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2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(6): e19027, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028413

RESUMO

To evaluate disparities in the National Institute of Health (NIH) trauma research funding.Traumatic injury has increased in both prevalence and cost over the last decade. In the event of a traumatic injury, patients in the United States (US) rely on the trauma system to provide high-quality care. The current trauma research funding is not commensurate with the extent of the burden of trauma on the US population.In this qualitative study, the National Institutes of Health's Estimates of Funding for Various Research, Condition, and Disease Categories (RCDC) data were reviewed. The burden of traumatic injury on the US and the NIH trauma research funding was examined and compared with other diseases.In 2018, the NIH funded an estimated $639 million to traumatic injury research projects, <2% of the NIH budget. Comparatively, the NIH funded an estimated $6.3 billion towards cancer research in 2018. Cancer research receives extensively more funding than trauma research despite that trauma accounts for 24.1% of all years of potential life lost (YPLL) before age 75 compared with 21.3% for cancer.In the event of traumatic injury, trauma systems in the US should be able to provide high-quality care to patients yet cannot do so without adequate research funding. The federal funding contributed towards trauma research deserves a re-evaluation.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/economia , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/economia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
3.
PLoS Biol ; 17(10): e3000352, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644528

RESUMO

The United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) imposed a public access policy on all publications for which the research was supported by their grants; the policy was drafted in 2004 and took effect in 2008. The policy is now 11 years old, yet no analysis has been presented to assess whether in fact this largest-scale US-based public access policy affected the vitality of the scholarly publishing enterprise, as manifested in changed mortality or natality rates of biomedical journals. We show here that implementation of the NIH policy was associated with slightly elevated mortality rates and mildly depressed natality rates of biomedical journals, but that birth rates so exceeded death rates that numbers of biomedical journals continued to rise, even in the face of the implementation of such a sweeping public access policy.


Assuntos
National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/legislação & jurisprudência , Publicação de Acesso Aberto/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Organizacional , Pesquisa Biomédica , Humanos , Manuscritos como Assunto , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/economia , Publicação de Acesso Aberto/economia , Estados Unidos
4.
PLoS Biol ; 17(10): e3000385, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600197

RESUMO

Citation data have remained hidden behind proprietary, restrictive licensing agreements, which raises barriers to entry for analysts wishing to use the data, increases the expense of performing large-scale analyses, and reduces the robustness and reproducibility of the conclusions. For the past several years, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Portfolio Analysis (OPA) has been aggregating and enhancing citation data that can be shared publicly. Here, we describe the NIH Open Citation Collection (NIH-OCC), a public access database for biomedical research that is made freely available to the community. This dataset, which has been carefully generated from unrestricted data sources such as MedLine, PubMed Central (PMC), and CrossRef, now underlies the citation statistics delivered in the NIH iCite analytic platform. We have also included data from a machine learning pipeline that identifies, extracts, resolves, and disambiguates references from full-text articles available on the internet. Open citation links are available to the public in a major update of iCite (https://icite.od.nih.gov).


Assuntos
Disseminação de Informação/ética , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/legislação & jurisprudência , Publicação de Acesso Aberto/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Organizacional , Bibliometria , Pesquisa Biomédica , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Manuscritos como Assunto , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/economia , Publicação de Acesso Aberto/economia , Estados Unidos
9.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(2): 218-222, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30693958

RESUMO

In the United States, the population aged 65 and older is rapidly growing, and this group uses more healthcare resources and has unique healthcare needs that do not exist in younger populations. However, it was reported that older adults are excluded or underrepresented in clinical trials for several diseases. We examined phase III clinical trials funded by the National Institutes of Health found in www.clinicaltrials.gov from 1965 to 2015 that addressed top causes for hospitalization and/or disability-adjusted life years in older adults: congestive heart failure (n = 45), cardiac dysrhythmias (n = 24), coronary atherosclerosis (n = 106), heart attack (n = 76), stroke (n = 113), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 14), pneumonia (n = 48), lung cancer (n = 117), prostate cancer (n = 65), and osteoarthritis (n = 15). We then analyzed the representation of older adults in these studies. We found that 33% of studies had arbitrary upper age limits, and 67% of studies reported mean and/or median ages that skewed younger than expected for the disease or condition of interest. Beyond explicit exclusion by age, older adults were often implicitly excluded based on various comorbid conditions such as polypharmacy/concomitant medication (37%) or cardiac issues (30%). We conclude that outcomes of these trials may not be fully generalizable to the general population of older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:218-222, 2019.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pacientes , Sujeitos da Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/economia , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , Estados Unidos
11.
Am J Health Promot ; 33(2): 279-284, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29847996

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The study objective was to describe and compare changes in newly funded National Institutes of Health (NIH) tobacco-related awards between fiscal year (FY) 2006 and FY2016. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of NIH data. SETTING: National Institutes of Health Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tool database was used. SUBJECTS: National Institutes of Health tobacco-related awards newly funded during FY2006 and FY2016. MEASURES: Search terms included tobacco, smoking, nicotine, secondhand smoke, and e-cigarettes. Grants and funding amounts were retrieved. ANALYSIS: We calculated frequency distributions to determine the number and percentage of total NIH grants funded overall and by specific institute, and inflation-adjusted total and median funding amounts. We computed percentage differences in number of new grants, funding amounts, and percentage of funding allocated overall, and by institute. RESULTS: There was a 187% increase in the percentage of total NIH funding allocated to new tobacco-related awards from 0.09% in FY2006 to 0.25% in FY2016. Total number of awards increased by 67% in FY2016 (n = 144; $56 015 931) compared to FY2006 (n = 86; $22 076 987), and there was a 154% increase in inflation-adjusted total funding for tobacco control. The top funding institutes were National Institute on Drug Abuse and National Cancer Institute; National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism was third in FY2006; and National, Heart, Lung and Blood Institute in FY2016. Research grants were the most frequently funded. Smoking cessation was a common topic area and increased by 64%. CONCLUSION: NIH funding is critical for advancing the science of nicotine and tobacco research.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Financiamento Governamental/economia , Financiamento Governamental/estatística & dados numéricos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/economia , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Humanos , Política Antifumo , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Estados Unidos
12.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 31(1): 144-147, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30531403

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe some current challenges facing the field of pediatric infectious diseases and discuss strategies for enhancing recognition of the value of infectious disease services and for recruiting new talent to the field. RECENT FINDINGS: Pediatric infectious disease programs are currently filling approximately half of their fellowship positions, and salaries are among the lowest in medical subspecialties. Research-intensive careers in pediatric infectious diseases are threatened by low the National Institutes of Health paylines for career development awards. Despite this, there are new opportunities in pediatric infectious diseases in growing areas, such as transplant infectious diseases and antimicrobial stewardship. SUMMARY: Pediatric infectious disease practitioners are concerned that infectious disease services are often undervalued by the healthcare system. Some of the contributions made by this cognitive specialty to overall patient outcomes are difficult to quantify and are not fully reimbursed. Strategies to enhance value and program support are needed, including sharing individual success stories and collecting data from programs nationally to generate some standards for support of pediatric infectious disease programs in areas, such as antimicrobial stewardship, transplant infectious diseases, and infection prevention. Recruitment of top talent to the field can be enhanced by a number of initiatives that can be implemented at the local level with encouragement and leadership from the pediatric infectious diseases society.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Pediatria , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Criança , Assistência à Saúde , Previsões , Humanos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/economia , Pediatria/educação , Pediatria/tendências , Estados Unidos
13.
Acad Med ; 94(5): 708-714, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520806

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This analysis examined the role of a National Institutes of Health (NIH) individual Mentored Career Development Award (K01, K08, K23) on launching and sustaining independent research careers for early-career scientists, and investigated the effects of these awards during and after the doubling of the NIH budget. METHOD: The authors used grants data from the NIH covering the period 1990 through 2016, and compared success in receipt of R01 equivalent awards (R01 Eq.) and Research Project Grants (RPGs) for K awardees and K applicants who did not receive funding. The analysis combined regression discontinuity design with coarsened exact matching, and regression. RESULTS: Overall, receipt of K award was associated with a 24.1% increase in likelihood of first independent NIH award (P < .01), and a larger number of R01 Eq. and RPG awards. After accounting for first major independent awards, K awards were uncorrelated with receiving second major independent research awards. Comparing different funding periods, K01 awards were predictive of subsequent R01 Eq. and RPG awards after but not during the NIH doubling, K08 awards were predictive only during the NIH doubling, and K23 awards were predictive during both periods. CONCLUSIONS: Receipt of Mentored Career Development Awards was linked to increased likelihood that early-career scientists successfully transitioned to an independent research career. These findings indicate that extending funding to additional K award applicants with meritorious scores could significantly strengthen the pipeline of biomedical researchers. In addition, enhancing K awards may be relevant to sustaining research careers for clinician scientists.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Escolha da Profissão , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Organização do Financiamento/economia , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/economia , Pesquisadores/economia , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/economia , Adulto , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores/estatística & dados numéricos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
17.
Physiol Genomics ; 50(11): 982-987, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30265594

RESUMO

Chronic hypertension and preeclampsia are the most common complications of pregnancy. To clarify the contributions of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) to the field and identify potential research gaps, we performed portfolio analysis of awards related to preeclampsia and pregnancy-associated hypertension. A list of National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded awards between fiscal years 2008-present was obtained through an NIH RePORTER search using the following terms: "preeclampsia" and "pregnancy-associated hypertension." More in-depth analyses were performed on currently active awards supported by the NHLBI. The NHLBI is the lead institute at the NIH in funding research related to pregnancy-associated hypertension and second leading in funding research related to preeclampsia. The NHLBI currently supports 38 awards related to preeclampsia and six awards related to pregnancy-associated hypertension, with a combined total dollar investment of $21 million. Of the currently active, NHLBI-supported awards on preeclampsia and pregnancy-associated hypertension combined, 47% are related to basic science research, 30% to clinical, 14% to clinical trials, and 9% to early translational research. The focus of NHLBI-funded awards is primarily on vascular mechanisms and short and long-term cardiovascular complications of preeclampsia and pregnancy-associated hypertension. Despite steady funding for research on preeclampsia and pregnancy-associated hypertension, several gaps in knowledge exist. NHLBI held a workshop entitled Predicting, Preventing and Treating Preeclampsia to address some of these gaps and inform future research directions for the institute.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/etiologia , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.)/economia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Orçamentos , Feminino , Humanos , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.)/estatística & dados numéricos , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.)/tendências , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/economia , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/economia , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/tendências , Estados Unidos
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