At least in four of the 2nd trimester exposed pregnancies NSAID exposure lasted several weeks. Late SAB or stillbirth occurred in 14/1092 (1.3%) versus 17/1154 (1.5%). Postnatal cardiovascular or renal pathology did not differ between the cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: NSAID use in the 2nd trimester limited to a few days does not appear to pose a relevant risk. Use for longer periods in the advanced 2nd trimester, however, may cause oligohydramnios and ductus arteriosus constriction similar to effects observed after 3rd trimester use.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial , Canal Arterial , Oligo-Hidrâmnio , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides , Estudos de Coortes , Dipirona , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Natimorto
18.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 13(2): 2108578, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36016845

RESUMO

Background: Women who have had miscarriages or stillbirths are known to have a high risk for enduring grief. However, the course and frequency of enduring grief in this subgroup are not fully understood. Objective: Our aims were to assess the intensity of grief and its course in women with miscarriages or stillbirths and to estimate the frequency of severe grief reactions in this population. Additionally, we compared subgroups with miscarriages versus stillbirths and with single versus recurrent pregnancy loss. Method: A systematic literature search of the databases MEDLINE, psycINFO and PSYNDEX was conducted to consider all studies published between 2000 and 31 March 2022 in English or German on the prevalence and intensity of grief in women who had miscarriages or stillbirths. Studies that used validated assessment methods were included in this systematic review. The PRISMA guidelines were followed. Results: Study characteristics and grief data were extracted independently by two investigators from 13 cross-sectional and eight longitudinal studies from 11 countries (N = 2597). All studies used self-reporting instruments. According to 17 of 21 studies (81%), grief is markedly elevated in women after miscarriages or stillbirths. The studies are very heterogeneous regarding the samples, the length of pregnancies and the time of assessment regarding grief after miscarriages. Most studies document intense grief and frequent severe grief reactions - with a decrease over time - in women who have had miscarriages or stillbirths. Clear conclusions regarding corresponding differences between women with miscarriages and stillbirths or single and recurrent pregnancy losses cannot be drawn. Conclusions: Pronounced grief is frequent in women who had miscarriages or stillbirths. More longitudinal studies are needed to examine the course of grief in this group and to identify those women who develop prolonged grief disorder, depression or other mental-health problems.


Antecedentes: Se sabe que las mujeres que han tenido abortos espontáneos o mortinatos tienen un alto riesgo de sufrir un duelo persistente. Sin embargo, el curso y la frecuencia del duelo persistente en este subgrupo no se conocen del todo.Objetivo: Nuestros objetivos fueron evaluar la intensidad del duelo y su curso en mujeres con abortos espontáneos o mortinatos y estimar la frecuencia de las reacciones de duelo graves en esta población. Además, comparamos subgrupos con abortos espontáneos frente a mortinatos y con pérdidas de embarazo únicas frente a recurrentes.Método: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica sistemática en las bases de datos MEDLINE, psycINFO y PSYNDEX para considerar todos los estudios publicados entre el año 2000 y el 31 de marzo de 2022 en inglés o alemán sobre la prevalencia e intensidad del duelo en mujeres que tuvieron abortos espontáneos o mortinatos. Se incluyeron en esta revisión sistemática los estudios que utilizaron métodos de evaluación validados. Se siguieron las directrices PRISMA.Resultados: Dos investigadores extrajeron de forma independiente las características de los estudios y los datos sobre el duelo de 13 estudios transversales y ocho longitudinales de once países (N=2597). Todos los estudios utilizaron instrumentos de autorreporte. Según 17 de 21 estudios (81%), el duelo es muy elevado en las mujeres después de un aborto espontáneo o un mortinato. Los estudios son muy heterogéneos en cuanto a las muestras, la duración de los embarazos y el momento de la evaluación del duelo tras los abortos espontáneos. La mayoría de los estudios documentan un duelo intenso y frecuentes reacciones de duelo severas -con una disminución en el tiempo- en mujeres que han tenido abortos espontáneos o mortinatos. No se pueden extraer conclusiones claras sobre las diferencias correspondientes entre las mujeres con abortos espontáneos y mortinatos o con pérdidas de embarazos únicos y recurrentes.Conclusiones: El duelo prolongado es frecuente en las mujeres que han tenido abortos espontáneos o mortinatos. Se necesitan más estudios longitudinales para examinar el curso del duelo en este grupo e identificar a las mujeres que desarrollan un trastorno de duelo prolongado, depresión u otros problemas de salud mental.


Assuntos
Aborto Habitual , Natimorto , Aborto Habitual/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pesar , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Natimorto/epidemiologia
19.
J Glob Health ; 12: 04069, 2022 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35972943

RESUMO

Background: The World Health Organization launched the International Classification of Diseases for Perinatal Mortality (ICD-PM) in 2016 to uniformly report on the causes of perinatal deaths. In this systematic review, we aim to describe the global use of the ICD-PM by reporting causes of perinatal mortality and summarizing challenges and suggested amendments. Methods: We systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, and CINAHL databases using key terms related to perinatal mortality and the classification for causes of death. We included studies that applied the ICD-PM and were published between January 2016 and June 2021. The ICD-PM data were extracted and a qualitative analysis was performed to summarize the challenges of the ICD-PM. We applied the PRISMA guidelines, registered our protocol at PROSPERO [CRD42020203466], and used the Appraisal tool for Cross-Sectional Studies (AXIS) as a framework to evaluate the quality of evidence. Results: The search retrieved 6599 reports. Of these, we included 15 studies that applied the ICD-PM to 44 900 perinatal deaths. Most causes varied widely; for example, "antepartum hypoxia" was the cause of stillbirths in 0% to 46% (median = 12%, n = 95) in low-income settings, 0% to 62% (median = 6%, n = 1159) in middle-income settings and 0% to 55% (median = 5%, n = 249) in high-income settings. Five studies reported challenges and suggested amendments to the ICD-PM. The most frequently reported challenges included the high proportion of antepartum deaths of unspecified cause (five studies), the inability to determine the cause of death when the timing of death is unknown (three studies), and the challenge of assigning one cause in case of multiple contributing conditions (three studies). Conclusions: The ICD-PM is increasingly being used across the globe and gives health care providers insight into the causes of perinatal death in different settings. However, there is wide variation in reported causes of perinatal death across comparable settings, which suggests that the ICD-PM is applied inconsistently. We summarized the suggested amendments and made additional recommendations to improve the use of the ICD-PM and help strengthen its consistency. Registration: PROSPERO [CRD42020203466].


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal , Causas de Morte , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Natimorto/epidemiologia
20.
PLoS Med ; 19(8): e1004022, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35969524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Starting in 2006 to 2007, the Government of Bangladesh implemented the Maternal Health Voucher Scheme (MHVS). This program provides pregnant women with vouchers that can be exchanged for health services from eligible public and private sector providers. In this study, we examined whether access to the MHVS was associated with maternal health services utilization, stillbirth, and neonatal and infant mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used information on pregnancies and live births between 2000 to 2016 reported by women 15 to 49 years of age surveyed as part of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys. Our analytic sample included 23,275 pregnancies lasting at least 7 months for analyses of stillbirth and between 15,125 and 21,668 live births for analyses of health services use, neonatal, and infant mortality. With respect to live births occurring prior to the introduction of the MHVS, 31.3%, 14.1%, and 18.0% of women, respectively, reported receiving at least 3 antenatal care visits, delivering in a health institution, and having a skilled birth attendant at delivery. Rates of neonatal and infant mortality during this period were 40 and 63 per 1,000 live births, respectively, and there were 32 stillbirths per 1,000 pregnancies lasting at least 7 months. We applied a difference-in-differences design to estimate the effect of providing subdistrict-level access to the MHVS program, with inverse probability of treatment weights to address selection into the program. The introduction of the MHVS program was associated with a lagged improvement in the probability of delivering in a health facility, one of the primary targets of the program, although associations with other health services were less evident. After 6 years of access to the MHVS, the probabilities of reporting at least 3 antenatal care visits, delivering in a health facility, and having a skilled birth attendant present increased by 3.0 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) = -4.8, 10.7], 6.5 (95% CI = -0.6, 13.6), and 5.8 (95% CI = -1.8, 13.3) percentage points, respectively. We did not observe evidence consistent with the program improving health outcomes, with probabilities of stillbirth, neonatal mortality, and infant mortality decreasing by 0.7 (95% CI = -1.3, 2.6), 0.8 (95% CI = -1.7, 3.4), and 1.3 (95% CI = -2.5, 5.1) percentage points, respectively, after 6 years of access to the MHVS. The sample size was insufficient to detect smaller associations with adequate precision. Additionally, we cannot rule out the possibility of measurement error, although it was likely nondifferential by treatment group, or unmeasured confounding by concomitant interventions that were implemented differentially in treated and control areas. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that the introduction of the MHVS was positively associated with the probability of delivering in a health facility, but despite a longer period of follow-up than most extant evaluations, we did not observe attendant reductions in stillbirth, neonatal mortality, or infant mortality. Further work and engagement with stakeholders is needed to assess if the MHVS has affected the quality of care and health inequalities and whether the design and eligibility of the program should be modified to improve maternal and neonatal health outcomes.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna , Natimorto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Saúde Materna , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Natimorto/epidemiologia
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