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1.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25033, jan.- dez. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048154

RESUMO

Este estudo teve por objetivo analisar os desafios e as oportunidades para o desenvolvimento de atividades esportivas na natureza em Porto Alegre, Brasil. Foram realizadas 29 entrevistas com representantes de organizações ligadas a estas atividades e oito observações de grupos de praticantes. Os resultados indicaram que a escolha de locais apropriados para a realização destas atividades e medidas para evitar a superlotação dos locais de prática, representam desafios; e o potencial de envolvimento de praticantes, instrutores e comunidades locais na manutenção do meio natural e na gestão de atividades esportivas na natureza, representam oportunidades. Em conclusão, o estudo demonstrou que existem áreas da cidade em que essas atividades devem ser evitadas. No entanto, por meio de gerenciamento proativo e promoção de atividades esportivas na natureza as oportunidades podem mitigar os desafios


The aim of this study was to analyse the challenges and opportunities of developing outdoor sports in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Twenty-nine interviews were conducted with different stakeholders. Eight observations were conducted while participants were engaged in outdoor sports. The results indicated that selecting appropriate sites in terms of safe practice and prevention of overuse of the sites represent challenges; and the potential for the involvement of participants, instructors and local communities in the maintenance of the natural environment and in the management of outdoor sports represent opportunities. In conclusion this study demonstrated that outdoor sports must be avoided in some areas of the city. However, through proactive management and promotion of outdoor sports opportunities can mitigate the challenges


El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar los desafíos y oportunidades de desarrollar actividades deportivas en la naturaleza en Porto Alegre, Brasil. Veintinueve entrevistas fueron conducidas con diferentes partes interesadas. Se realizaron ocho observaciones mientras los participantes se dedicaban a las actividades. Los resultados indicaron que la selección de sitios apropiados en términos de prácticas seguras y prevención de hacinamiento representa un desafío; y el potencial para la participación de practicantes, instructores y comunidades locales en el mantenimiento del medio ambiente natural y en la gestión de actividades deportivas en la naturaleza representa oportunidades. En conclusión, este estudio demostró que estas actividades deben evitarse en algunas áreas de la ciudad. Sin embargo, a través de una gestión proactiva y la promoción de actividades deportivas al aire libre, las oportunidades pueden mitigar los desafíos


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Esportes , Exercício , Gestão Ambiental , Natureza
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546902

RESUMO

Social farming represents a hybrid governance model in which public bodies, local communities, and economic actors act together to promote health and social inclusion in rural areas. Although relational variables are crucial to foster social farm performance, the relational system in which farms are embedded has still not been fully described. Using social network analysis, here we map the nature of the links of a selected sample of social farms operating in Northern Italy. We also explore possible network variations following specific actions taken to potentiate local social farming initiatives. The results show a certain degree of variability in terms of the extension and features of the examined networks. Overall, the actions taken appear to be significant to enlarge and diversify farms' networks. Social farming has the potential to provide important benefits to society and the environment and to contrast vulnerability in rural areas. Being able to create social and economic networks of local communities, social farming may also represent an innovative way to respond to the cultural shift from institutional psychiatry to community-based mental health care. This study emphasizes the critical role played by network facilitation in diversifying actors, promoting heterogeneous relationships, and, in turn, system complexity.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Redes Comunitárias , Fazendas , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Natureza , Rede Social
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547286

RESUMO

In an increasingly urbanised world where mental health is currently in crisis, interventions to increase human engagement and connection with the natural environment are one of the fastest growing, most widely accessible, and cost-effective ways of improving human wellbeing. This study aimed to provide an evaluation of a smartphone app-based wellbeing intervention. In a randomised controlled trial study design, the app prompted 582 adults, including a subgroup of adults classified by baseline scores on the Recovering Quality of Life scale as having a common mental health problem (n = 148), to notice the good things about urban nature (intervention condition) or built spaces (active control). There were statistically significant and sustained improvements in wellbeing at one-month follow-up. Importantly, in the noticing urban nature condition, compared to a built space control, improvements in quality of life reached statistical significance for all adults and clinical significance for those classified as having a mental health difficulty. This improvement in wellbeing was partly explained by significant increases in nature connectedness and positive affect. This study provides the first controlled experimental evidence that noticing the good things about urban nature has strong clinical potential as a wellbeing intervention and social prescription.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Aplicativos Móveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Natureza , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Smartphone , Adulto , Ambiente Construído/estatística & dados numéricos , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Adulto Jovem
4.
Metas enferm ; 22(7): 49-55, sept. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184099

RESUMO

Objetivo: analizar las costumbres y prácticas ancestrales en el cuidado de la mujer tseltal embarazada de tres comunidades de Chilón (Chiapas, México). Método: estudio cualitativo, etnográfico, descriptivo. Esta investigación se realizó en el sureste de México, en el estado de Chiapas, con un grupo de mujeres embarazadas tseltales, pertenecientes a tres comunidades de la región (Tulijá, Tseltal y Chol). Son comunidades indígenas en donde aún se rigen por usos y costumbres, por ello la figura de las matronas fue fundamental, ya que a través del consentimiento y aprobación de ellas como líderes de las comunidades se logró el acercamiento a las mujeres embarazadas. La técnica utilizada para la recogida de información fue la entrevista semiestructurada. El análisis del discurso permitió señalar conceptos y asignar códigos para generar categorías y subcategorías. Resultados: se reclutaron siete mujeres embarazadas entre las 20 y 38 semanas de gestación. Edad entre 17-42 años. El 100% pertenecía a la etnia tseltal. En el análisis del discurso emergieron dos categorías: "Creencias y prácticas durante el embarazo" y "La matrona, mujer sabia en el cuidado de la embarazada". Conclusiones: las mujeres gestantes tseltales tienen sus propias prácticas ancestrales de cuidado, no solo cuidan el cuerpo físico, sino tratan de guardar un equilibrio con la naturaleza, las emociones y el espíritu. El cuidado se basa en prácticas preventivas. De acuerdo a su cosmovisión, el estudio de estos saberes y prácticas integradas en la mujer embarazada tseltal, sensibiliza sobre la actuación enfermera para mejorar las competencias culturales


Objective: to analyze the ancient customs and practices regarding the care of tseltal pregnant women, from three Chilon communities (Chiapas, Mexico). Method: a qualitative, ethnographic, descriptive study. This research was conducted in South East Mexico, in the state of Chiapas, with a group of pregnant tseltal women, from three communities in the Tulija, Tseltal and Chol regions. These are native communities still ruled by uses and practices; therefore, the profile of midwives was essential, because an approach to pregnant women was possible through their consent and approval as community leaders. The technique used for collecting information was semi-structured interviews. Discourse analysis allowed to highlight concepts and assign codes in order to generate categories and subcategories. Results: seven pregnant women were recruited, within the 17-to-42 age range and on their 20th to 38th week of pregnancy; 100% of them belonged to the tseltal ethnic group. Two categories emerged within the discourse analysis: "Beliefs and practices during pregnancy", and "The midwife, a wise woman in pregnancy care". Conclusions: pregnant tseltal women have their own ancient practices of care: they won't only look after the physical body, but also try to keep in balance with nature, emotions and spirit. Care is based upon preventive practices. According to their worldview, the study of this knowledge and practices integrated in the pregnant tseltal woman creates awareness about the action of the nursing staff in order to improve cultural skills


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Cultura , Gravidez/etnologia , Enfermeiras Obstétricas , Competência Cultural , México , Gestantes , Análise Qualitativa , Tocologia/ética , Enfermagem Transcultural , Grupos Étnicos , Natureza
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426345

RESUMO

Nature contacts are recognized as positively contributing to humans' health and well-being. Although there have been projects to green daycare or schoolyards, yard greening and microbial biodiversity have never been studied simultaneously. We asked whether simultaneously increasing biodiversity exposure and greening urban daycare yards affects 3-5 years-old children's physical activity and play, their environmental relationships, and their perceived well-being. For transforming six daycare yards in Finland, we used a forest floor with high biodiversity, sod, peat blocks, and planters for vegetable and flower growing. We used qualitative interview and survey-based data collected from the daycare personnel and parents to analyze how green yards encourage children's engagement with their everyday life-worlds. We identified the functional possibilities provided by the yards and the dynamic aspects related to the greening. Green, biodiverse yards were considered safe, and inspired children's play, diversified their activities, and increased physical activity. The greenery offered embodied experiences of nature and provided the children with multi-sensory exploration and diverse learning situations. The dynamic and emotional ways of engaging with the natural environment increased their well-being. The activities related to caring for the yards and exploring them promoted the development of environmental relationships. The results can be used for designing health-enhancing yards.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Creches , Meio Ambiente , Natureza , Jogos e Brinquedos , Adulto , Biodiversidade , Pré-Escolar , Exercício , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Plantas , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373292

RESUMO

Parents exert a strong influence on several adjustment outcomes. However, little is known about their influence on adolescents' connectedness with the environment. This study examined the relationships between parenting styles, empathy and connectedness with the environment. The two-dimensional socialization model was used with four resulting styles: Indulgent, authoritative, neglectful and authoritarian. The sample comprised 797 adolescents (52.7% girls) from six public secondary schools who were aged between 12 and 16 years (M = 13.94, SD = 1.28). The results showed significant relationships between parental socialization styles, empathy and connectedness with nature. It was also observed that adolescents from indulgent and authoritative families showed higher levels of empathy and connectedness with the environment than adolescents raised by authoritarian and neglectful parents, with males from such families consistently presenting the lowest levels of empathy and connectedness, which was not the case among women. Additionally, women, regardless of the parental style in which they had been educated, showed greater cognitive and emotional empathy with the natural environment, while adolescents raised in indulgent and authoritative families displayed higher levels of empathy and connectedness than those with authoritarian and neglectful parents. These results suggest that indulgent and authoritative styles are stronger enablers of empathy and connectedness with nature.


Assuntos
Empatia , Meio Ambiente , Natureza , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Identificação Social , Socialização , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal , Autoimagem , Espanha
7.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 28(2): 101-110, ago. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183651

RESUMO

Environmental empathy and connectedness to nature are two main constructs that explain variations in pro-environmental behavior. However, little is known about whether environmental (cognitive and emotional) empathy and connectedness to nature might vary as a function of school adjustment. Participants were 881 Spanish adolescents from 12 to 17 years old (47.2% males). The design was a 2 × 2 MANOVA (school adjustment × sex). Results of the CFA analysis confirmed the theoretical assumptions about two different but related aspects of environmental empathy (cognitive and emotional) and connectedness to nature as a unidimensional construct. Overall, results showed that high school adjustment was related to higher environmental empathy (cognitive and emotional) and greater connectedness to nature. Moreover, interactions were found between school adjustment and sex. Females reported the highest levels of environmental emotional empathy and connectedness to nature (regardless of their school adjustment). By contrast, males with both low and high school adjustment reported lower environmental emotional empathy than females with high school adjustment. Furthermore, only males with high school adjustment reported similar connectedness to nature to that of females (regardless of their school adjustment). Implications of these findings for research and psychosocial interventions in environmental education are discussed


La empatía ambiental y la conexión con la naturaleza son dos constructos relevantes para explicar las variaciones en el comportamiento proambiental. Sin embargo, poco se sabe acerca de si la empatía ambiental (cognitiva y emocional) y la conexión con la naturaleza pueden variar en función del ajuste escolar. Los participantes fueron 881 adolescentes españoles de 12 a 17 años (47.2% hombres). El diseño fue un MANOVA 2 × 2 (ajuste escolar × sexo). Los resultados del análisis de CFA confirmaron los supuestos teóricos sobre dos dimensiones diferentes pero relacionadas de la empatía ambiental (cognitiva y emocional) y la conectividad con la naturaleza como un constructo unidimensional. En general, los resultados mostraron que un alto ajuste escolar se relacionaba con una mayor empatía ambiental (cognitiva y emocional) y una mayor conexión con la naturaleza. Además, se observó interacción entre el ajuste escolar y el sexo. Las mujeres reportaron un nivel más alto de empatía emocional ambiental y conexión con la naturaleza (independientemente de su ajuste escolar). En contraste, los hombres con ajuste escolar bajo y alto reportaron menor empatía emocional ambiental que las mujeres con ajuste escolar alto. Además, solo los hombres con alto ajuste en la escuela informaron de una conexión similar con la naturaleza que las mujeres (independientemente de su ajuste escolar). Se discuten las implicaciones de estos hallazgos para la investigación y la intervención psicosocial en el ámbito de la educación ambiental


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Empatia , Ajustamento Social , Natureza , Educação em Saúde Ambiental , Ajustamento Emocional , Análise de Variância , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial
8.
Rev. bras. ativ. fís. saúde ; 23: 1-5, fev.-ago. 2019. fig, quad
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026730

RESUMO

Este trabalho descreve a experiência de implementação e desenvolvimento do grupo de Atividade Física e Saúde, denominado "Trilhando Saúde", com foco nas atividades de aventura na natureza, na Atenção Básica à Saúde de Florianópolis. Realizou-se a sistematização das experiências vivenciadas entre março de 2017 a dezembro de 2018, confrontadas com discussões de referenciais teóricos. O planejamento e o modelo lógico de funcionamento do grupo "Trilhando Saúde" procuram desenvolver o papel ativo de coparticipação e corresponsabilidade dos profissionais da saúde, de diferentes áreas de atuação, bem como dos participantes do grupo. Além disso, pelas atividades serem realizadas em meio à natureza possibilita a exploração do território e propicia a discussão de temas acerca da realidade do bairro. A implementação de um grupo de atividade física em meio a natureza demonstra mais uma possibilidade de atuação junto à comunidade e potencializadora da interação dos mora-dores no bairro


The aim of this study was to report the implementation experience and development of the Physical Activity and Health group, called "Trending Health", focusing on nature adventure activities, in the Primary Health Care of Florianópolis. This report was the result of the systematize experiences lived between March of 2017 and December of 2018 as well as based on theoretical references. The "Trending Health`s" group planning and logical model seeks to develop the active role of co-participation and co-responsibility of health professionals from different areas, as well as the participants of the group. In addition, because the activities are carried out in the midst of nature, it allows the territory`s exploration and allows the discussion of topics about the neighborhood`s reality. The implementation of a physical activity group in the middle of nature represents another possibility of acting together with the community and potentiating the residents` inter-action with the neighborhood


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , Terapias Complementares , Natureza , Promoção da Saúde
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In modern, urban daily life, natural environments are increasingly recognized as an important resource for stress recovery and general well-being. AIM: the present review aims to provide an overview and synthesis of the past eight years' research into the psycho-physiological effects of outdoor nature-based interventions, related to stress recovery. METHOD: a structured search was performed in seven databases, returning 5618 articles. Removal of duplicates and initial screening gave a total of 95 studies. After full text reading, 36 studies were included in the assessment. RESULTS: most of the psychological outcomes were related to different emotional measures. The synthesis of the results points towards outdoor, nature-based exposure having a positive effect on different emotional parameters, related to stress relief. The studies into physiological measures showed more equivocal results. CONCLUSION: the research, conducted over the past eight years, into outdoor, nature-based exposure has now attained a sound evidence base for psychological and especially emotional effects, but the evidence base for physiological effects within this timeframe shows a great degree of heterogeneity. LIMITATIONS: interpretation of the results is limited by the review only covering the past eight years' research on the subject.


Assuntos
Natureza , Estresse Fisiológico , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados como Assunto , Humanos
10.
Holist Nurs Pract ; 33(3): 177-186, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973437

RESUMO

Consciousness disturbances are the most common posttraumatic complications. The purpose of this study was to compare the single and combined effects of nature sounds and foot sole reflexology massage on level of consciousness in traumatic comatose patients. This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 2 teaching hospitals in an urban area of Iran. Samples were 120 traumatic comatose patients who were randomly assigned into control, nature sounds, foot reflexology massage, and nature sounds plus foot sole reflexology massage groups. Patients in all groups received routine care. Interventions were performed twice a day for 2 weeks, each time for 30 minutes. The patients' level of consciousness was assessed using the Glasgow Coma Scale before, 1 week, and 2 weeks after the intervention. The groups had no significant differences in the mean scores of the consciousness level before, 1 week after, and the last day of the intervention. Also, there was a significant difference in the number of patients who regained full consciousness (P = .001) in the intervention groups compared with the control group. Significant differences in the number of days of consciousness were reported in at least one of the groups compared with other groups (P = .001). This difference was significant in the control group compared with the foot reflexology massage group (P = .032), as well as the nature sounds plus foot sole reflexology massage group (P = .001). Single or combined interventions can increase the level of consciousness in comatose patients and reduce the duration of coma.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Consciência/terapia , Natureza , Som , APACHE , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Coma/psicologia , Coma/terapia , Transtornos da Consciência/psicologia , Feminino , , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Massagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
11.
Yale J Biol Med ; 92(1): 115-120, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923478

RESUMO

With advances in technology and increases in global urbanization, the complexity of our sensory environment has increased dramatically in the last few hundred years. However, our brains have remained essentially unchanged. The cognitive resources that support complex goal-directed behaviors operate differently in urban versus natural environments. In this short perspective, we consider how the attention system, designed for interacting with nature, is taxed by urban environments and discuss how exposure to nature may support its rejuvenation.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Meio Ambiente , Natureza , Urbanização , Humanos
12.
Qual Life Res ; 28(7): 1695-1703, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of nature-based interventions on self-reported mental well-being in patients with physical disease is gaining increasing attention. However, there is a lack of randomized controlled trials investigating this area. Due to the massive costs in health care systems, there is a need for new strategies to address these issues and an urgent need for attention to this field. Nature-based interventions are low cost, easy to implement, and should get attention within the health care field. Therefore, the objective was to find the impact of nature interventions on mental well-being in humans with a physical disease. METHODS: In four major databases (PubMed, Cinahl, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library), a systematic review of quantitative studies of nature's impact on self-reported mental health in patients with physical disease was performed. A total of 1909 articles were retrieved but only five met the inclusion criteria and were summarized. RESULTS: All five studies were quantitative, with a control group and a nature-based intervention. A source of heterogeneity was identified: the patients in one of the five studies were psychosomatic. In the four studies with somatic patients, significant benefit of nature on self-reported mental health outcomes was found; the only study that failed to show a significant benefit was the one with psychosomatic patients. CONCLUSION: A significant effect of nature on mental well-being of patients with somatic disease was found. The result in patients with psychosomatic disease is inconclusive, and more studies in this category are needed. Further research on the effect of nature on mental health is merited, with special attention to standardizing intervention type and dose as well as outcome measures within each medical discipline.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Natureza , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Humanos
13.
Am Nat ; 193(2): 149-163, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30720365

RESUMO

In 2017, The American Naturalist celebrated its 150th anniversary. It was founded as a journal of natural history, yet it developed into an important vehicle of the evolutionary synthesis. During the early years of the journal and through much of the twentieth century, evolutionary theory was developed to explain the history of nature before humankind existed to alter it-when time was expansive and uncommon events, though rare, were frequent enough to effect evolutionary change. Today, with the influence of human activity, dispersal patterns are fundamentally altered, genetic variation is locally limiting in small and fragmented populations, and environments are changing so rapidly that time itself seems limited. How can we use this theory, which was built to explain the past and which depends on an excess of chances and time, to address the challenges of the present and the future when chances are fewer and time seems so short? And does the habit of naturalists to observe, describe, and cultivate a fascination with nature have a place in contemporary science?


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Biologia/história , Meio Ambiente , Atividades Humanas , Natureza , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Biologia/organização & administração , Variação Genética , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/história , Fatores de Tempo
15.
J Biotechnol ; 293: 56-65, 2019 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690098

RESUMO

N-Alkylated-α-amino acids are useful building blocks for the pharmaceutical and fine chemical industries. Enantioselective methods of N-alkylated-α-amino acid synthesis are therefore highly valuable and widely investigated. While there are a variety of chemical methods for their synthesis, they often employ stoichiometric quantities of hazardous reagents such as pyrophoric metal hydrides or genotoxic alkylating agents, whereas biocatalytic routes can provide a greener and cleaner alternative to existing methods. This review highlights the occurrence of the N-alkyl-α-amino acid motif and its role in nature, important applications towards human health and biocatalytic methods of preparation. Several enzyme classes that can be used to access chiral N-alkylated-α-amino acids and their substrate selectivities are detailed.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/biossíntese , Aminoácidos/química , Animais , Biocatálise , Humanos , Natureza
16.
Med Hypotheses ; 123: 13-18, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696583

RESUMO

The direct or indirect experience of crime can cause individuals to feel vengeful against the perpetrator(s). The prison system reflects this sentiment by creating austere environments that are dehumanizing, punitive, and hopeless. Prisons are, therefore, environments in which retribution and punishment take priority over rehabilitation. Frequently, prisoners are believed to be untreatable because of their antisocial orientation. However, several factors influence an antisocial orientation such as socioeconomic status, family of origin, and mental health. The ubiquitous nothing works misbelief has resulted in prisoner marginalization and increased recidivism because of insufficient treatment. In 2015, 10 million individuals were incarcerated worldwide with around 30 million circulating through prisons each year. The prison environment decreases prisoner life expectancy and overall health. Sadly, prisoner benefits from treatment post-incarceration dissipate after 3-6 months and many prisoners die by suicide or drug overdose. Prison overpopulation, as well as poor outcome post-incarceration, requires more effective treatment. We hypothesize that Prisoner Exposure to Nature (PEN) can transform prisons into environments that are conducive to maintaining and improving physical and mental health. In prior work we proposed the continuum Nature Exposure Sufficiency (NES) versus Nature Exposure Insufficiency (NEI). Prisons are impoverished environments that limit Nature Exposure (NE) which results in NEI. Individuals experience fluctuations in mental and physical health as a result of NEI. Numerous studies have shown that direct and indirect NE can improve mood, physical health, and facilitate connectivity with self and society. It is necessary to consider ways in which we can incorporate NE for prisoner wellbeing. Additionally, it is crucial that prison personnel and prisoners develop a therapeutic/helping relationship (i.e., alliance) that is facilitated by friendliness and warmth to foster social change and citizenship. Many prisoners experience isolation and disconnection with society upon reentry. Given that most prisoners are eventually released into the community, we are obligated not to make them worse. Hence, it is important that prisons create programs that develop citizenship to engender prisoner volition to become positive and active citizens. We focus on the prison and prisoners, however our work is relevant to all total institutions (e.g., mental hospitals, nursing homes, schools, etc.). The prison system favors punishment and mass incarceration over treatment and decarceration. The deleterious effects of incarceration are clear and it is time to implement treatments based on the principles of PEN to improve prisoner wellbeing and citizenship.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Natureza , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Prisões , Crime , Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Reincidência , Suicídio/prevenção & controle
18.
Recurso educacional aberto em Português | CVSP - Brasil | ID: cfc-370359

RESUMO

O programa fala sobre o conceito desenvolvido pelo escritor norte-americano Richard Louv de Transtorno de Déficit de Natureza, que está relacionado às consequências negativas para a saúde da falta de contato com ambientes naturais de quem vive nos centros urbanos. Segundo pesquisas reunidas por Louv, essa falta de contato com a natureza pode ter consequências físicas, mentais e emocionais. A apresentadora Marcela Morato conversa sobre o assunto com Laís Fleury, diretora do Instituto Alana, que, entre outros projetos, desenvolve o "Criança e Natureza". Participantes: Cecília Herzog, paisagista e professora da PUC-Rio; Luiz Carlos "Poeta", fundador do Instituto Verdejar na Serra da Misericórdia - Zona Norte do Rio de Janeiro; Edson Gomes, membro do Verdejar; Marcelle Felipe, membro do Verdejar.


Assuntos
Natureza , Humanos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
19.
J Marital Fam Ther ; 45(1): 176-185, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29417592

RESUMO

Much has been written about the systemic effects of families and culture on individual well-being. Seldom discussed, however, are the systemic effects of our relationship with the larger ecological system in which all families and cultures are embedded. A case is made for the importance of nature in family therapy. Furthermore, before therapists can effectively address ecological issues in therapy, they need to address various ecological self-of-the-therapist issues that will influence their clinical practice. A series of questions are asked to help guide therapists in this exploration, and practical suggestions for incorporating nature into MFT clinical practice, training, and research are made.


Assuntos
Política Ambiental , Terapia Familiar , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Terapia Conjugal , Natureza , Autoimagem , Adulto , Humanos
20.
Clin Exp Optom ; 102(1): 3-17, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380590

RESUMO

In the nineteenth century, the prevalence of myopia began to rise, and Cohn stressed the role of education. Later, based on twin studies, Sorsby argued that refraction was almost totally genetically determined. This became the dominant view. However, rapid increases in the prevalence of myopia were then reported, especially in East and Southeast Asia, where the prevalence of myopia in children completing secondary school is now 80-90 per cent, with around 20 per cent highly myopic, and at risk of ocular pathology. It is not possible to explain these rapid changes genetically, since gene pools cannot change that fast. Nevertheless, there are at least 200 genetic forms of myopia, but these account for myopia in only a low percentage of the population. Genome-wide association studies have identified over 150 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with myopia, but they account for < 10 per cent of the variation in refraction. In contrast, twin studies have given consistently high heritability estimates for myopia. The high twin study heritability may be explained by the limited environmental variation within twin pairs, combined with basic assumptions made in twin studies. The SNP-heritability approach suggests that 25-35 per cent of the variation may be accounted for by hundreds or even thousands of SNPs. The apparent conflicts in the literature can be explained by the aetiological heterogeneity of myopia, and the fact that estimates of heritability are population-specific. It has been proposed that environmental variation is more relevant to variations between populations; however, the current differences between populations are due to changes within populations, driven by educational pressures, and limited time spent outdoors. Ethnic differences in myopia and the effects of parental myopia now seem more likely to be explained by environmental influences. Genetic studies have not yet defined molecular pathways and preventive interventions, and the predictive power of current genetic data is limited.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Miopia/genética , Natureza , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Estudos em Gêmeos como Assunto
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