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1.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 267, 2021 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Late stillbirth continues to affect 3-4/1000 pregnancies in high-resource settings, with even higher rates in low-resource settings. Reduced foetal movements are frequently reported by women prior to foetal death, but there remains a poor understanding of the reasons and how to deal with this symptom clinically, particularly during the preterm phase of gestation. We aimed to determine which women are at the greatest odds of stillbirth in relation to the maternal report of foetal movements in late pregnancy (≥ 28 weeks' gestation). METHODS: This is an individual participant data meta-analysis of all identified case-control studies of late stillbirth. Studies included in the IPD were two from New Zealand, one from Australia, one from the UK and an internet-based study based out of the USA. There were a total of 851 late stillbirths, and 2257 controls with ongoing pregnancies. RESULTS: Increasing strength of foetal movements was the most commonly reported (> 60%) pattern by women in late pregnancy, which were associated with a decreased odds of late stillbirth (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.20, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.27). Compared to no change in strength or frequency women reporting decreased frequency of movements in the last 2 weeks had increased odds of late stillbirth (aOR = 2.33, 95% CI 1.73 to 3.14). Interaction analysis showed increased strength of movements had a greater protective effect and decreased frequency of movements greater odds of late stillbirth at preterm gestations (28-36 weeks' gestation). Foetal hiccups (aOR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.58) and regular episodes of vigorous movement (aOR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.87) were associated with decreased odds of late stillbirth. A single episode of unusually vigorous movement was associated with increased odds (aOR = 2.86, 95% CI 2.01 to 4.07), which was higher in women at term. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced foetal movements are associated with late stillbirth, with the association strongest at preterm gestations. Foetal hiccups and multiple episodes of vigorous movements are reassuring at all gestations after 28 weeks' gestation, whereas a single episode of vigorous movement is associated with stillbirth at term.


Assuntos
Movimento Fetal , Natimorto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Razão de Chances , Percepção , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Natimorto/epidemiologia
2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 761, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ongoing spread coronavirus disease worldwide has caused major disruptions and led to lockdowns. Everyday lifestyle changes and antenatal care inaccessibility during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have variable results that affect pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to assess the alterations in stillbirth, neonatal-perinatal mortality, preterm birth, and birth weight during the COVID-19 national lockdown. METHODS: We used the data from the Jordan stillbirths and neonatal death surveillance system to compare pregnancy outcomes (gestational age, birth weight, small for gestational age, stillbirth, neonatal death, and perinatal death) between two studied periods (11 months before the pandemic (May 2019 to March 2020) vs. 9 months during the pandemic (April 2020 to March 1st 2020). Separate multinomial logistic and binary logistic regression models were used to compare the studied outcomes between the two studied periods after adjusting for the effects of mother's age, income, education, occupation, nationality, health sector, and multiplicity. RESULTS: There were 31106 registered babies during the study period; among them, 15311 (49.2%) and 15795 (50.8%) births occurred before and during the COVID-19 lockdown, respectively. We found no significant differences in preterm birth and stillbirth rates, neonatal mortality, or perinatal mortality before and during the COVID-19 lockdown. Our findings report a significantly lower incidence of extreme low birth weight (ELBW) infants (<1kg) during the COVID-19 lockdown period than that before the lockdown (adjusted OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.3-0.5: P value <0.001) CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 lockdown period, the number of infants born with extreme low birth weight (ELBW) decreased significantly. More research is needed to determine the impact of cumulative socio-environmental and maternal behavioral changes that occurred during the pandemic on the factors that contribute to ELBW infants.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/estatística & dados numéricos , Jordânia , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia
3.
Epidemiol Prev ; 45(5): In press, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738456

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to describe the methodology of a pilot perinatal mortality surveillance system (SPItOSS) aimed to improve quality of care and prevent avoidable perinatal severe morbidity and mortality in three Italian regions. DESIGN: population-based surveillance project monitoring incident cases of stillbirths, born dead ≥ 28 weeks of gestation and live births dying within 7 days. Local multidisciplinary audits in obstetric and neonatal units were conducted to assess causes of each death. A selection of deaths was also discussed by experts in regional and national Confidential Enquiries to assess causes and avoidability. The WHO perinatal mortality definition and the ICD-PM classification were adopted to codify perinatal deaths. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: health professionals working in any obstetric and neonatal unit in Lombardy (Northern Italy), Tuscany (Central Italy), and Sicily (Southern Italy), accounting for 32.3% of births in Italy. Data collection started on 01.07.2017 and ended on 30.06.2019. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: obstetric and neonatal units' participation rate in the participating regions, facility structural organisation description, health professionals' training course participation, estimate of perinatal death rates, clinical audits and Confidential Enquiries rates. RESULTS: health professionals from all obstetric and/or neonatal units (N. 138) joined the pilot project. Overall, 830 incident perinatal deaths were reported; 699 underwent a facility-based clinical audit, and 94 selected cases were analysed in detail through regional and national Confidential Enquiries. Among the latter, 16.0% were assessed as avoidable deaths. Interregional differences related to the facility structural organisation were identified. CONCLUSIONS: SPItOSS was efficient in identifying and analysing incident cases of perinatal deaths and detecting improvable aspects of care and avoidable perinatal deaths. The next objective is to extend the surveillance at the national level, considering that stable funding and a higher number of participating healthcare professionals and experts will be needed.


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal , Feminino , Humanos , Mortalidade Infantil , Morte Perinatal/prevenção & controle , Mortalidade Perinatal , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Sicília , Natimorto/epidemiologia
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1117, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden of stillbirth, neonatal and maternal deaths are unacceptably high in low- and middle-income countries, especially around the time of birth. There are scarce resources and/or support implementation of evidence-based training programs. SaferBirths Bundle of Care is a well-proven package of innovative tools coupled with data-driven on-the-job training aimed at reducing perinatal and maternal deaths. The aim of this project is to determine the effect of scaling up the bundle on improving quality of intrapartum care and perinatal survival. METHODS: The project will follow a stepped-wedge cluster implementation design with well-established infrastructures for data collection, management, and analysis in 30 public health facilities in regions in Tanzania. Healthcare workers from selected health facilities will be trained in basic neonatal resuscitation, essential newborn care and essential maternal care. Foetal heart rate monitors (Moyo), neonatal heart rate monitors (NeoBeat) and skills trainers (NeoNatalie Live) will be introduced in the health facilities to facilitate timely identification of foetal distress during labour and improve neonatal resuscitation, respectively. Heart rate signal-data will be automatically collected by Moyo and NeoBeat, and newborn resuscitation training by NeoNatalie Live. Given an average of 4000 baby-mother pairs per year per health facility giving an estimate of 240,000 baby-mother pairs for a 2-years duration, 25% reduction in perinatal mortality at a two-sided significance level of 5%, intracluster correlation coefficient (ICC) to be 0.0013, the study power stands at 0.99. DISCUSSION: Previous reports from small-scale Safer Births Bundle implementation studies show satisfactory uptake of interventions with significant improvements in quality of care and lives saved. Better equipped and trained birth attendants are more confident and skilled in providing care. Additionally, local data-driven feedback has shown to drive continuous quality of care improvement initiatives, which is essential to increase perinatal and maternal survival. Strengths of this research project include integration of innovative tools with existing national guidelines, local data-driven decision-making and training. Limitations include the stepwise cluster implementation design that may lead to contamination of the intervention, and/or inability to address the shortage of healthcare workers and medical supplies beyond the project scope. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Name of Trial Registry: ISRCTN Registry. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN30541755 . Date of Registration: 12/10/2020. Type of registration: Prospectively Registered.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Ressuscitação , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 676, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of COVID-19, preventative public health measures, including lockdown strategies, were declared in most countries to control viral transmission. Recent studies and anecdotes have reported changes in the prevalence of perinatal outcomes during national COVID-19lockdowns.The objective of this rapid review was to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 lockdowns on the incidence of low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB), and stillbirth. METHODS: Two reviewers searched EMBASE, CORD-19, LitCovid (PubMed), WHO Global research on corona virus disease (COVID-19), and MedRxiv for studies published in English from the first reports on COVID-19 until 17 July 2021. Perinatal outcomes of interest included LBW (< 2500 g), PTB (< 37 weeks), and stillbirth. RESULTS: Of the 1967 screened articles, 17 publications met the inclusion criteria (14 cohort studies, 1 case control and 2 cross-sectional studies). Studies included data from Denmark, UK, Ireland, Nepal, Italy, Israel, Botswana, Australia, China, Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, Austria, Zimbabwe, India, and Spain. The total sample size ranged from 3399 to 1,599,547 pregnant women. Thirteen studies examined PTB with conflicting results, reporting both an increase and a decrease in PTB incidence, with odds ratios [95% CI] ranging from 0.09 [0.01, 0.40] to 1.93 [0.76, 4.79]. Three studies found a decrease in LBW rates during lockdowns, one of which was statistically significant, with a rate ratio of 3.77 [1.21, 11.75]. Ten studies examined stillbirth rates, including four studies reporting a statistically significant increase in stillbirth rates, with adjusted relative risk ranging from 1.46 [1.13, 1.89] to 3.9 [1.83, 12.0]. Fourteen studies contained data that could be combined in a meta-analysis comparing perinatal outcomes before and during lockdown. We found that lockdown measures were associated with a significant risk of stillbirth with RR = 1.33 [95% CI 1.04, 1.69] when compared to before lockdown period. However, lockdown measures were not associated with a significant risk of PTB, LBW and VLBW compared to prepandemic periods. CONCLUSIONS: This review provides clues about the severity of the indirect influence of COVID-19 lockdown implementation; however, the criteria that lead to unexpected changes in LBW, PTB, and stillbirth remains unclear. Large studies showed conflicting results, reporting both increases and decreases in selected perinatal outcomes. Pooled results show a significant association between lockdown measures and stillbirth rates, but not low birth weight rates. Further studies examining the differences in other countries' lockdowns and sociodemographic groups from low to middle-income countries are needed. Exploration of perinatal outcomes during COVID-19 lockdown poses an opportunity to learn from and make changes to promote the reduction of the leading causes of childhood mortality worldwide.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(10)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615663

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Access to emergency obstetric care can lead to a 45%-75% reduction in stillbirths. However, before a pregnant woman can access this care, she needs to travel to a health facility. Our objective in this study was to assess the influence of distance and travel time to the actual hospital of care on stillbirth. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of pregnant women who presented with obstetric emergencies over a year across all 24 public hospitals in Lagos, Nigeria. Reviewing clinical records, we extracted sociodemographic, travel and obstetric data. Extracted travel data were exported to Google Maps, where typical distance and travel time for period-of-day they travelled were extracted. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine the relative influence of distance and travel time on stillbirth. RESULTS: Of 3278 births, there were 408 stillbirths (12.5%). Women with livebirths travelled a median distance of 7.3 km (IQR 3.3-18.0) and over a median time of 24 min (IQR 12-51). Those with stillbirths travelled a median distance of 8.5 km (IQR 4.4-19.7) and over a median time of 30 min (IQR 16-60). Following adjustments, though no significant association with distance was found, odds of stillbirth were significantly higher for travel of 10-29 min (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.40 to 3.63), 30-59 min (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.22 to 4.34) and 60-119 min (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.05 to 5.25). The adjusted OR of stillbirth was significantly lower following booking (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.49), obstetric complications with mother (obstructed labour (OR 0.11, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.17) and haemorrhage (OR 0.30, 95%CI 0.20 to 0.46)). Odds were significantly higher with multiple gestations (OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.57 to 3.69) and referral (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.12). CONCLUSION: Travel time to a hospital was strongly associated with stillbirth. In addition to birth preparedness, efforts to get quality care quicker to women or women quicker to quality care will be critical for efforts to reduce stillbirths in a principally urban low-income and middle-income setting.


Assuntos
Hospitais , Natimorto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Nigéria , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Natimorto/epidemiologia
7.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(11): 1797-1805, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669501

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has put severe pressure on health care systems worldwide. Although attention has been focused on COVID-19 hospitalizations and deaths, some experts have warned about potentially devastating secondary health effects. These effects may be most severe in low- and middle-income countries with already weak health care systems. This study examines the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on early infant deaths, a question that is currently unsettled. We present new evidence from Nigeria showing that early infant deaths have significantly increased during the pandemic. Using data on the birth outcomes of a large and diverse cohort of pregnant women enrolled in a prospective study and a quasi-experimental difference-in-differences design, we found a 1.1-percentage-point (22 percent) increase and a 0.72-percentage-point (23 percent) increase, respectively, in stillbirths and newborn deaths. Our findings show that the health effects of the pandemic extend beyond counted COVID-19 deaths. If these findings generalize to other low- and middle-income countries, they may indicate that the hard-won gains in child survival made during the past two decades are at risk of being reversed amid the ongoing pandemic. Policies addressing disruptions to health services delivery and providing support to vulnerable groups-specifically to households with pregnant women-will be critical as the pandemic continues.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Natimorto/epidemiologia
9.
MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs ; 46(6): 352-359, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653033

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Historically, stillbirth risk factors are more prevalent among non-Hispanic Black women than non-Hispanic White women, including age < 20, lower formal educational attainment, prepregnancy obesity, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, short interpregnancy interval, small for gestational age newborn, late prenatal care, and previous cesarean birth. We examined whether these disparities have changed since 2011 and identified a group of risk factors that differed between Black women and White women when accounting for correlations among variables. METHODS: In a random sample of 315 stillbirths from the National Center for Health Statistics' 2016 fetal death data, Black women and White women were compared for each risk factor using t-tests or chi-square tests. Variables with p ≤ .20 were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance. RESULTS: In this sample, Black women experiencing stillbirth were less likely to have a Bachelor's degree (12.94% vs. 28.49%, p = .04), and more likely to be obese (44.5% vs. 29.1%, p = .01) than White women. Multivariate analysis accounting for correlations among variables showed a group of risk factors that differed between Black women and White women: age < 20, lower education, prepregnancy obesity, hypertension (chronic and pregnancy-associated), nulliparity before stillbirth, and earlier gestation. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Less formal education, obesity, age <20, hypertension, chronic and pregnancy-associated, nulliparity, and earlier gestation are important to consider in multilevel stillbirth prevention interventions to decrease racial disparity in stillbirth. Respectfully listening to women and taking their concerns seriously is one way nurses and other health care providers can promote equity in health outcomes for childbearing women.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolaridade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Natimorto/etnologia , Adulto , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 340, 2021 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abortion and stillbirths are the common obstetrics condition in Ethiopia and their effect on the next pregnancy was not well identified in resource limited settings. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of stillbirth and abortion on the next pregnancy. METHODS: A prospective cohort study design was implemented. The study was conducted in Mecha demographic surveillance and field research center catchment areas. The data were collected from January 2015 to March 2019. Epi-info software was used to calculate the sample size. The systematic random sampling technique was used to select stillbirth and abortion women. Poison regression was used to identify the predictors of MCH service utilization; descriptive statistics were used to identify the prevalence of blood borne pathogens. The Kaplan Meier survival curve was used to estimate survival to pregnancy and pregnancy related medical disorders. RESULTS: 1091 stillbirth and 3,026 abortion women were followed. Hepatitis B was present in 6% of abortion and 3.2% of stillbirth women. Hepatitis C was diagnosed in 4.7% of abortion and 0.3% of stillbirth women. HIV was detected in 3% of abortion and 0.8% of stillbirth women. MCH service utilization was determined by knowledge of contraceptives [IRR 1.29, 95% CI 1.18-1.42], tertiary education [IRR 4.29, 95% CI 3.72-4.96], secondary education. [IRR 3.14, 95% CI 2.73-3.61], married women [IRR 2.08, 95% CI 1.84-2.34], family size [IRR 0.67, 95% CI 1.001-1.01], the median time of pregnancy after stillbirth and abortion were 12 months. Ante-partum hemorrhage was observed in 23.1% of pregnant mothers with a past history of abortion cases and post-partum hemorrhage was observed in 25.6% of pregnant mothers with a past history of abortion. PREGNANCY INDUCED DIABETES MELLITUS was observed 14.3% of pregnant mothers with a past history of stillbirth and pregnancy-induced hypertension were observed in 9.2% of mothers with a past history of stillbirth. CONCLUSION: Obstetric hemorrhage was the common complications of abortion women while Pregnancy-induced diabetic Mellitus and pregnancy-induced hypertension were the most common complications of stillbirth for the next pregnancy.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Natimorto/epidemiologia
11.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e045882, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479931

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sub-Saharan Africa has the largest number of people with HIV, one of the most severe burdens of adverse birth outcomes globally and particular vulnerability to climate change. We examined associations between seasonality and adverse birth outcomes among women with and without HIV in a large geographically representative birth outcomes surveillance study in Botswana from 2015 to 2018. METHODS: We evaluated stillbirth, preterm delivery, very preterm delivery, small for gestational age (SGA), very SGA, and combined endpoints of any adverse or severe birth outcome. We estimated the risk of each outcome by month and year of delivery, and adjusted risks ratios (ARRs) of outcomes during the early wet (1 November-15 January), late wet (16 January-31 March) and early dry (1 April-15 July) seasons, compared with the late dry (16 July-31 October) season. Analyses were conducted overall and separately by HIV status. RESULTS: Among 73 178 women (24% with HIV), the risk of all adverse birth outcomes peaked in November-January and reached low points in September. Compared with the late dry season, the ARRs for any adverse birth outcome were 1.03 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.06) for the early dry season, 1.08 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.11) for the early wet season and 1.07 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.10) for the late wet season. Comparing the early wet season to the late dry season, we found that ARRs for stillbirth and very preterm delivery were higher in women with HIV (1.23, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.59, and 1.33, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.62, respectively) than in women without HIV (1.07, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.26, and 1.19, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.36, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: We identified a modest association between seasonality and adverse birth outcomes in Botswana, which was greatest among women with HIV. Understanding seasonal patterns of adverse birth outcomes and the role of HIV status may allow for mitigation of their impact in the face of seasonal extremes related to climate change.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Nascimento Prematuro , Botsuana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia
12.
Arch Dis Child ; 106(10): 946-953, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475107

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study is part of the Global Maternal Sepsis Study (GLOSS). It aimed to estimate neonatal near-miss (NNM) and perinatal death frequency and maternal risk factors among births to women with infection during pregnancy in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC). DESIGN: We conducted a 1-week inception hospital-based cohort study. SETTING: The study was carried out in 408 hospitals in 43 LMIC of all the WHO regions in 2017. PATIENTS: We included women with suspected or confirmed infection during pregnancy with at least 28 weeks of gestational age up to day-7 after birth. All babies born to those women were followed from birth until the seventh day after childbirth. Perinatal outcomes were considered at the end of the follow-up. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Perinatal outcomes were (i) babies alive without severe complication, (ii) NNM and (iii) perinatal death (stillbirth and early neonatal death). RESULTS: 1219 births were analysed. Among them, 25.9% (n=316) and 10.1% (n=123) were NNM and perinatal deaths, respectively. After adjustment, maternal pre-existing medical condition (adjusted odds ratios (aOR)=1.5; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.0) and maternal infection suspected or diagnosed during labour (aOR=1.9; 95% CI 1.2 to 3.2) were the independent risk factors of NNM. Maternal pre-existing medical condition (aOR=1.7; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.8), infection-related severe maternal outcome (aOR=3.8; 95% CI 2.0 to 7.1), mother's infection suspected or diagnosed within 24 hours after childbirth (aOR=2.2; 95% CI 1.0 to 4.7) and vaginal birth (aOR=1.8; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.9) were independently associated with increased odds of perinatal death. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, one-third of births were adverse perinatal outcomes. Pre-existing maternal medical conditions and severe infection-related maternal outcomes were the main risk factors of adverse perinatal outcomes.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Near Miss/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Perinatal , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Nascido Vivo/epidemiologia , Parto , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Vagina , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256725, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity prevalence is increasing in many countries in the world, including Asia. Maternal obesity is highly associated with fetal and neonatal deaths. This study investigated whether maternal obesity is a risk factor of fetal death (measured in terms of miscarriage and stillbirth) and neonatal mortality in South and South-East Asian countries. METHODS: This cross-sectional study pooled the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from eight South and South-East Asian countries (2014-2018). Multivariate logistic regression was deployed to check the relationships between maternal obesity with fetal and neonatal deaths. Finally, multilevel logistic regression model was employed since the DHS data has a hierarchical structure. RESULTS: The pooled logistic regression model illustrated that maternal obesity is associated with higher odds of miscarriage (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.20-1.33) and stillbirths (aOR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.27-1.67) after adjustment of confounders. Children of obese mothers were at 1.18 (aOR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.08-1.28) times greater risk of dying during the early neonatal period than mothers with a healthy weight. However, whether maternal obesity is statistically a significant risk factor for the offspring's late neonatal deaths was not confirmed. The significant association between maternal obesity with miscarriage, stillbirth and early neonatal mortality was further confirmed by multilevel logistic regression results. CONCLUSION: Maternal obesity in South and South-East Asian countries is associated with a greater risk of fetal and early neonatal deaths. This finding has substantial public health implications. Strategies to prevent and reduce obesity should be developed before planning pregnancy to reduce the fetal and neonatal death burden. Obese women need to deliver at the institutional facility centre that can offer obstetrics and early neonatal care.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Obesidade Materna/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Materna/mortalidade , Obesidade Materna/fisiopatologia , Razão de Chances , Morte Perinatal , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
Lancet ; 398(10302): 772-785, 2021 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stillbirths are a major public health issue and a sensitive marker of the quality of care around pregnancy and birth. The UN Global Strategy for Women's, Children's and Adolescents' Health (2016-30) and the Every Newborn Action Plan (led by UNICEF and WHO) call for an end to preventable stillbirths. A first step to prevent stillbirths is obtaining standardised measurement of stillbirth rates across countries. We estimated stillbirth rates and their trends for 195 countries from 2000 to 2019 and assessed progress over time. METHODS: For a systematic assessment, we created a dataset of 2833 country-year datapoints from 171 countries relevant to stillbirth rates, including data from registration and health information systems, household-based surveys, and population-based studies. After data quality assessment and exclusions, we used 1531 datapoints to estimate country-specific stillbirth rates for 195 countries from 2000 to 2019 using a Bayesian hierarchical temporal sparse regression model, according to a definition of stillbirth of at least 28 weeks' gestational age. Our model combined covariates with a temporal smoothing process such that estimates were informed by data for country-periods with high quality data, while being based on covariates for country-periods with little or no data on stillbirth rates. Bias and additional uncertainty associated with observations based on alternative stillbirth definitions and source types, and observations that were subject to non-sampling errors, were included in the model. We compared the estimated stillbirth rates and trends to previously reported mortality estimates in children younger than 5 years. FINDINGS: Globally in 2019, an estimated 2·0 million babies (90% uncertainty interval [UI] 1·9-2·2) were stillborn at 28 weeks or more of gestation, with a global stillbirth rate of 13·9 stillbirths (90% UI 13·5-15·4) per 1000 total births. Stillbirth rates in 2019 varied widely across regions, from 22·8 stillbirths (19·8-27·7) per 1000 total births in west and central Africa to 2·9 (2·7-3·0) in western Europe. After west and central Africa, eastern and southern Africa and south Asia had the second and third highest stillbirth rates in 2019. The global annual rate of reduction in stillbirth rate was estimated at 2·3% (90% UI 1·7-2·7) from 2000 to 2019, which was lower than the 2·9% (2·5-3·2) annual rate of reduction in neonatal mortality rate (for neonates aged <28 days) and the 4·3% (3·8-4·7) annual rate of reduction in mortality rate among children aged 1-59 months during the same period. Based on the lower bound of the 90% UIs, 114 countries had an estimated decrease in stillbirth rate since 2000, with four countries having a decrease of at least 50·0%, 28 having a decrease of 25·0-49·9%, 50 having a decrease of 10·0-24·9%, and 32 having a decrease of less than 10·0%. For the remaining 81 countries, we found no decrease in stillbirth rate since 2000. Of these countries, 34 were in sub-Saharan Africa, 16 were in east Asia and the Pacific, and 15 were in Latin America and the Caribbean. INTERPRETATION: Progress in reducing the rate of stillbirths has been slow compared with decreases in the mortality rate of children younger than 5 years. Accelerated improvements are most needed in the regions and countries with high stillbirth rates, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Future prevention of stillbirths needs increased efforts to raise public awareness, improve data collection, assess progress, and understand public health priorities locally, all of which require investment. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the UK Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Estatísticos , Gravidez
16.
Public Health ; 198: 118-122, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416574

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In 2015, the South African government implemented the national health promotion policy (NHPP), intending to reduce stillbirth and maternal mortality. This study was designed to quantify the impact of the NHPP on stillbirth and maternal mortality in both the South African population and immigrant citizens. STUDY DESIGN: This was a panel analysis using secondary data issued by Statistic South Africa-Vital Statistics. METHODS: The author exploited the changes in smoking status that the NHPP exerted between 2015 and 2017. The author then builds credible control and treatment groups based on smoking status for both groups. Women who quitted smoking post-NHPP implementation were considered as the treatment group. Women who persisted with smoking post-NHPP implementation were classified as the control group. The author then used a Two-stage Least Squared Model to quantify the impact of the NHPP on stillbirth and maternal mortality in both the South African and immigrant populations. RESULTS: The model shows that NHPP averts stillbirths by 8.36% in the South African population residing in the urban areas and by 2.84% in the rural segments of the country. NHPP averts South African maternal mortalities by 20.88% in urban areas and by 15.60% in the rural segments of the country.Regarding the immigrant population, the model shows that NHPP averts immigrant's stillbirths by 7.61% in the urban areas and by 2.79% in the rural segments of the country. In addition, NHPP averts immigrant maternal mortalities by 19.22% in the urban areas and by 13.04% in the rural segments of the country. CONCLUSIONS: NHPP reduces stillbirth and maternal mortality outcomes slightly biased toward the South African population. These inequalities reflect immigrant's lack of response to the NHPP framework and inadequate access to the South African health system.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Materna , Natimorto , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Políticas , Gravidez , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia
17.
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol ; 33(5): 405-411, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459791

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Stillbirth has a high global prevalence and has not improved despite other advances in maternal and perinatal outcomes in the last 20 years. The global applicability of research is challenged by the fact that most evidence originates from high-income countries, whereas the burden is greatest in low- and middle-income countries. Robust universally applicable evidence is therefore desired to address this problem. RECENT FINDINGS: Good quality evidence has identified key risk factors for stillbirth. However, an effective universally applicable model is yet to be developed. Published prediction models lack internal or external validation, suffer from the risk of bias or cannot be applied to different populations. Term induction of labour suggests good clinical outcomes with no increase in obstetric interventions but must be considered within the context of the healthcare system's feasibility, cost-effectiveness and the experiences of women. SUMMARY: The most realistic focus to reduce stillbirth is placental insufficiency. Globally, the greatest benefit will come from treating those with the highest risk of disease, such as those in low and middle-income countries. Further high-quality trials need to be conducted in these settings as a priority.


Assuntos
Trabalho de Parto , Complicações na Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Placenta , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Natimorto/epidemiologia
18.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e045012, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373292

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Stillbirth is one of the vital indicators of quality care. This study aimed to determine maternal-fetal characteristics and causes of stillbirth in Nepal. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of single-centred registry-based surveillance data. SETTING: The study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital, a tertiary care hospital located in Bharatpur, Nepal. PARTICIPANTS: All deliveries of intrauterine fetal death, at or beyond 22 weeks' period of gestation and/or birth weight of 500 g or more, conducted between 16 July 2017 and 15 July 2019 were included in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure of this study was stillbirth, and the secondary outcome measures were maternal and fetal characteristics and cause of stillbirth. RESULTS: Out of 5282 institutional deliveries conducted over 2 years, 79 (1.5%) were stillbirths, which gives the stillbirth rate of 15 per 1000 births. Of them, the majority (75; 94.9%) were vaginal delivery and only four (5.1%) were caesarean section (p<0.0001). The proportion of the macerated type of stillbirth was more than that of the fresh type (58.2% vs 41.8%; p=0.13). Only half of the mothers who experienced stillbirth had received antenatal care. While the cause of fetal death was unknown in one-third of cases (31.6%; 25/79), among likely causes, the most common was maternal hypertension (29.1%), followed by intrauterine infection (8.9%) and fetal malpresentation (7.6%). Four out of 79 stillbirths (5%) had a birth defect. CONCLUSION: High rate of stillbirths in Nepal could be due to the lack of quality antenatal care. The country's health systems should be strengthened so that pregnancy-related risks such as maternal hypertension and infections are identified early on. Upgrading mothers' hygiene and health awareness is equally crucial in reducing fetal deaths in low-resource settings.


Assuntos
Cuidado Pré-Natal , Natimorto , Cesárea , Feminino , Humanos , Nepal/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
19.
CMAJ ; 193(30): E1164-E1172, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conflicting reports have emerged for rates of preterm births and stillbirths during the COVID-19 pandemic. Most of these reports did not account for natural variation in these rates. We aimed to evaluate variations in preterm birth and stillbirth rates before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using linked population health administrative databases of pregnant people giving birth in any hospital in Ontario between July 2002 and December 2020. We calculated preterm birth and stillbirth rates. We assessed preterm birth at 22-28, 29-32 and 33-36 weeks' gestation, and stillbirths at term and preterm gestation. We used Laney control P' charts for the 18-year study period (6-mo observation periods) and interrupted time-series analyses for monthly rates for the most recent 4 years. RESULTS: We evaluated 2 465 387 pregnancies, including 13 781 that resulted in stillbirth. The mean preterm birth rate for our cohort was 7.96% (range 7.32%-8.59%). From January to December 2020, we determined that the preterm birth rate in Ontario was 7.87%, with no special cause variation. The mean stillbirth rate for the cohort was 0.56% (range 0.48%-0.70%). From January to December 2020, the stillbirth rate was 0.53%, with no special cause variation. We did not find any special cause variation for preterm birth or stillbirth subgroups. We found no changes in slope or gap between prepandemic and pandemic periods using interrupted time-series analyses. INTERPRETATION: In Ontario, Canada, we found no special cause variation (unusual change) in preterm birth or stillbirth rates, overall or by subgroups, during the first 12 months of the COVID-19 pandemic compared with the previous 17.5 years.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Ontário , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
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