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2.
Sci Prog ; 106(1): 368504221149624, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624613

RESUMO

Ship maneuvering in restricted waters is a significant challenge in navigation safety due to the complex flow around the ship. In particular, when a ship travels close to a lateral bank and shallow water, the hydrodynamic interaction forces significantly influence the maneuvering motion of the ship. Maneuverability in restricted water is even more difficult for an autonomous surface ship. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the effects of maneuvering near a bank and in shallow water for an autonomous surface ship. In this study, maneuvering simulations considering the bank effect at various water depths are implemented based on hydrodynamic forces estimated using computational fluid dynamics simulation. First, virtual captive model tests at various water depths and simulations of various lateral distances to the banks are performed to estimate the hydrodynamic forces using computational fluid dynamics simulation. The simulation method is validated by comparing the simulation results of the static drift test in deep water with the measured one in the experimental method. Second, the maneuvering simulations for the turning circle test and zig-zag test at various water depths are conducted using the obtained hydrodynamic coefficients. Then, the maneuvering simulations in deep water are compared with the experiment results, and a good agreement is observed. Finally, the simulation considering the bank effects at various water depths is evaluated and discussed.


Assuntos
Projetos de Pesquisa , Navios , Simulação por Computador , Água
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we propose a Sine chaos mapping-based improved sparrow search algorithm (SSA) to optimize the BP neural network for trajectory prediction of inland river vessels because of the problems of poor accuracy and easy trapping in local optimum in BP neural networks. METHOD: First, a standard BP model is constructed based on the AIS data of ships in the Yangtze River section. A Sine-BP model is built using Sine chaos mapping to assign neural network weights and thresholds. Finally, a Sine-SSA-BP model is built using the sparrow search algorithm (SSA) to solve the optimal solutions of the neural network weights and thresholds. RESULT: The Sine-SSA-BP model effectively improves the initialized population of uniform distribution, and reduces the problem that population intelligence algorithms tend to be premature. CONCLUSIONS: The test results show that the Sine-SSA-BP neural network has higher prediction accuracy and better stability than conventional LSTM and SVM, especially in the prediction of corners, which is in good agreement with the real ship navigation trajectory.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Navios , Feminino , Humanos , Algoritmos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Inteligência
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679686

RESUMO

Shipborne atomic gravimeter (SAG) is an instrument that can directly measure absolute gravity in dynamic environments. As a new type of gravity sensor, a standard method for evaluating its detailed performance has not been proposed and the detailed performance of SAG was rarely reported. In this paper, a system of dynamic gravity measurement, which was integrated with a home-made atomic gravimeter, is demonstrated, and a novel and simple method for testing the performance of SAG on the lake based on the modulated Coriolis effect is put forward. Firstly, in the state of ship mooring, a tilt modulation of the gravity sensor has been realized to make sure the Raman wave vector is parallel to the gravity axis. Moreover, a comparison between the measurement result of CG-5 and SAG has also been carried out to evaluate the accuracy of the SAG. Then, the Coriolis effect modulating experiment is carried out with various routes on lake to test its performance in dynamic environments. In the ship mooring state, the accuracy has been demonstrated to be 0.643 mGal. The internal consistency reliabilities are evaluated to be 0.8 mGal and 1.2 mGal under the conditions of straight line and circle navigation, respectively.


Assuntos
Força Coriolis , Gravitação , Navios
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679833

RESUMO

Shipping traffic is recognised as the main man-noise source of the anthropogenic noise generated in the marine environment. The underwater acoustic pollution is increased due to the increment of the human activity at seas supposing a threat for marine habitats. The ship as acoustic source must be understood and controlled to manage the maritime areas both in time and space to reduce the impact of noise in marine fauna. Shipping noise is mainly composed of flow noise, propeller noise and machinery noise. This research is focused on the analysis and estimation of the underwater radiated noise generated by the vibrations of the onboard machinery or structure-borne noise based on the calculation of the transfer function. This function relates the acceleration levels of the vibrations of the hull's panels and the radiated noise by them using the radiation efficiency. Different analytical methods to estimate the radiation efficiency are presented and compared with data collected at sea. The measurements are performed acquiring simultaneously acceleration and acoustic levels by means on accelerometers installed on the hull's panels at different positions and hydrophones deployed close to the bow, middle and stern of the ship. The analysis of the transmission of the vibrations along the ships is performed using the data from different locations of the hydrophones. The quality of the measurements is analysed using the coherence function through the spectral correlation between the measurement of vibrations and acoustic levels. On the other hand, signal-to-noise ratio is computed to verify the strength of the noise sources. The computed transfer function is used to predict the underwater radiated noise from vibrations showing differences less than 2 dB re to 1 µPa2.


Assuntos
Navios , Vibração , Humanos , Ruído , Oceanos e Mares , Acústica
6.
Inj Prev ; 29(1): 8-15, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36697022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drowning is a significant public health challenge globally. In Africa and Ghana, drowning has remained a silent epidemic among poor communities. Limited evidence has challenged advances in drowning knowledge and prevention. While drowning deaths are often widely circulated in the newspapers, drowning data are not systematically organised to constitute a body of evidence sufficient for scientific exploration. Although drowning was frequent, they were poorly understood. We explore the context of drowning from multiple perspectives from the Volta-basin where the largest man-made lake in the world has become a hotspot for drowning. METHOD: This study adopts a sequential-mix-qualitative study comprising content analysis of newspaper reports on drowning, structured-observations and in-depth interviews with boaters and fisherfolk. We first explored, the content of newspapers over a 10-year period. This information provided the context of drowning. We followed up with extensive observation of activities on the lake by a team of five. Photovoice qualitative interviews were conducted with 22 boaters, fishers and community members. Thematic content analysis was applied to both the newspaper reports and the in-depth interviews. RESULTS: Drowning was attributed to both proximate and distal causes. Distal causes were the reasons for movement, while proximate causes were the immediate cause of the drowning. Travelling to farm, market, hospital, church, sell were important distal causes of drowning. Proximate determinants included strong winds, tree stumps, overcrowding, no-adherence to safety procedures, spiritual reasons and high tides. Four types of boat accidents were observed: boat-capsizing, boat-sinking, boat-splitting and boat-catching-fire. Ideas converged and diverged in comparing the newspaper content analysis to the photovoice interviews.


Assuntos
Afogamento , Navios , Humanos , Afogamento/prevenção & controle , Afogamento/epidemiologia , Gana/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Saúde Pública
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 863: 160717, 2023 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36528099

RESUMO

Anchor scour from shipping is increasingly recognised as a global threat to benthic marine biodiversity, yet no replicated ecological assessment exists for any seabed community. Without quantification of impacts to biota, there is substantial uncertainty for maritime stakeholders and managers of the marine estate on how these impacts can be managed or minimised. Our study focuses on a region in SE Australia with a high proportion of mesophotic reef (>30 m), where ships anchor while waiting to enter nearby ports. Temperate mesophotic rocky reefs are unique, providing a platform for a diversity of biota, including sponges, ahermatypic corals and other sessile invertebrates. They are rich in biodiversity, provide essential food resources, habitat refugia and ecosystem services for a range of economically, as well as ecologically important taxa. We examined seven representative taxa from four phyla (porifera, cnidaria, bryozoan, hydrozoa) across anchored and 'anchor-free' sites to determine which biota and which of their morphologies were most at risk. Using stereo-imagery, we assessed the richness of animal forest biota, morphology, size, and relative abundance. Our analysis revealed striking impacts to animal forests exposed to anchoring with between three and four-fold declines in morphotype richness and relative abundance. Marked compositional shifts, relative to those reefs that were anchor-free, were also apparent. Six of the seven taxonomic groups, most notably sponge morphotypes, exhibited strong negative responses to anchoring, while one morphotype, soft bryozoans, showed no difference between treatments. Our findings confirm that anchoring on reefs leads to the substantial removal of biota, with marked reductions of biodiversity and requires urgent management. The exclusion of areas of high biological value from anchorages is an important first step towards ameliorating impacts and promoting the recovery of biodiversity.


Assuntos
Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema , Animais , Navios , Biodiversidade , Invertebrados
8.
Environ Pollut ; 316(Pt 1): 120539, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328278

RESUMO

Marine atmospheric aerosols impact the global climate and biogeochemical cycles. However, how the composition, sources, and aging of these aerosols affect the above processes has not been thoroughly studied. Here, we conducted ship-based measurements in the northern South China Sea to investigate the chemical composition and aging of aerosols from various sources during the summer of 2019. Separate measurements were conducted at the bow (marine environment) and stern (cooking, smoking, and engine exhaust) of the ship. Source apportionment of organic aerosols (OAs) was conducted using positive matrix factorization (PMF) and trajectory models. The results showed that ship exhaust and coastal submicron particles were composed of comparable sulfate and organic fractions (both approximately 43%), distinct from the sulfate-dominated particles in the marine atmosphere (52-77%). PMF using the multilinear engine-2 solver identified five factors for the stern sampling period: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA-I, 9%), slightly oxidized HOA (HOA-II, 25%), cooking OA (COA, 13%), cigarette smoke OA (CSOA, 4%), and low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA, 49%). The primary OAs (HOA-I/II + COA + CSOA), derived mostly from direct ship-related emissions, contributed to approximately half of the OAs, whereas the contribution from the highly aged marine atmosphere was only 20%. Notably, certain living-related emissions (i.e., COA and CSOA), which were often neglected in previous studies, might represent a considerable contribution to OA emissions from the ship. Four factors were identified for the bow sampling periods: HOA (13%), biomass burning OA (BBOA, 9%), semi-volatile OOA (7%), and LV-OOA (71%). The BBOAs from the Indo-China and Malay peninsulas were aged, converted to secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) during transport, and influenced by the combined photo-oxidation and liquid-phase reactions, indicating a substantial impact of BB on SOA formation. Our study highlights the influence of ship and inland emissions and their aging during transport on marine atmospheric aerosols.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Atmosfera , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Navios , Sulfatos/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
9.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 123: 460-475, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36522006

RESUMO

In recent years, great efforts have been devoted to reducing emissions from mobile sources with the dramatic growth of motor vehicle and nonroad mobile source populations. Compilation of a mobile source emission inventory is conducive to the analysis of pollution emission characteristics and the formulation of emission reduction policies. This study summarizes the latest compilation approaches and data acquisition methods for mobile source emission inventories. For motor vehicles, a high-resolution emission inventory can be developed based on a bottom-up approach with a refined traffic flow model and real-world speed-coupled emission factors. The top-down approach has advantages when dealing with macroscale vehicle emission estimation without substantial traffic flow infrastructure. For nonroad mobile sources, nonroad machinery, inland river ships, locomotives, and civil aviation aircraft, a top-down approach based on fuel consumption or power is adopted. For ocean-going ships, a bottom-up approach based on automatic identification system (AIS) data is adopted. Three typical cases are studied, including emission reduction potential, a cost-benefit model, and marine shipping emission control. Outlooks and suggestions are given on future research directions for emission inventories for mobile sources: building localized emission models and factor databases, improving the dynamic updating capability of emission inventories, establishing a database of emission factors of unconventional pollutants and greenhouse gas from mobile sources, and establishing an urban high temporal-spatial resolution volatile organic compound (VOC) evaporation emission inventory.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Navios
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(23)2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36502097

RESUMO

In view of the low accuracy of the motion parameters generated by the typical ship trajectory generator, and the fact that the problem of wind, current and wave interference is not considered, this paper establishes a new ship trajectory generator by analyzing the changes in the ship's attitude and speed under different motion states. Through simulation, the accuracy of the main motion parameters is significantly improved compared with the typical trajectory generator; the time-varying non-uniform wind, current and wave fields are constructed, and the interference effect of wind, current and waves on ship motion is analyzed by combining the empirical formulas of force and moment; an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) based on wind, current and wave interference is designed, and the fuzzy rules of the fuzzy system are determined by training and testing the measured data; the motion parameters of superimposed wind, current and wave interference are compared with the measured data, and the accuracy is further improved after superimposing wind, current and wave interference.


Assuntos
Navios , Vento , Movimento (Física) , Simulação por Computador
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 21674, 2022 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36564396

RESUMO

Some of the heaviest snowfalls in urban areas in the world occur in Japan, particularly in regions that face the Japan Sea. Many heavy snowfalls are produced by a Japan Sea polar air mass convergence zone (JPCZ), which is an atmospheric river-like cloud zone that forms when Siberian cold air flows over the warm Japan Sea. Quantifying how the air-sea interaction strengthens the JPCZ is key to snowfall prediction. However, until our observations with hourly meteorological balloon launches from a training vessel in 2022, no simultaneous air-sea observations targeting the JPCZ had been conducted. Our observations showed that wind direction shifted drastically by about 90 degrees from the surface to an altitude of about 3.5 km within a narrow horizontal range of about 15 km, indicating airflow convergence from the surroundings. Maximum temperature difference between surface air (3 °C) and water was 11 °C near the JPCZ centre with 17 m s-1 wind speed. Large amounts of heat, 718 W m-2, was thus gained from the warm sea. Water vapour was also concentrated by the horizontal convergence, which caused heavy snow, equivalent to 100 cm of snowfall in 7 h. The surrounding sea greatly affects moisture formation within the JPCZ.


Assuntos
Navios , Vento , Japão , Oceanos e Mares , Estações do Ano
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(23)2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36501834

RESUMO

This paper presents a monitoring system designed to increase the safety of the quay structure in ferry terminals, in which, during berthing and unberthing maneuvers, propeller and thruster-generated jets may damage the seabed protection, threatening the stability of the berth structure. Direct measurement of flow velocity on the seabed is not possible due to the possibility of its damage, therefore dynamic pressure measurement of the quay wall was used within the system. The relationship between the pressure on the quay wall and flow velocity on the seabed was determined using real-scale CFD simulation of the flow field generated during berthing and unberthing maneuvers. The paper focuses on the computations of the pressure distribution generated by bow thrusters. These computations made it possible to determine the velocity field in the time domain. Their results, verified using real-scale measurements, are in line with generally accepted empirical methods.


Assuntos
Navios , Simulação por Computador
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(23)2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36501838

RESUMO

This paper presents experimental studies of the force generated on the rotating cylinder implemented as a bow rudder on a large-scale ship model. The research focused on the maneuverability of the unit equipped with a rotating cylinder (RC) in the front part of the model and its future use as a steering device on small draft river barges. The study presented in this paper is a continuation of the research carried out using the small physical model of a river push train in 1:20 geometric scale equipped with two bow RCs and open water tests of separated rotating cylinders carried out in a flume tank. The experimental test setup with RC installed on the model in 1:24 geometric scale allowed to compare the parameters of standard maneuvers performed with the use of RC and without it. The proposed method based on the measurement of the ship model trajectory during maneuvers allowed to compare the hydrodynamic steering force generated by RC with the steering force generated by the conventional stern spade rudder. The results of the experiments compared with empirical models show a similar trend. RC dynamics was tested for rotational speeds up to 570 RPM (revolutions per minute) and ship model velocity up to 1 m/s. The rotating cylinder generated velocity field is presented and phenomena influencing the generated hydrodynamic force are discussed.


Assuntos
Navios
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(23)2022 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36502238

RESUMO

In the context of new geopolitical tensions due to the current armed conflicts, safety in terms of navigation has been threatened due to the large number of sea mines placed, in particular, within the sea conflict areas. Additionally, since a large number of mines have recently been reported to have drifted into the territories of the Black Sea countries such as Romania, Bulgaria Georgia and Turkey, which have intense commercial and tourism activities in their coastal areas, the safety of those economic activities is threatened by possible accidents that may occur due to the above-mentioned situation. The use of deep learning in a military operation is widespread, especially for combating drones and other killer robots. Therefore, the present research addresses the detection of floating and underwater sea mines using images recorded from cameras (taken from drones, submarines, ships and boats). Due to the low number of sea mine images, the current research used both an augmentation technique and synthetic image generation (by overlapping images with different types of mines over water backgrounds), and two datasets were built (for floating mines and for underwater mines). Three deep learning models, respectively, YOLOv5, SSD and EfficientDet (YOLOv5 and SSD for floating mines and YOLOv5 and EfficientDet for underwater mines), were trained and compared. In the context of using three algorithm models, YOLO, SSD and EfficientDet, the new generated system revealed high accuracy in object recognition, namely the detection of floating and anchored mines. Moreover, tests carried out on portable computing equipment, such as Raspberry Pi, illustrated the possibility of including such an application for real-time scenarios, with the time of 2 s per frame being improved if devices use high-performance cameras.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Algoritmos , Navios , Romênia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36497671

RESUMO

Ballast water is a vector for the transfer of microorganisms between ecospheres that can subsequently have a negative impact on native species of aquatic fauna. In this study, we determined the microbiota and selected physicochemical properties of ballast water from long- and short-range ships entering a southern Baltic port within a large estuary in autumn and winter (Police, Poland). Microbiological tests of the ballast water samples were carried out according to ISO 6887-1, and physicochemical tests were performed according to standard methods. Low amounts of oxygen (1.6-3.10 mg/dm3 in autumn and 0.60-2.10 mg/dm3 in winter) were recorded in all ship ballast water samples, with pH (above 7.90) and PSU (above 1.20) were higher than in the port waters. Yeast, mold, Pseudomonas bacteria (including Pseudomonas fluorescens), and halophilic bacteria as well as lipolytic, amylolytic, and proteolytic bacteria were found in the ballast water samples. Heterotrophic bacteria and mold fungi (log. 2.45-3.26) dominated in the autumn period, while Pseudomonas bacteria (log. 3.32-4.40) dominated in the winter period. In addition, the ballast water samples taken during the autumn period were characterized by a statistically significantly higher (p < 0.1) abundance of microorganisms (log 1.97-2.55) than in the winter period (log 1.39-2.27).


Assuntos
Microbiota , Água , Navios , Microbiologia da Água , Estuários , Bactérias
16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 969231, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36530699

RESUMO

Background: A variety of factors influence seafarers' health. Such factors might affect their satisfaction with life. Aims: To examine the relationships between seafarers' mental health status and satisfaction with life by using a structural equation method. Methods: In this survey, 470 seafarers were selected via convenience sampling method from two shipping companies. Validated questionnaires including Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), generalized anxiety disorder-7 (GAD-7), Post-traumatic Stress Disorder-8 (PTSD-8), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), Perceived Health status and Depression-Anxiety-Stress scale-21 (DASS-21) were used to assess different aspects of well-being and life satisfaction. The stratified path analysis method was applied to analyze the data. Results: 439 seafarers (200 officers and 237 non-officers) with a mean age of 34.5 (SD: 8.05) participated in the current study. The GHQ score directly affected satisfaction with life in both officers (ß = 0.35) and non-officers (ß = 0.40). Also, perceived health status directly and indirectly affected satisfaction with life among officers (ß = 0.19) and non-officers (ß = 0.06). While officers working days per month indirectly impacted satisfaction with life through the general anxiety disorder, perceived health status, depression, anxiety, stress and current mental health. In non-officers, generalized anxiety disorder had the most potent indirect effects on satisfaction with life through perceived health status and current mental health. Conclusion: Perceived health status, directly and indirectly, affected seafarers' satisfaction with life. Measures should be taken in order to improve seafarers' perceived health status and its effects on satisfaction with life.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Navios , Humanos , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Nível de Saúde
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(24)2022 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36559952

RESUMO

Illegal transshipment of maritime ships is usually closely related to illegal activities such as smuggling, human trafficking, piracy plunder, and illegal fishing. Intelligent identification of illegal transshipment has become an important technical means to ensure the safety of maritime transport. However, due to different geographical environments, legal policies and regulatory requirements in each sea area, there are differences in the movement characteristics and geographical distribution of illegal transshipment behavior in different time and space. Moreover, in areas with dense traffic flow, normal navigation behavior can easily be identified as illegal transshipment, resulting in a high rate of misidentification. This paper proposes a hybrid rule-based and data-driven approach to solve the problem of missing identification in fixed threshold methods and introduces a traffic density feature to reduce the misidentification rate in dense traffic areas. The method is both interpretable and adaptable through unsupervised clustering to get suitable threshold distribution combination for regulatory sea areas. The evaluation results in two different sea areas show that the proposed method is applicable. Compared with other widely used identification methods, this method identifies more illegal transshipment events, which are highly suspicious, and gives warning much earlier. The proposed method can even filter out misidentification events from compared methods' results, which account for more than half of the total number.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Navios , Humanos
18.
Int Marit Health ; 73(4): 181-188, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36583405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The third edition of the International Medical Guide for Ships (IMGS) was published in 2007 and supported a main principle of the newly adopted International Maritime Labour Convention (MLC) 2006: to ensure that seafarers are given health protection and medical care as comparable as possible to that which is available to workers ashore. In 2021, the revisions and drafting of the fourth edition of the IMGS began. Taking the COVID-19 pandemic into consideration, it was decided that a stakeholder study was necessary to ascertain the usefulness and practicality of the guide as well as provide input for which new topics to include. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study applied data triangulation, with respondents from a geographically broad sample of the International Maritime Organization's five regional areas of the world. The data was analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: The results show that the IMGS is widely known and used among persons involved in medical care on board ships, but the IMGS is not as practical as stakeholders would wish it to be. For the guide to be useful, it must be ensured that telemedical advice information is included and if possible, ensure there is one single and global medical guide. Also, there is a need for new medical information, and respondents pointed to pandemic information, medicines list, medical chest, mental health issues, a women's section, updated cardiopulmonary resuscitation instructions, human immune defect virus information (human immune defect-virus) and information on how seafarers may self-monitor and be monitored on board in relation to chronic diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Respondents understand a medicine chest on board is mandatory according to the MLC 2006, 98% are familiar with its content, and 86% use the IMGS.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Medicina Naval , Saúde do Trabalhador , Humanos , Feminino , Navios , Pandemias
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