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1.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(2): 79-85, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577414

RESUMO

The persistence of the coronavirus-caused respiratory disease (COVID-19) and the related restrictions to mobility and social interactions are forcing a significant portion of students and workers to reorganize their daily activities to accommodate the needs of distance learning and agile work (smart working). What is the impact of these changes on the bosses/teachers' and workers/students' experience? This article uses recent neuroscience research findings to explore how distance learning and smart working impact the following three pillars that reflect the organization of our brain and are at the core of school and office experiences: (a) the learning/work happens in a dedicated physical place; (b) the learning/work is carried out under the supervision of a boss/professor; and (c) the learning/work is distributed between team members/classmates. For each pillar, we discuss its link with the specific cognitive processes involved and the impact that technology has on their functioning. In particular, the use of videoconferencing affects the functioning of Global Positioning System neurons (neurons that code our navigation behavior), mirror neurons, self-attention networks, spindle cells, and interbrain neural oscillations. These effects have a significant impact on many identity and cognitive processes, including social and professional identity, leadership, intuition, mentoring, and creativity. In conclusion, just moving typical office and learning processes inside a videoconferencing platform, as happened in many contexts during the COVID-19 pandemic, can in the long term erode corporate cultures and school communities. In this view, an effective use of technology requires us to reimagine how work and teaching are done virtually, in creative and bold new ways.


Assuntos
Educação a Distância , Relações Interpessoais , Vias Neurais , Comportamento Espacial , Atenção , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Memória Episódica , Neurônios-Espelho , Neurônios , Pandemias , Navegação Espacial , Estudantes , Comunicação por Videoconferência
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 671, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510164

RESUMO

Neural circuits generate representations of the external world from multiple information streams. The navigation system provides an exceptional lens through which we may gain insights about how such computations are implemented. Neural circuits in the medial temporal lobe construct a map-like representation of space that supports navigation. This computation integrates multiple sensory cues, and, in addition, is thought to require cues related to the individual's movement through the environment. Here, we identify multiple self-motion signals, related to the position and velocity of the head and eyes, encoded by neurons in a key node of the navigation circuitry of mice, the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC). The representation of these signals is highly integrated with other cues in individual neurons. Such information could be used to compute the allocentric location of landmarks from visual cues and to generate internal representations of space.


Assuntos
Córtex Entorrinal/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Córtex Entorrinal/citologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Feminino , Movimentos da Cabeça/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos da Linhagem 129 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Neurológicos , Rede Nervosa/citologia
3.
Orthop Clin North Am ; 52(1): 41-52, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222983

RESUMO

The growing epidemic of physician burnout suggests that a change is needed. Physician wellness is an ever-growing consideration, especially in orthopedic surgery, where the challenges to wellness are significant. This review provides many common sense wellness principles and solutions in four main components of wellness (physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual) interwoven with current research on the topic. Although directed to orthopedic surgeons, this guide can be applied to all physicians, because they are based on common human principles of wellness. Wellness is not created overnight, so wellness practices that increase the likelihood of experiencing wellness are encouraged.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Cirurgiões Ortopédicos/psicologia , Esgotamento Profissional , Dieta Saudável , Emoções , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Meditação , Atenção Plena , Cultura Organizacional , Grupo Associado , Resiliência Psicológica , Autoimagem , Sono , Apoio Social , Navegação Espacial , Espiritualismo , Estresse Psicológico
4.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2925-2928, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018619

RESUMO

An emerging corpus of research seeks to use virtual realities (VRs) to understand the neural mechanisms underlying spatial navigation and decision making in rodents. These studies have primarily used visual stimuli to represent the virtual world. However, auditory cues play an important role in navigation for animals, especially when the visual system cannot detect objects or predators. We have developed a virtual reality environment defined exclusively by free-field acoustic landmarks for head-fixed mice. We trained animals to run in a virtual environment with 3 acoustic landmarks. We present evidence that they can learn to navigate in our context: we observed anticipatory licking and modest anticipatory slowing preceding the reward region. Furthermore, we found that animals were highly aware of changes in landmark cues: licking behavior changed dramatically when the familiar virtual environment was switched to a novel one, and then rapidly reverted to normal when the familiar virtual environment was re-introduced, all within the same session. Finally, while animals executed the task, we performed in-vivo calcium imaging in the CA1 region of the hippocampus using a modified Miniscope.org system. Our experiments point to a future in which auditory virtual reality can be used to expand our understanding of the neural bases of audition in locomoting animals and the variety of sensory cues which anchor spatial representations in a new virtual environment.


Assuntos
Navegação Espacial , Realidade Virtual , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Camundongos , Percepção Espacial , Interface Usuário-Computador
5.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3318-3322, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018714

RESUMO

Vestibular perception is useful to maintain heading direction and successful spatial navigation. In this study, we present a novel equipment capable of delivering both rotational and translational movements, namely the RT-Chair. The system comprises two motors and it is controlled by the user via MATLAB. To validate the measurability of vestibular perception with the RT-chair, we ran a threshold measurement experiment with healthy participants. Our results show thresholds comparable to previous literature, thus confirming the validity of the system to measure vestibular perception.


Assuntos
Percepção de Movimento , Navegação Espacial , Vestíbulo do Labirinto , Cabeça , Humanos , Movimento (Física)
6.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 73(9-10): 295-301, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035420

RESUMO

Interest in the hippocampal formation and its role in navigation and memory arose in the second part of the 20th century, at least in part due to the curious case of Henry G. Molaison, who underwent brain surgery for intractable epilepsy. The temporal association observed between the removal of his entorhinal cortex along with a significant part of hippocampus and the developing severe memory deficit inspired scientists to focus on these regions. The subsequent discovery of the so-called place cells in the hippocampus launched the description of many other functional cell types and neuronal networks throughout the Papez-circuit that has a key role in memory processes and spatial information coding (speed, head direction, border, grid, object-vector etc). Each of these cell types has its own unique characteristics, and together they form the so-called "Brain GPS". The aim of this short survey is to highlight for practicing neurologists the types of cells and neuronal networks that represent the anatomical substrates and physiological correlates of pathological entities affecting the limbic system, especially in the temporal lobe. For that purpose, we survey early discoveries along with the most relevant neuroscience observations from the recent literature. By this brief survey, we highlight main cell types in the hippocampal formation, and describe their roles in spatial navigation and memory processes. In recent decades, an array of new and functionally unique neuron types has been recognized in the hippocampal formation, but likely more remain to be discovered. For a better understanding of the heterogeneous presentations of neurological disorders affecting this anatomical region, insights into the constantly evolving neuroscience behind may be helpful. The public health consequences of diseases that affect memory and spatial navigation are high, and grow as the population ages, prompting scientist to focus on further exploring this brain region.


Assuntos
Memória , Neurociências , Navegação Espacial , Córtex Entorrinal , Hipocampo , Humanos
7.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(33): 2607-2611, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892607

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the relationship between white matter lesions and spatial navigation ability in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: A total of 32 MCI patients [age (66±11) years, 16 males and 16 females] who were treated in the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School from January 2015 to February 2018 were selected, and matched with age, gender and education level of 28 healthy controls (NC) [age (70±11) years, 19 males and 9 females] underwent spatial navigation ability test and neuropsychology scale evaluation. In the cross-sectional study, all subjects simultaneously underwent 3.0T magnetic resonance three-dimensional liquid inversion recovery sequence and high-resolution T(1) weighted imaging scan. The Wisconsin White Matter Hyperintensities Segmentation Toolbox (W2MHS) was used to automatically mark and extract the volume of the white matter hyperintensity. Results: The average error distances of egocentric virtual (P=0.002) and allocentric virtual (P=0.039) of MCI patients are greater than that of the control group, but the average error distance of mixed (allocentric-egocentric virtual) navigation had no statistic difference between two groups (P=0.070). The volume of the whole white matter hyperintensity, periventricular white matter hyperintensity, and deep white matter hyperintensity showed no significant differences between two groups (all P>0.05). Partial correlation analysis showed that after controlling for age, gender, education level and whole brain volume, the average error distance of mixed (allocentric-egocentric virtual) navigation in MCI patients was positively correlated to the volume of the whole white matter hyperintensity, deep white matter intensity, and periventricular white matter hyperintensity (r=0.469, 0.434, 0.512, all P<0.05). The average error distance of allocentric virtual navigation is positively correlated with the volume of periventricular white matter hyperintensity (r=0.403, P=0.033). There is no correlation between the average error distance of egocentric virtual navigation and the hyperintensity of white matter. Conclusions: The spatial navigation ability of patients with MCI is related to white matter lesions, which is of great significance for further research on the potential biological mechanisms affecting human spatial navigation ability.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Leucoaraiose , Navegação Espacial , Substância Branca , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239077, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960930

RESUMO

The Virtual Supermarket Task (VST) and Sea Hero Quest detect high-genetic-risk Alzheimer`s disease (AD). We aimed to determine their test-retest reliability in a preclinical AD population. Over two time points, separated by an 18-month period, 59 cognitively healthy individuals underwent a neuropsychological and spatial navigation assessment. At baseline, participants were classified as low-genetic-risk of AD or high-genetic-risk of AD. We calculated two-way mixed effects intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for task parameters and used repeated measures ANOVAS to determine whether genetic risk or sex contributed to test-retest variability. The egocentric parameter of the VST measure showed the highest test-retest reliability (ICC = .72), followed by the SHQ distance travelled parameter (ICC = .50). Post hoc longitudinal analysis showed that boundary-based navigation predicts worsening episodic memory concerns in high-risk (F = 5.01, P = 0.03), but in not low-risk, AD candidates. The VST and the Sea Hero Quest produced parameters with acceptable test-retest reliability. Further research in larger sample sizes is desirable.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Navegação Espacial , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Cognição , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Memória Episódica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
9.
Neuron ; 108(1): 145-163.e10, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916090

RESUMO

Neural representations of head direction (HD) have been discovered in many species. Theoretical work has proposed that the dynamics associated with these representations are generated, maintained, and updated by recurrent network structures called ring attractors. We evaluated this theorized structure-function relationship by performing electron-microscopy-based circuit reconstruction and RNA profiling of identified cell types in the HD system of Drosophila melanogaster. We identified motifs that have been hypothesized to maintain the HD representation in darkness, update it when the animal turns, and tether it to visual cues. Functional studies provided support for the proposed roles of individual excitatory or inhibitory circuit elements in shaping activity. We also discovered recurrent connections between neuronal arbors with mixed pre- and postsynaptic specializations. Our results confirm that the Drosophila HD network contains the core components of a ring attractor while also revealing unpredicted structural features that might enhance the network's computational power.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/ultraestrutura , Movimentos da Cabeça , Rede Nervosa/ultraestrutura , Neurônios/ultraestrutura , Navegação Espacial , Sinapses/ultraestrutura , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica , Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica , Vias Neurais , Vias Visuais
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1284: 63-90, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852741

RESUMO

The hippocampus is critical for spatial navigation. In this review, we focus on the role of the hippocampus in three basic strategies used for spatial navigation: path integration, stimulus-response association, and map-based navigation. First, the hippocampus is not required for path integration unless the path of path integration is too long and complex. The hippocampus provides mnemonic support when involved in the process of path integration. Second, the hippocampus's involvement in stimulus-response association is dependent on how the strategy is conducted. The hippocampus is not required for the habit form of stimulus-response association. Third, while the hippocampus is fully engaged in map-based navigation, the shared characteristics of place cells, grid cells, head direction cells, and other spatial encoding cells, which are detected in the hippocampus and associated areas, offer a possibility that there is a stand-alone allocentric space perception (or mental representation) of the environment outside and independent of the hippocampus, and the spatially specific firing patterns of these spatial encoding cells are the unfolding of the intermediate stages of the processing of this allocentric spatial information when conveyed into the hippocampus for information storage or retrieval. Furthermore, the presence of all the spatially specific firing patterns in the hippocampus and the related neural circuits during the path integration and map-based navigation support such a notion that in essence, path integration is the same allocentric space perception provided with only idiothetic inputs. Taken together, the hippocampus plays a general mnemonic role in spatial navigation.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/fisiologia , Navegação Espacial , Animais , Memória/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237344, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818953

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this study, we investigate to what degree augmented reality technology can be used to create and evaluate a visual-to-auditory sensory substitution device to improve the performance of blind persons in navigation and recognition tasks. METHODS: A sensory substitution algorithm that translates 3D visual information into audio feedback was designed. This algorithm was integrated in an augmented reality based mobile phone application. Using the mobile device as sensory substitution device, a study with blind participants (n = 7) was performed. The participants navigated through pseudo-randomized obstacle courses using either the sensory substitution device, a white cane or a combination of both. In a second task, virtual 3D objects and structures had to be identified by the participants using the same sensory substitution device. RESULTS: The realized application for mobile devices enabled participants to complete the navigation and object recognition tasks in an experimental environment already within the first trials without previous training. This demonstrates the general feasibility and low entry barrier of the designed sensory substitution algorithm. In direct comparison to the white cane, within the study duration of ten hours the sensory substitution device did not offer a statistically significant improvement in navigation.


Assuntos
Realidade Aumentada , Cegueira/reabilitação , Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/reabilitação , Adulto , Idoso , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Cegueira/fisiopatologia , Bengala , Estudos de Viabilidade , Retroalimentação Sensorial/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aplicativos Móveis , Projetos Piloto , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Neuron ; 107(6): 1212-1225.e7, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763145

RESUMO

Dentate gyrus granule cells (GCs) connect the entorhinal cortex to the hippocampal CA3 region, but how they process spatial information remains enigmatic. To examine the role of GCs in spatial coding, we measured excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and action potentials (APs) in head-fixed mice running on a linear belt. Intracellular recording from morphologically identified GCs revealed that most cells were active, but activity level varied over a wide range. Whereas only ∼5% of GCs showed spatially tuned spiking, ∼50% received spatially tuned input. Thus, the GC population broadly encodes spatial information, but only a subset relays this information to the CA3 network. Fourier analysis indicated that GCs received conjunctive place-grid-like synaptic input, suggesting code conversion in single neurons. GC firing was correlated with dendritic complexity and intrinsic excitability, but not extrinsic excitatory input or dendritic cable properties. Thus, functional maturation may control input-output transformation and spatial code conversion.


Assuntos
Região CA3 Hipocampal/fisiologia , Giro Denteado/fisiologia , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores , Neurônios/fisiologia , Navegação Espacial , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Região CA3 Hipocampal/citologia , Células Cultivadas , Giro Denteado/citologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
13.
Science ; 369(6500): 188-193, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647000

RESUMO

Seven decades of research on the "cognitive map," the allocentric representation of space, have yielded key neurobiological insights, yet field evidence from free-ranging wild animals is still lacking. Using a system capable of tracking dozens of animals simultaneously at high accuracy and resolution, we assembled a large dataset of 172 foraging Egyptian fruit bats comprising >18 million localizations collected over 3449 bat-nights across 4 years. Detailed track analysis, combined with translocation experiments and exhaustive mapping of fruit trees, revealed that wild bats seldom exhibit random search but instead repeatedly forage in goal-directed, long, and straight flights that include frequent shortcuts. Alternative, non-map-based strategies were ruled out by simulations, time-lag embedding, and other trajectory analyses. Our results are consistent with expectations from cognitive map-like navigation and support previous neurobiological evidence from captive bats.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/fisiologia , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Orientação Espacial/fisiologia , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia , Animais , Cognição , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto
14.
Science ; 369(6500): 194-197, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647001

RESUMO

How animals navigate over large-scale environments remains a riddle. Specifically, it is debated whether animals have cognitive maps. The hallmark of map-based navigation is the ability to perform shortcuts, i.e., to move in direct but novel routes. When tracking an animal in the wild, it is extremely difficult to determine whether a movement is truly novel because the animal's past movement is unknown. We overcame this difficulty by continuously tracking wild fruit bat pups from their very first flight outdoors and over the first months of their lives. Bats performed truly original shortcuts, supporting the hypothesis that they can perform large-scale map-based navigation. We documented how young pups developed their visual-based map, exemplifying the importance of exploration and demonstrating interindividual differences.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/fisiologia , Orientação Espacial/fisiologia , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia , Animais
15.
Neurology ; 95(9): e1134-e1143, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the nature and extent of minor neuropsychological deficits in patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and their association with CSF biomarkers of Alzheimer disease (AD). METHOD: We analyzed data from n = 449 cognitively normal participants (n = 209 healthy controls, n = 240 patients with SCD) from an interim data release of the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases Longitudinal Cognitive Impairment and Dementia Study (DELCODE). An extensive neuropsychological test battery was applied at baseline for which we established a latent, 5 cognitive domain factor structure comprising learning and memory, executive functions, language abilities, working memory, and visuospatial functions. We compared groups in terms of global and domain-specific performance and correlated performance with different CSF markers of AD pathology. RESULTS: We observed worse performance (Cohen d = ≈0.25-0.5, adjusted for age, sex differences with analysis of covariance) in global performance, memory, executive functions, and language abilities for the SCD group compared to healthy controls. In addition, worse performance in these domains was moderately (r = ≈0.3) associated with lower CSF ß-amyloid42/40 and CSF ß-amyloid42/phosphorylated tau181 in the whole sample and specifically in the SCD subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: Within the spectrum of clinically unimpaired (i.e., before mild cognitive impairment) cognitive performance, SCD is associated with minor deficits in memory, executive function, and language abilities. The association of these subtle cognitive deficits with AD CSF biomarkers speaks to their validity and potential use for the early detection of underlying preclinical AD.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Função Executiva , Idioma , Aprendizagem , Memória de Curto Prazo , Navegação Espacial , Idoso , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Disfunção Cognitiva/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Fosforilação , Proteínas tau/líquido cefalorraquidiano
16.
Neuron ; 107(5): 924-940.e18, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681825

RESUMO

Spatial maps in the brain are most accurate when they are linked to external sensory cues. Here, we show that the compass in the Drosophila brain is linked to the direction of the wind. Shifting the wind rightward rotates the compass as if the fly were turning leftward, and vice versa. We describe the mechanisms of several computations that integrate wind information into the compass. First, an intensity-invariant representation of wind direction is computed by comparing left-right mechanosensory signals. Then, signals are reformatted to reduce the coding biases inherent in peripheral mechanics, and wind cues are brought into the same circular coordinate system that represents visual cues and self-motion signals. Because the compass incorporates both mechanosensory and visual cues, it should enable navigation under conditions where no single cue is consistently reliable. These results show how local sensory signals can be transformed into a global, multimodal, abstract representation of space.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia , Vento , Animais , Antenas de Artrópodes/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Mecanorreceptores/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3247, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591544

RESUMO

The brain derives cognitive maps from sensory experience that guide memory formation and behavior. Despite extensive efforts, it still remains unclear how the underlying population activity unfolds during spatial navigation and how it relates to memory performance. To examine these processes, we combined 7T-fMRI with a kernel-based encoding model of virtual navigation to map world-centered directional tuning across the human cortex. First, we present an in-depth analysis of directional tuning in visual, retrosplenial, parahippocampal and medial temporal cortices. Second, we show that tuning strength, width and topology of this directional code during memory-guided navigation depend on successful encoding of the environment. Finally, we show that participants' locomotory state influences this tuning in sensory and mnemonic regions such as the hippocampus. We demonstrate a direct link between neural population tuning and human cognition, where high-level memory processing interacts with network-wide visuospatial coding in the service of behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lógica , Masculino , Memória Espacial/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Realidade Virtual , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3057, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546681

RESUMO

It is uncontroversial that land animals have more elaborated cognitive abilities than their aquatic counterparts such as fish. Yet there is no apparent a-priori reason for this. A key cognitive faculty is planning. We show that in visually guided predator-prey interactions, planning provides a significant advantage, but only on land. During animal evolution, the water-to-land transition resulted in a massive increase in visual range. Simulations of behavior identify a specific type of terrestrial habitat, clustered open and closed areas (savanna-like), where the advantage of planning peaks. Our computational experiments demonstrate how this patchy terrestrial structure, in combination with enhanced visual range, can reveal and hide agents as a function of their movement and create a selective benefit for imagining, evaluating, and selecting among possible future scenarios-in short, for planning. The vertebrate invasion of land may have been an important step in their cognitive evolution.


Assuntos
Comportamento Predatório , Visão Ocular , Algoritmos , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Evolução Biológica , Aves , Cognição , Simulação por Computador , Ecossistema , Mamíferos , Navegação Espacial , Visão Ocular/fisiologia
19.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 101(9): 1580-1589, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540135

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare participants with Parkinson disease (PD) motor subtypes, postural instability and gait difficulty (PIGD) (n=46) and tremor dominant (TD) (n=28), in cognitive and motor-cognitive assessments with the purpose of identifying associations between subtype and visuospatial, whole-body spatial, inhibition and/or switching, and planning and/or organizational aspects of cognitive and motor-cognitive function. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. Fisher exact test was used for categorical variables, while 2-sample independent t tests were used to analyze continuous variables. SETTING: Assessments took place at Emory University. PARTICIPANTS: Participants (N=72) were 40 years and older, had a clinical diagnosis of PD, exhibited 3 of the 4 cardinal signs of PD, had shown benefit from antiparkinsonian medications, and were in Hoehn and Yahr stages I-IV. Participants could walk 3 m or more with or without assistance. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Balance and mobility tests included Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale and the time needed to turn 360 degrees. Cognitive assessments included Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Brooks Spatial Memory Task, Color-Word Interference Test, Tower of London, Trail Making Test, Corsi Blocks, Serial 3s Subtraction, and Body Position Spatial Task. Motor-cognitive function measures included Four Square Step Test and Timed Up and Go. RESULTS: Participants with PIGD performed lower than those with TD symptoms on mental status (P=.005), spatial memory (P=.027), executive function (P=.0001-.034), and visuospatial ability (P=.048). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that PIGD subtype is linked to greater deficits in spatial cognition, attentional flexibility and organizational planning, and whole-body spatial memory domains. These findings support the need for more personalized approaches to clinically managing PD.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson/classificação , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Agnosia/fisiopatologia , Antiparkinsonianos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia
20.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(5): e1007489, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379824

RESUMO

Path integration is thought to rely on vestibular and proprioceptive cues yet most studies in humans involve primarily visual input, providing limited insight into their respective contributions. We developed a paradigm involving walking in an omnidirectional treadmill in which participants were guided on two sides of a triangle and then found their back way to origin. In Experiment 1, we tested a range of different triangle types while keeping the distance of the unguided side constant to determine the influence of spatial geometry. Participants overshot the angle they needed to turn and undershot the distance they needed to walk, with no consistent effect of triangle type. In Experiment 2, we manipulated distance while keeping angle constant to determine how path integration operated over both shorter and longer distances. Participants underestimated the distance they needed to walk to the origin, with error increasing as a function of the walked distance. To attempt to account for our findings, we developed configural-based computational models involving vector addition, the second of which included terms for the influence of past trials on the current one. We compared against a previously developed configural model of human path integration, the Encoding-Error model. We found that the vector addition models captured the tendency of participants to under-encode guided sides of the triangles and an influence of past trials on current trials. Together, our findings expand our understanding of body-based contributions to human path integration, further suggesting the value of vector addition models in understanding these important components of human navigation.


Assuntos
Orientação/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Propriocepção/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia
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