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1.
BJOG ; 127(1): 39-45, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444892

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the relation between famine exposure in early life and subsequent pregnancy loss, including stillbirth, and spontaneous abortion in adulthood. DESIGN: A population-based, partly ecological study. SETTING AND POPULATION: Individual data of 58 601 females born around the time of the Great Chinese Famine in 1959-1961. METHODS: Associations between the famine exposure in early life and pregnancy loss (stillbirth and spontaneous abortion) in adulthood were analysed using negative binomial regression, with the non-exposure group as reference, adjusting for region, highest education, monthly income, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, body mass index in 25-year-olds and metabolic equivalent. Further analyses were stratified by rural versus urban region. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Continuous variables of times of stillbirths and spontaneous abortions were used according to the individual self-reported reproductive history. RESULTS: No association was found between famine exposure and spontaneous abortion. In contrast, females experiencing the famine during their prenatal period (incidence rate ratio = 1.15, 95% CI 1.00-1.33) or infant period (incidence rate ratio = 1.27, 95% CI 1.12-1.44) were more likely to report stillbirth in later adult life. Such an association appeared stronger in women living in rural regions. CONCLUSIONS: Early life exposure of famine was associated with an increased risk of stillbirth but not spontaneous abortion in adulthood. The strength of such an association appeared stronger in rural areas. Given the high potential for unmeasured confounding, these associations must be interpreted with caution. Regarding the potential implication that undernutrition in the fetal period is related to reproductive outcome in adulthood, fetal nutritional supply may play an important role in human reproduction. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Exposure to famine in early life was associated with increased pregnancy loss in adulthood.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Saúde da População Rural
2.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 148(1): 6-13, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691277

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of adverse fetal outcomes after exposure to oral antifungal agents during pregnancy. SEARCH STRATEGY: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched up to October 2018. SELECTION CRITERIA: Cohort studies and case-control studies investigating fetal outcomes following maternal exposure to oral antifungal agents. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data. Pooled estimates were calculated for the frequency of adverse fetal outcomes. MAIN RESULTS: Overall, eight cohort studies and one case-control study were included. The oral antifungal agents used during pregnancy were fluconazole and itraconazole. The data indicated that oral fluconazole exposure during pregnancy might slightly increase the risk of congenital heart defects and limb defects relative to the general population; oral itraconazole during pregnancy might increase the risk of eye defects. No difference was found between oral fluconazole/itraconazole exposure and non-exposure in the risk of other birth defects, spontaneous abortion, or stillbirth. CONCLUSION: Oral fluconazole or itraconazole may not increase the risk of birth defects. Nonetheless, the risk of congenital heart defects and limb defects after fluconazole exposure and eye defects after itraconazole exposure should be cautiously investigated.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/efeitos adversos , Fluconazol/efeitos adversos , Itraconazol/efeitos adversos , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia
3.
BJOG ; 127(1): 79-86, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483927

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to analyse the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) cohort data to examine the safety of acupuncture therapy during pregnancy. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Korea. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: Women with confirmed pregnancy between 2003 and 2012 from the 2002-13 NHIS sample cohort (n = 20 799). METHODS: Women with confirmed pregnancy were identified and divided into acupuncture or control group for comparison of their outcomes. Differences in other factors such as age, and rate of high-risk pregnancy and multiple pregnancy were examined. In the acupuncture group, the most frequent acupuncture diagnosis codes and the timing of treatment were also investigated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of full-term delivery, preterm delivery and stillbirth by pregnancy duration and among the high-risk and multiple pregnancy groups. RESULTS: Of 20 799 pregnant women analysed, 1030 (4.95%) and 19 749 were in the acupuncture and control groups, respectively. Both overall (odds ratio [OR] 1.23; 95% CI 0.98-1.54), and in the stratified analysis of high-risk pregnancies (OR 1.09; 95% CI 0.73-1.64), there was no significant difference between acupuncture and control groups in preterm deliveries. No stillbirths occurred in the acupuncture group and 0.035% of pregnancies resulted in stillbirths in the control group. CONCLUSION: No significant difference in delivery outcomes (preterm delivery and stillbirth) was observed between confirmed pregnancies in the acupuncture and control groups. Therefore, in pregnancy, acupuncture therapy may be a safe therapeutic modality for relieving discomfort without an adverse delivery outcome. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: In pregnancy, acupuncture therapy may be a safe therapeutic modality for relieving discomfort without an adverse outcome.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/efeitos adversos , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 23(3): 42-48, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782630

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic genetic hematological disorder with multiorgan involvement and is associated with complications during the pregnancy. This is a well-known disorder in Saudi Arabia, but no study has reported its outcomes in pregnant Saudi females of the Eastern region. This study was carried out to compare the fetomaternal outcome in patients with SCD with those without SCD. This was a retrospective cohort study done in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia in a tertiary care, teaching hospital, by retrieving the data through the code ICD-9 for SCD, the control group was also selected with comparable characteristics. A total of 302 SCD pregnant patients were included for comparison with 600 pregnant women without SCD as control, during the period of Jan 1, 2008 to December 31, 2018. After the data retrieval, percentages of complications were calculated between the study and control groups. Fischer's exact test and t-test were used for statistical analysis by using SPSS version 22. The results showed higher complication rates in pregnancies of patients with SCD. Hypertensive disorders (13.3%), abruptio placenta (1.6%), intrauterine growth restriction (19.2%), thromboembolism (6.6%) and stroke (2.6%) were all higher in SCD as compared to the control group .The complications of SCD itself including anemia (89.4%), acute chest syndrome (13.2%) and sickle cell crisis (39.2%) were also increased during the pregnancy. Both still birth (3.3%) and neonatal intensive care unit admission (1.6%) were also higher in SCD. SCD during the pregnancy is a high-risk situation and can lead to many fetomaternal complications; however, preconceptional counselling, early booking, a careful monitoring during pregnancy and multidisciplinary management approach can prevent potential adverse outcome in this regard.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/fisiopatologia , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Gravidez , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/etnologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Natimorto/etnologia , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMJ ; 367: l6131, 2019 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748223

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if induction of labour at 41 weeks improves perinatal and maternal outcomes in women with a low risk pregnancy compared with expectant management and induction of labour at 42 weeks. DESIGN: Multicentre, open label, randomised controlled superiority trial. SETTING: 14 hospitals in Sweden, 2016-18. PARTICIPANTS: 2760 women with a low risk uncomplicated singleton pregnancy randomised (1:1) by the Swedish Pregnancy Register. 1381 women were assigned to the induction group and 1379 were assigned to the expectant management group. INTERVENTIONS: Induction of labour at 41 weeks and expectant management and induction of labour at 42 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was a composite perinatal outcome including one or more of stillbirth, neonatal mortality, Apgar score less than 7 at five minutes, pH less than 7.00 or metabolic acidosis (pH <7.05 and base deficit >12 mmol/L) in the umbilical artery, hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy, intracranial haemorrhage, convulsions, meconium aspiration syndrome, mechanical ventilation within 72 hours, or obstetric brachial plexus injury. Primary analysis was by intention to treat. RESULTS: The study was stopped early owing to a significantly higher rate of perinatal mortality in the expectant management group. The composite primary perinatal outcome did not differ between the groups: 2.4% (33/1381) in the induction group and 2.2% (31/1379) in the expectant management group (relative risk 1.06, 95% confidence interval 0.65 to 1.73; P=0.90). No perinatal deaths occurred in the induction group but six (five stillbirths and one early neonatal death) occurred in the expectant management group (P=0.03). The proportion of caesarean delivery, instrumental vaginal delivery, or any major maternal morbidity did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study comparing induction of labour at 41 weeks with expectant management and induction at 42 weeks does not show any significant difference in the primary composite adverse perinatal outcome. However, a reduction of the secondary outcome perinatal mortality is observed without increasing adverse maternal outcomes. Although these results should be interpreted cautiously, induction of labour ought to be offered to women no later than at 41 weeks and could be one (of few) interventions that reduces the rate of stillbirths. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN26113652.


Assuntos
Idade Gestacional , Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Conduta Expectante/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/etiologia , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia , Nascimento a Termo
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 315, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723374

RESUMO

Introduction: The study investigated the prevalence of stillbirth at the Buea regional hospital, by taking cases of pregnant women who attended antenatal clinic(s) and those who did not attend but had their deliveries at the Buea regional hospital. The study specifically estimated the prevalence of stillbirths; identified possible risk factors associated with stillbirths, and determined whether the number of antenatal clinic visits is related to the occurrence of stillbirths-because during antenatal clinic visits, pregnant women are educated on risk factors of stillbirths such as: preterm deliveries; sex of the stillbirth; history of stillbirth; history of abortion(s); what age group of mothers are more likely to have a stillbirth. Methods: The study was a hospital based retrospective study at the maternity in which there were 3577 deliveries registered at the Buea regional hospital dated May 1st, 2014 to April 30th, 2017. With the aid of a checklist data was collected, analysed and presented with the use of tables, pie-charts and bar charts. Results: The prevalence of stillbirths was 26‰; possible risk factors associated with stillbirths included: preterm deliveries; women aged 20-29 years; history of abortion(s); a history of stillbirth; sex of stillbirths were more of females than males; and insufficient antenatal clinic attendance (≤1 antenatal clinic attendance) had more stillbirths. Conclusion: The study established that stillbirths can occur in any woman of child-bearing age. possible risk factors associated with stillbirths included: preterm deliveries; women aged 20-29 years; history of abortion(s); a history of stillbirth; gender of stillbirths were more of females than males; and insufficient antenatal clinic attendance (≤1 antenatal clinic attendance) had more stillbirths.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto , Camarões/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Idade Materna , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
7.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(2): 1924-1929, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656475

RESUMO

Background: Neanatal comploications are the commonest problems facing babies in Tanzania. An attempt has been made to investigate determinants of neonatal outcomes among postnatal women. Methods: Using a case-contrrol study design, 165 women were selected from 3 health facilities, where they had had antenatal care (ANC), labour, delivery and post natal care. Results: Chi- square test revealed that gestational age (p-value, 0.01), HIV status (p-value, 0.000) and malaria (p-value, 0.001<0.05) were significantly associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. Conclusion: The study concluded that implementation of community-based intervention is needed to ensure survival of newborns.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Malária/epidemiologia , Idade Materna , Paridade , Cuidado Pós-Natal/organização & administração , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
8.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(2): 1930-1937, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656476

RESUMO

Background: Stillbirth is a death before the complete expulsion or extraction from the mother. The burden is severe and high in developing countries. Risk factors for stillbirth are not yet studied in Ethiopia. Objective: To identify risk factors of stillbirth among mothers delivered in public hospitals of Central Zone Tigray, Ethiopia. Methods: A case-control study design was used. Data collection period was from January to April 2018. Study subjects 63 cases and 252 controls were selected using systematic random sampling technique from respective hospitals. The interviewer-administered questionnaire, observational, and chart analysis were used to collect the data. A binary logistic regression model was employed. Results were presented at significance level P-value <0.05. Results: Maternal hypertension [AOR=12.83; 95% CI 3.38, 48.83], low birth weight [AOR=5.6; 95% CI 2.39, 13.38], pre-term [AOR=2.6;95%CI 1.12,6.16], alcohol intake [AOR=7.56; 95% CI 1.68, 34.04], polyhydramnios [AOR=13.43; 95% CI 3.63, 49.67], and meconium stained amniotic fluid [AOR=7.88; 95% CI 1.73, 8.18] were risk factors of stillbirth. Conclusion: The risk of stillbirth is increased with increasing maternal complication like maternal hypertension, alcohol consumption, polyhydramnios, and meconium-stained amniotic fluid. The occurrence of preterm and low birth weight of the fetus had an effect on the risk of stillbirth.


Assuntos
Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães , Poli-Hidrâmnios/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Hypertension ; 74(5): 1144-1151, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564161

RESUMO

Preeclampsia is a common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) in low- and middle-income countries, but AKI incidence in preeclampsia, its risk factors, and renal outcomes are unknown. A prospective observational multicenter study of women admitted with preeclampsia in South Africa was conducted. Creatinine concentrations were extracted from national laboratory databases for women with maximum creatinine of ≥90 µmol/L (≥1.02 mg/dL). Renal injury and recovery were defined by Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes creatinine criteria. Predefined risk factors, maternal outcomes, and neonatal outcomes were compared between AKI stages. Of 1547 women admitted with preeclampsia 237 (15.3%) met AKI criteria: 6.9% (n=107) stage 1, 4.3% (n=67) stage 2, and 4.1% (n=63) stage 3. There was a higher risk of maternal death (n=7; relative risk, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.6-11.4) and stillbirth (n=80; relative risk, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.8-2.8) in women with AKI compared with those without. Perinatal mortality was also increased (89 of 240; 37.1%). Hypertension in a previous pregnancy was the strongest predictor of AKI stage 2 or 3 (odds ratio, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.21-4.17). Renal recovery rate reduced with increasing AKI stage. A third of surviving women (76 of 230 [33.0%]) had not recovered baseline renal function by discharge. Approximately half (39 of 76; 51.3%) of these women had no further creatinine testing post-discharge. In summary, AKI was common in women with preeclampsia and had high rates of associated maternal and perinatal mortality. Only two-thirds of women had confirmed renal recovery. History of a previous hypertensive pregnancy was an important risk factor.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Morte Materna/tendências , Morte Perinatal , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comorbidade , Intervalos de Confiança , Creatinina/sangue , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Testes de Função Renal , Razão de Chances , Pobreza , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/terapia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , África do Sul , Análise de Sobrevida
10.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 66(8): 397-406, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548448

RESUMO

Objectives The final evaluation of the Japanese government's Healthy Parents and Children 21 project in 2014 noted an increase in low birth weight infants as an aspect that worsened. In order to reduce the number of low birth weight infants, miscarriages, and stillbirths in Kurume City, we conducted a survey aimed at researching new measures, including the search for new risk factors of birth complications.Methods The participants of this study were 2,986 pregnant women who submitted a pregnancy notification form in 2014. We excluded women who moved away from Kurume city or for whom birth weight records could not be obtained. Information from the pregnancy notification form was linked to birth weight records to examine the relationships between low birth weight infants, miscarriages, stillbirths, and pregnancy attributes. Variables that were shown to be related in an initial univariate analysis were analyzed further in a multiple logistic regression analysis with low birth weight, miscarriage, or stillbirth as the response variables.Results A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that being 35 years or older (odds ratio [OR]: 1.41), height less than 158 cm (OR: 1.45), non-pregnant body mass index (BMI) less than 18.5 (OR: 1.48), and detection of physical abnormalities by a physician during the pregnancy (OR: 2.20) were independent maternal factors that were significantly associated with low birth weight. Being aged 35 years or older (OR: 2.05) and smoking (OR: 3.42) were independent factors that were significantly associated with miscarriage and stillbirth. In addition, the cessation of alcohol use (OR: 0.51) significantly reduced this risk.Conclusion Because some biological factors such as "age" and "non-pregnant BMI" are invariable, we encourage pregnant women to get checkups to detect abnormalities early or to attend birthing classes that offer mental support, especially for pregnant women over 35 years. We want to tell young generations that pregnant women over 35 are at an increased risk of having low birth weight infants, miscarriages, and stillbirths, and those pregnant women with a lower BMI have an increased risk of low birth weight infants. "Maintenance of appropriate body weight," "smoking," "alcohol," socioeconomic issues such as "lack of systems for seeking advice and support staff," and "financial concerns" can be improved with health education from public health nurses and multidisciplinary support interventions. At the Children Care Support Center in Kurume city, professionals work together to provide continuous support to families during pregnancy, childbirth, and parenting. As a result, we may be able to contribute to reducing the number of low birth weight infants, miscarriages, and stillbirths.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Tocologia , Enfermeiras de Saúde Pública , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Apoio Social , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 645, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal and perinatal mortality is a major public health concern across the globe and more so in low and middle-income countries. In Kenya, more than 6000 maternal deaths, and 35,000 stillbirths occur each year. The Government of Kenya abolished user fee for maternity care under the Free Maternity Service policy, in June of 2013 in all public health facilities, a move to make maternity services accessible and affordable, and to reduce maternal and perinatal mortality. METHOD: An observational retrospective study was carried out in 3 counties in Kenya. Six maternal health output indicators were observed monthly, 2 years pre and 2 years post- policy implementation. Data was collected from daily maternity registers in 90 public health facilities across the 3 counties all serving an estimated population of 3 million people. Interrupted Time Series Analysis (ITSA) with a single group was used to assess the effects of the policy. Standard linear regression using generalized least squares (gls) model, was used to run the results for each of the six variables of interest. Absolute and relative changes were calculated using the gls model coefficients. RESULTS: Significant sustained increase of 89, 97, and 98% was observed in the antenatal care visits, health facility deliveries, and live births respectively, after the policy implementation. An immediate and significant increase of 27% was also noted for those women who received Emergency Obstetric Care (EmONC) services in either the level 5, 4 and 3 health facilities. No significant changes were observed in the stillbirth rate and caesarean section rate following policy implementation. CONCLUSION: After 2 years of implementing the Free Maternity Service policy in Kenya, immediate and sustained increase in the use of skilled care during pregnancy and childbirth was observed. The study suggest that hospital cost is a major expense incurred by most women and their families whilst seeking maternity care services and a barrier to maternity care utilization. Overall, Free Maternity Service policy, as a health financing strategy, has exhibited the potential of realizing the full beneficial effects of maternal morbidity and mortality reduction by increasing access to skilled care.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna/economia , Cesárea/economia , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/economia , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/economia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde/economia , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Quênia/epidemiologia , Saúde Materna/economia , Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/economia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Natimorto/epidemiologia
12.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 147(3): 397-403, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe obstetrical care and in-hospital outcomes in very preterm triplet pregnancies in a European multiregional cohort. METHODS: Data from a prospective population-based study of very preterm births between 22 + 0 and 31 + 6 weeks of gestation in 19 regions from 11 European countries participating in the EPICE project in 2011/2012 were used to describe triplet pregnancies and compare them with twins and singletons. RESULTS: Triplets constituted 1.1% of very preterm pregnancies (97/8851) and 3.3% of very preterm live births (258/7900); these percentages varied from 0% to 2.6% and 0% to 6% respectively across the regions. In-hospital mortality after live birth was 12.4% and did not differ significantly from singletons or twins or by birth order. However, 28.9% of mothers with a triplet pregnancy experienced at least one neonatal death. Ninety percent of live-born triplets were delivered by cesarean. Vaginal delivery was associated with an Apgar score of less than 7, but not with in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of very preterm triplets varies across European regions. Most triplets were born by cesarean and those born vaginally had lower Apgar scores. Overall, in-hospital mortality after live birth was similar to singletons and twins.


Assuntos
Gravidez de Trigêmeos/estatística & dados numéricos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Trigêmeos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Nascimento Vivo/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Natimorto/epidemiologia
13.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 276, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Implementation of high-quality national audits for perinatal mortality are needed to improve the registration of all perinatal deaths and the identification of the causes of death. This study aims to evaluate the implementation of a Regional Audit System for Stillbirth in Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy. METHODS: For each stillbirth (≥ 22 weeks of gestation, ≥ 500 g) occurred between January 1, 2014 to December 1, 2016 (n = 332), the same diagnostic workup was performed and a clinical record with data about mother and stillborn was completed. Every case was discussed in a multidisciplinary local audit to assess both the cause of death (ReCoDe classification) and the quality of care. Data were reviewed by the Regional Audit Group. Stillbirth rates, causes of death and the quality of care were established for each case. RESULTS: Total stillbirth rate was 3.09 per 1000 births (332/107,528). Late stillbirth rate was 2.3 per 1000 (251/107,087). Sixteen stillbirths were not registered by the Regional Birth Register. The most prevalent cause of death was placental disorder (33.3%), followed by fetal (17.6%), cord (14.2%) and maternal disorders (7.6%). Unexplained cases were 14%. Compared to local audits, the regional group attributed different causes of death in 17% of cases. At multivariate analysis, infections were associated with early stillbirths (OR 3.38, CI95% 1.62-7.03) and intrapartum cases (OR 6.64, CI95% 2.61-17.02). Placental disorders were related to growth restriction (OR 1.89, CI95% 1.06-3.36) and were more frequent before term (OR 1.86, CI95% 1.11-3.15). Stillbirths judged possibly/probably preventable with a different management (10.9%) occurred more frequently in non-Italian women and were mainly related to maternal disorders (OR 6.64, CI95% 2.61-17.02). CONCLUSIONS: Regional Audit System for Stillbirth improves the registration of stillbirth and allows to define the causes of death. Moreover, sub-optimal care was recognized, allowing to identify populations which could benefit from preventive measures.


Assuntos
Doenças Fetais/epidemiologia , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Doenças Placentárias/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/etnologia , África do Norte/etnologia , Causas de Morte , Auditoria Clínica , Europa Oriental/etnologia , Feminino , Morte Fetal/etiologia , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Análise Multivariada , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Cordão Umbilical
15.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(8): 829-834, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378044

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the types of dietary patterns of women during pregnancy in Shaanxi and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods: Data were derived from a cross-sectional program named "The prevalence and risk factors of birth defects in Shaanxi Province" from July to November in 2013. A multi-stage stratified random sampling method was used to extract 15 980 women of childbearing age who met the inclusion exclusion criteria from Shaanxi Province. The questionnaire obtained information such as the pregnancy outcome and the food intake of the study subjects during pregnancy. The dietary pattern was extracted by factor analysis, and the each dietary pattern of subjects were divided into T(1)-T(3) groups according to the factor score. The effects of each dietary pattern on major adverse pregnancy outcomes were estimated by unconditional logistic regression model. Results: Four dietary patterns were established:vegetarian pattern, balanced pattern, traditional pattern, and processing pattern. The multivariate logistic regression model results showed that compared with the vegetarian pattern T(2) group, the T(1) group had lower risk of low birth weight (OR=0.56, 95%CI: 0.41-0.83), and the T(3) group had higher risk of low birth weight in offspring (OR=2.32, 95%CI: 1.59-3.89); compared with the traditional pattern T(2) group, the T(3) group had higher risk of premature (OR=2.62, 95%CI: 1.58-5.01); compared with the balanced pattern T(2) group, the T(3) group had a lower risk of spontaneous abortion (OR=0.73, 95%CI: 0.36-0.89); compared with the processing pattern T(2) group, the T(3) group had a higher risk of spontaneous abortion (OR=1.97, 95%CI: 1.36-3.34) and higher risk of stillbirth (OR=2.96, 95%CI: 1.49-6.26), and the T(1) group had a lower risk of stillbirths in offspring (OR=0.52, 95%CI: 0.33-0.83). Conclusion: The women of childbearing age in Shaanxi have different dietary patterns, and there may be a correlation between dietary patterns and adverse pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Resultado da Gravidez , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia
16.
Lancet ; 394(10201): 849-860, 2019 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, characterised by maternal pruritus and increased serum bile acid concentrations, is associated with increased rates of stillbirth, preterm birth, and neonatal unit admission. Ursodeoxycholic acid is widely used as a treatment without an adequate evidence base. We aimed to evaluate whether ursodeoxycholic acid reduces adverse perinatal outcomes in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. METHODS: We did a double-blind, multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial at 33 hospital maternity units in England and Wales. We recruited women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, who were aged 18 years or older and with a gestational age between 20 weeks and 40 weeks and 6 days, with a singleton or twin pregnancy and no known lethal fetal anomaly. Participants were randomly assigned 1:1 to ursodeoxycholic acid or placebo, given as two oral tablets a day at an equivalent dose of 500 mg twice a day. The dose could be increased or decreased at the clinician's discretion, to a maximum of four tablets and a minimum of one tablet a day. We recommended that treatment should be continued from enrolment until the infant's birth. The primary outcome was a composite of perinatal death (in-utero fetal death after randomisation or known neonatal death up to 7 days after birth), preterm delivery (<37 weeks' gestation), or neonatal unit admission for at least 4 h (from birth until hospital discharge). Each infant was counted once within this composite. All analyses were done according to the intention-to-treat principle. The trial was prospectively registered with the ISRCTN registry, number 91918806. FINDINGS: Between Dec 23, 2015, and Aug 7, 2018, 605 women were enrolled and randomly allocated to receive ursodeoxycholic acid (n=305) or placebo (n=300). The primary outcome analysis included 304 women and 322 infants in the ursodeoxycholic acid group, and 300 women and 318 infants in the placebo group (consent to use data was withdrawn for 1 woman and 2 infants). The primary composite outcome occurred in 74 (23%) of 322 infants in the ursodeoxycholic acid group and 85 (27%) of 318 infants in the placebo group (adjusted risk ratio 0·85 [95% CI 0·62-1·15]). Two serious adverse events were reported in the ursodeoxycholic acid group and six serious adverse events were reported in the placebo group; no serious adverse events were regarded as being related to treatment. INTERPRETATION: Treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid does not reduce adverse perinatal outcomes in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Therefore, its routine use for this condition should be reconsidered. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation Programme.


Assuntos
Colagogos e Coleréticos/administração & dosagem , Colestase Intra-Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Ursodesoxicólico/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colestase Intra-Hepática/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Nascimento Vivo/epidemiologia , Morte Perinatal/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Prurido/prevenção & controle , Natimorto/epidemiologia
17.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 147(2): 173-178, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353461

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To classify cause-of-death (COD) for stillbirths occurring in a major referral hospital in Kumasi, Ghana. METHODS: In a retrospective review conducted between June 8, 2011, and June 12, 2012, detailed information was collected on all stillbirths delivered at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana. Patient records were independently reviewed by investigators using the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand's Perinatal Death Classification system to determine COD for each case. RESULTS: COD was analyzed in 465 stillbirth cases. The leading causes of death were hypoxic interpartum death (105, 22.6%), antepartum hemorrhage (67, 14.4%), hypertension (52, 11.2%), and perinatal infection (32, 6.9%). One hundred and fifty seven (33.8%) stillbirths were classified as unexplained antepartum deaths. CONCLUSIONS: This evaluation of stillbirth in a busy, tertiary care hospital in Kumasi, Ghana provides crucial insight into the high volume of stillbirth in Ghana as well as its medical causes. The study demonstrated the high rate of stillbirth attributed to hypoxic intrapartum events, placental abruption, pre-eclampsia, and unspecified bacterial infections. Yet, our rate of unexplained stillbirths underscores the need for a stillbirth classification system that thoughtfully integrates the needs and limitations of low-resource settings as unexplained stillbirth rates are a common indicator of the effectiveness of a classification system.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 261, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increased potential for negative pregnancy outcomes in both extremes of reproductive age is a well-debated argument. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and the outcome of pregnancies conceived at extreme maternal ages. METHODS: This retrospective study considered all single consecutive pregnancies delivered in a tertiary referral center between 2001 and 2014. Patients were categorized into 4 groups according to maternal age at delivery (< 17 years; 18-28 years; 29-39 years; > 40 years). The following outcomes were considered (amongst others): pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders (PRHDs), neonatal resuscitation (NR), neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, periventricular leucomalacia (PVL), and grade 3 and 4 intraventicular hemorrhage (IVH). RESULTS: During the considered period 22,933 single pregnancies gave birth in our unit. We observed 71 women aged < 17 years, and 1552 aged > 40 years. In each year throughout the study period, there was a significant increment in maternal age of 0.041 years (95% CI 0.024-0.058) every new year. Multivariate analysis concluded out that maternal age over 40 years was an independent risk factor for preterm delivery (OR 1.36 95% CI 1.16-1.61, p < 0.05, PRHDs (OR 2.36 95% CI 1.86-3.00, p < 0.05), GDM (OR 1.71 95% CI 1.37-2.12, p < 0.05) cesarean section (OR 1.99 95% CI 1.78-2.23, p < 0.05), abnormal fetal presentation (OR 1.29 95% CI 1.03-1.61, p < 0.05), and fetal PVL (OR 3.32 95% CI 1.17-9.44, p < 0.05). We also observed that maternal age under 17 years or over 40 years was an independent risk factor for grade 3 or 4 neonatal IVH (OR 2.97 95% CI 1.24-7.14, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm a negative impact of extreme maternal ages on pregnancy. These results should be carefully taken into account by maternal care providers in order to inform women adequately, supporting them in understanding potential risks associated with their procreation choices, and to improve clinical surveillance.


Assuntos
Idade Materna , Bem-Estar Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 21, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312337

RESUMO

Introduction: globally, intrapartum stillbirth accounts for 1 million deaths of babies annually, representing approximately one-third of global stillbirth toll. Intrapartum stillbirth occurs due to causes ranging from maternal medical and obstetric conditions; access to quality obstetric care services during pregnancy; and types, timing and quality of intrapartum care. Different medical conditions including hypertensive & metabolic disorders, infections and nutritional deficiencies during pregnancy are among risk factors of stillbirth. Ethiopia remains one of the 10 high-burden stillbirth countries with estimated rate of more than 25 per 1000 births. Methods: a case-control study using primary data from chart review of medical records of women who experienced intrapartum stillbirth in 23 public health facilities of Addis Ababa during the period July 1, 2010 - June 30, 2015 was conducted. Data was collected from charts of all cases of intrapartum stillbirth meeting the inclusion criteria and randomly selected charts of controls in two to one (2:1) control to case ratio. Results: chronic medical conditions including diabetes, cardiac and renal diseases were less prevalent (1%) among the study population whereas only 6% of women experienced hypertensive disorder during the pregnancy in review. Moreover, 6.5% of the study population had HIV infection where being HIV negative was protective against intrapartum stillbirth (aOR 0.37, 95% CI 0.18-0.78). Women with non-cephalic foetal presentation during last ANC visit were three times more at risk of experiencing intrapartum stillbirth whereas singleton pregnancy had strong protective association against intrapartum stillbirth (p<0.05). Conclusion: untreated chronic medical conditions, infection, poor monitoring of foetal conditions and multiple pregnancy are among important risk factors for intrapartum stillbirth.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/normas , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(7)2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266254

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: The number of stillbirths has reduced more slowly than has maternal mortality or mortality in children younger than 5 years, which were explicitly targeted in the Millennium Development Goals. Placental pathologies and infection associated with preterm birth are linked to a substantial proportion of stillbirths. Appropriate preconception care and quality antenatal care that is accessible to all women has the potential to reduce stillbirth rates. The aim of the present study was to assess potential risk factors associated with stillbirth within maternal medical diseases and obstetric complications. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort study (2001-2014) was used to analyse data from the Medical Birth Register on stillbirth and live births as controls. Adjusted Odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Multiple regression model adjusted for maternal age, parity and gestational age. Results: The stillbirth rate was 6.2 per 1000 live and stillbirths. The presence of maternal medical diseases greatly increased the risk of stillbirth including diabetes mellitus (aOR = 2.5; p < 0.001), chronic hypertension 3.1 (aOR = 3.1; p < 0.001) and oligohydromnios/polyhydromnios (aOR = 2.4; p < 0.001). Pregnancy complications such as intrauterine growth restriction (aOR = 2.2; p < 0.001) was important risk factor for stillbirth. Abruption was associated with a 2.8 odds of stillbirth. Conclusions: Risk factors most significantly associated with stillbirth include maternal history of chronic hypertension and abruptio placenta which is a common cause of death in stillbirth. Early identification of potential risk factors and appropriate perinatal management are important issues in the prevention of adverse fetal outcomes and preventive strategies need to focus on improving antenatal detection of fetal growth restriction.


Assuntos
Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Idade Materna , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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