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J Environ Manage ; 280: 111695, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298399


Over the last decades, a plethora of nature connectedness measures have been developed, including unidimensional scales and others claiming to be multidimensional scales. Recently, Ives et al. (2018) conceptualised connection with nature as five general categories including attachment, cognition/identity, materialistic consumption, experiential components, and spiritual connection to nature. The current research presents a theory-driven approach to scale construction capturing the five factors similar to those described by Ives et al. (2018); the AIMES scale. The scale was developed in cooperation with practitioners and academics working in the field of human-nature interactions and its construct validity was tested with a representative sample of 3090 Victorians. Confirmatory factor analysis reinforced the five-factor model, showing that all factors correlated but were statistically distinct from one another. The second-order factor model also provided support for connection with nature as an overarching variable that can find expression to various degrees in the five primary factors. Finally, we found associations between the AIMES-factors and conceptually related measures of environmental values, environmental behaviours, environmental awareness, and time spent in nature. A short version of the scale is also presented for use in evaluation where brevity is required without compromising reliability and validity.

Análise Fatorial , Natureza , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261045


In the last decade, universities worldwide have adopted various measures intended to promote sustainability in higher education and include it in the curriculum. However, although this paradigm shift appears to be contributing to students' acquisition of the knowledge, skills and values necessary to fight for a more sustainable world, serious global crises such as the present SARS-CoV-2 pandemic oblige us to rethink our behaviour and spur us to accelerate the move towards a deep-seated commitment to the environment and people. Therefore, the aims of this study were (a) to explore consumption habits in students at four Spanish universities by analysing their individual ecological footprint (EF); (b) to develop indices of connection with nature and a pro-environmental attitude and to determine relationships between these indices and students' consumption. Among other factors, our results showed that private university students have a higher EF than public university students; that food consumption has the greatest impact on individuals' EF; and that those who consume more sustainably do not show a more pro-environmental attitude or feel a greater connection with nature. Therefore, we conclude that there was no apparent direct relationship between study participants' convictions and their daily behaviour. There is a pressing need in education to demonstrate the connection between our actions and their environmental impact.

Atitude , Ecologia , Natureza , Estudantes/psicologia , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Pandemias , Espanha , Universidades
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 28(3): 440-448, jul.-set. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137108


Resumo Este artigo analisa os desdobramentos da instrumentalização do Aufklärung (Iluminismo) em relação ao agir humano sobre o meio ambiente. Destacam-se as críticas de Hans Jonas à máxima kantiana " sapere aude ", a qual impulsionaria a perspectiva de saber como poder ilimitado sobre a natureza. Jonas propõe nova ética que considere a interpelação das gerações futuras como critério para utilizar tecnologias que afetem a natureza. Sua proposta abre nova perspectiva de ética como cuidado do Outro e de bioética como cuidado da vida. A pesquisa se baseou na concepção frankfurtiana de crítica à razão instrumental.

Abstract This article analyzes the unfolding of instrumental rationality of the Aufklärung (Enlightenment) regarding human action over the environment. The study highlights Hans Jonas' criticisms of Kant's sapere aude maxim, which would support a perspective of knowledge as unlimited power over nature. Hans Jonas, on the other hand, proposes a new ethic, which considers the demands of future generations as a criterion for the use of technologies that may affect nature. His proposal can be used to develop a new perspective on ethics as care for the Other and bioethics as care for life. As a methodological basis, we used the Frankfurtian criticism of instrumental reason.

Resumen En este artículo se analizan los avances de la instrumentalización de la Aufklärung (Ilustración) en relación con la acción humana sobre el medio ambiente. Se destaca la crítica de Hans Jonas a la máxima kantiana " sapere aude ", que impulsaría la perspectiva de conocer como un poder ilimitado sobre la naturaleza. Jonas propone una nueva ética, que considera el cuestionamiento de las generaciones futuras como un criterio para utilizar las tecnologías que afectan a la naturaleza. Su propuesta abre una nueva perspectiva de la ética como cuidado del Otro y de la bioética como cuidado de la vida. La investigación se basó en el concepto francés de la crítica de la razón instrumental.

Responsabilidade Social , Bioética , Direitos Civis , Natureza , Meio Ambiente
Work ; 67(3): 535-548, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925154


BACKGROUND: There has been an insufficient amount of studies that examine how academic working life of researchers can be supported. OBJECTIVE: We examine the use of a nature and art-related activity retreat designed for researchers. The purpose was to evaluate if and how researchers perceived different workshop experiences set in nature as meaningful and important with regards to their self-care. METHODS: A mixed group of six researchers from Sweden, Finland, and the United States met for a three-day retreat consisting of self-selected nature and art-related activities. From data constituted from participant reflections, a focus group interview, a three months follow-up questionnaire, and an analysis of the workshops undertaken, three major themes were identified: "Sharing and connection", "Embodiment" and "Nature". RESULTS: Analysis of the workshop-style exercises did not show significant variance in reported meaningfulness and usefulness related to the activity itself. However, there was a strong correlation between perceived value and shared experience where the sharing of the natural space was felt to put humanity into perspective. CONCLUSION: Organizing and systematizing health preventive retreats for researchers in academia may be an important part of the sustainabile academic community in which the researcher needs to be better taken care of in a more embodied way. Although this study was conducted prior to COVID-19, such retreats and potentially also online versions, could be useful for managing the pandemic and afterwards, in our new "normal".

Estresse Ocupacional , Pesquisadores/psicologia , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Natureza , Percepção
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237725, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886665


Technological developments in recent decades have increased young people's engagement with screen-based technologies (screen time), and a reduction in young people's contact with nature (green time) has been observed concurrently. This combination of high screen time and low green time may affect mental health and well-being. The aim of this systematic scoping review was to collate evidence assessing associations between screen time, green time, and psychological outcomes (including mental health, cognitive functioning, and academic achievement) for young children (<5 years), schoolchildren (5-11 years), early adolescents (12-14 years), and older adolescents (15-18 years). Original quantitative studies were identified in four databases (PubMed, PsycInfo, Scopus, Embase), resulting in 186 eligible studies. A third of included studies were undertaken in Europe and almost as many in the United States. The majority of studies were cross-sectional (62%). In general, high levels of screen time appeared to be associated with unfavourable psychological outcomes while green time appeared to be associated with favourable psychological outcomes. The ways screen time and green time were conceptualised and measured were highly heterogeneous, limiting the ability to synthesise the literature. The preponderance of cross-sectional studies with broadly similar findings, despite heterogeneous exposure measures, suggested results were not artefacts. However, additional high-quality longitudinal studies and randomised controlled trials are needed to make a compelling case for causal relationships. Different developmental stages appeared to shape which exposures and outcomes were salient. Young people from low socioeconomic backgrounds may be disproportionately affected by high screen time and low green time. Future research should distinguish between passive and interactive screen activities, and incidental versus purposive exposure to nature. Few studies considered screen time and green time together, and possible reciprocal psychological effects. However, there is preliminary evidence that green time could buffer consequences of high screen time, therefore nature may be an under-utilised public health resource for youth psychological well-being in a high-tech era.

Natureza , Psicologia , Tempo de Tela , Adolescente , Criança , Geografia , Humanos , Idioma , Publicações , Fatores Socioeconômicos
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967093


Digital nature can provide a substitute for real nature for those who have limited access to green space, or are confined to their homes, for example during the worldwide COVID-19 lockdown. In a large-scale online survey, respondents (N = 1203) watched videos of digital nature, varying in terms of type of nature (wild versus tended nature) and spaciousness. Results show a significant increase of feelings of connectedness to the community after watching digital nature. Furthermore, tended nature scenes elicited more social aspirations than wild nature scenes. A multiple regression model further shows that living further away from nature was a significant predictor for loneliness scores, while number of nature interactions during a week was not. Results of this study confirm the importance of nature interaction for mental and social wellbeing for the general population and stress the potential of digital nature as a complementary strategy. These findings are of particular relevance to those who lack access to nature due to old age and related mobility constraints or a lockdown.

Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Meio Ambiente , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Solidão , Natureza , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Internet , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 42(2): 23, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519195


One of Leibniz's most original ideas is his conception of the living individual as a hierarchical network of living beings whose relationships are essential to the proper functioning of its organic body. This idea is also valid to explain any existing order in nature that depends on the set of relationships of living beings that inhabit it. Both ideas are present in the conception of the natural world that Leibniz presents in his Monadology (§§ 63-70) through his idea of biological infinitism. According to this idea, nature consists of infinite theatres (some within others and some unfolding from others) where living beings unfold their vital functions. Through this idea Leibniz defines both the biological complexity of nature and the living individual, which is in turn a portion of nature that unfolds from an infinite set of inferior living beings. The thesis that I defend in this work is that this Leibnizian understanding of the living individual and the natural complexity that includes infinite hierarchical levels of individuality has a marked ecological sense, as we would say today. This Leibnizian metaphysics of individuality that we could call biological is also interesting in light of the recent studies in the philosophy of biology.

Individualidade , Metafísica/história , Natureza , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 101(9): 1532-1540, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502564


OBJECTIVES: This study investigated (1) the effect of engaging with 20-minute simulated natural environments delivered via virtual reality (VR) on current mood state and (2) the effect of engaging with multiple VR sessions over a period of a week on the depressive symptoms of people with a spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial design. SETTING: Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Unit in Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Participants (N=24) were assigned to a group engaging in VR sessions during week 1 (group 1, n=10) or week 2 (group 2, n=14). INTERVENTIONS: The intervention week involved participation in up to three 20-minute VR sessions over 3 consecutive days. The control condition involved regular rehabilitation practice over a week. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8) was completed prior to the first week (T1), after the first week and prior to the second week (T2), and after the second week (T3). Current feeling states, including depressed/happy, anxious/relaxed, and not feeling good/feeling good, were rated immediately prior and after each VR session. RESULTS: Levels of happiness, relaxation, and feeling good were significantly higher subsequent to engaging with each VR session. Between-group differences in PHQ-8 scores were significantly greater for participants who experienced the intervention during the first week compared to participants within the control group: intervention participants had significant improvements in psycho-emotional health. Within-group PHQ-8 scores were reduced for each group subsequent to experiencing the intervention; however, differences were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Engaging with simulated natural environments delivered via VR can favorably affect the psycho-emotional health of people with SCI receiving rehabilitation in hospital. Future research including larger samples and investigating the effect over a longer time period is required to confirm the findings presented.

Depressão/terapia , Saúde Mental , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/reabilitação , Realidade Virtual , Adulto , Afeto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Natureza , Projetos Piloto , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/psicologia , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531937


Connectedness to nature and nature contact can provide many benefits to humans, like stress reduction, recovery from illness, and increased positive emotions. Likewise, recreational horseback riding is a widespread sports activity with the potential to enhance physical and psychological health. Yet, the influence of connectedness to nature on the wellbeing of older aged recreational horseback riders has not been investigated so far. The aim of the present study therefore was to explore the relationship between nature relatedness and physical, psychological and social wellbeing and happiness. The study sample was composed of Austrian recreational horseback riders aged 45 years and older, who were compared with dog owners and people without pets (n = 178). We found significantly higher nature relatedness, significantly higher overall wellbeing and a significantly better mood rating in recreational horseback riders compared to people without pets and similar scores compared to dog owners. Physical wellbeing is correlated with overall nature relatedness in horseback riders and dog owners, but no correlation was found in people without pets. A structural equation model shows a direct relationship between nature relatedness and mood in horseback riders and an indirect relationship through pet attachment in dog owners. The results suggest the activity with horses and dogs in nature environments is a source of wellbeing, enjoyment, self-confidence and social contacts.

Afeto , Cavalos , Recreação , Animais , Áustria , Terapia Assistida por Cavalos , Família , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Natureza , Animais de Estimação
Acta bioeth ; 26(1): 51-60, mayo 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114598


Este trabajo analiza la forma en que el derecho y la Constitución del 80 tratan a la naturaleza. Esta visión se contrapone con los enfoques de las filosofías de los pueblos indígenas andinos y mapuche, las cuales apuntan a la interrelación, interdependencia y reciprocidad en las relaciones entre sociedad y naturaleza. A partir de los problemas ambientales que la ciencia ha sistematizado y que afectan al mundo y al país, este trabajo elabora propuestas para una nueva configuración de lo ambiental y la naturaleza en la Constitución.

This paper assesses how the law and the 1980 Constitution deal with nature. This view contrasts with the perspective of the philosophies of the indigenous Andean and Mapuche peoples which consider the interrelation, interdependence and reciprocity in the relationships between society and nature. From the standpoint of the environmental problems that science has systematized and that affect the world and the country, this paper puts forward proposals for a new configuration for issues concerning the environment and nature in the Constitution.

Este trabalho analisa a forma como o Direito e a Constituição dos anos 80 tratam a natureza. Esta visão se contrapõe com o enfoque das filosofías dos povos indígenas andinos e mapuche, as quais apontam para a interrelação, interdependencia e reciprocidade nas relações entre sociedade e a natureza. A partir dos problemas ambientais que a ciencia sistematizou e que afetam o mundo e o país, este trabalho elabora propostas para uma nova configuração do ambiental e da natureza na Constituição.

Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos , Constituição e Estatutos , Povos Indígenas , Direitos Humanos , Chile , Natureza , Inter-Relação , Alteração Ambiental , Cultura Indígena , Cosmovisão
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 42(2): 18, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356016


The concept of nature in Western thought has been informed by the assumption of a categorical distinction between natural and artificial entities, which goes back to John Stuart Mill or even Aristotle. Such a way of articulating the natural/artificial distinction has proven unfit for conservation purposes mainly because of the extent and the pervasiveness of human activities that would leave no nature left to be conserved, and alternative views have been advanced. In this contribution, after arguing for the importance of the concept of naturalness as a guide for conservation, I will try to provide an account of the natural/artificial distinction suited to contemporary conservation framing. Focusing on a particular kind of objects that I suggest to name "environmental objects", I propose and defend the view of "naturalness as independence" according to which the more or less an environmental object's identity conditions and survival depend on human intervention, the more or less that object is artificial or natural, respectively. According to this view, conserving environmental objects will equate to maintaining or improving their naturalness (vis-à-vis their artefactualness) or even originating artificial objects that may become new natural objects. This view has the advantage, on the one hand, of providing a rationale for a distinction which is not only part of how people think, but also pervasive in conservation practices and policies and, on the other hand, of accounting for the global pervasiveness of human intervention in the so-called natural world.

Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Natureza , Filosofia
J Environ Public Health ; 2020: 4210285, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454841


The present study evaluated the effect of a three-week intervention aimed at improving psychological health in university students. Participants included 200 Australian students randomly assigned to an experimental or waitlist control group, with 42 adhering to intervention instructions. Participants in the experimental group read a story about someone who used the natural environment to decrease stress and burnout levels and to increase their perceived satisfaction with life. They were then instructed to spend 20 minutes each week, for three weeks, in any chosen natural environment. Waitlist control participants received intervention instructions three weeks later. Restorativeness was positively associated with life satisfaction and negatively related to stress and burnout. Experimental participants, compared to waitlist control participants, experienced a significant decrease in stress; however, the intervention had no effect on life satisfaction or burnout. More research is still needed to determine the practical significance of nature exposure on university students' psychological health.

Natureza , Estresse Psicológico/reabilitação , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 34(2): 194-196, mar.-abr. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET1-5709


Los estudios científicos que demuestran los beneficios para la salud del contacto regular con espacios naturales y la realización de actividad física en ellos son cada vez más precisos y concluyentes, e incorporan numerosos aspectos relacionados con la salud física y mental. Los equipos de los parques naturales han desarrollado numerosas iniciativas para incorporar el vector de la salud en la planificación y la gestión de estos espacios, con resultados exitosos tanto para la mejora de la salud y el bienestar de las personas como para la conservación del patrimonio natural. En los últimos años han surgido numerosos proyectos en distintas comunidades autónomas y entidades locales que muestran el potencial de esta línea de trabajo colaborativo. Sería deseable desarrollar una estrategia conjunta entre los ámbitos de la salud y la conservación de la naturaleza con el fin de potenciar los indicados beneficios mediante proyectos conjuntos a distintas escalas

Scientific studies showing how regular contact and physical activity in natural environments result in health benefits are increasingly precise and conclusive, and include many aspects related to physical and mental health. Starting from protected areas departments, many initiatives have appeared to incorporate health in the planning and management of these natural spaces, with successful results both for the improvement of the health and well-being of the people and for the conservation of the natural heritage. In recent years, numerous projects have arisen in different autonomous communities and local administrations, which show the potential of this line of collaborative work. It would be desirable to develop a joint strategy between the departments of health and nature conservation in order to enhance the indicated benefits through common projects at different scales

Humanos , Natureza , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Áreas Verdes , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Nível de Saúde , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia