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1.
Transplantation ; 104(7): 1305-1307, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568998
2.
J Vasc Surg ; 72(4): 1166-1172, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454232

RESUMO

Singapore was one of the first countries to be affected by COVID-19, with the index patient diagnosed on January 23, 2020. For 2 weeks in February, we had the highest number of COVID-19 cases behind China. In this article, we summarize the key national and institutional policies that were implemented in response to COVID-19. We also describe in detail, with relevant data, how our vascular surgery practice has changed because of these policies and COVID-19. We show that with a segregated team model, the vascular surgery unit can still function while reducing risk of cross-contamination. We explain the various strategies adopted to reduce outpatient and inpatient volume. We provide a detailed breakdown of the type of vascular surgical cases that were performed during the COVID-19 pandemic and compare it with preceding months. We discuss our operating room and personal protective equipment protocols in managing a COVID-19 patient and share how we continue surgical training amid the pandemic. We also discuss the challenges we might face in the future as COVID-19 regresses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Formulação de Políticas , Centros de Atenção Terciária/legislação & jurisprudência , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/legislação & jurisprudência , Assistência Ambulatorial/legislação & jurisprudência , Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Departamentos Hospitalares/legislação & jurisprudência , Departamentos Hospitalares/organização & administração , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Saúde do Trabalhador/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/legislação & jurisprudência , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Segurança do Paciente/legislação & jurisprudência , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Singapura/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/organização & administração , Carga de Trabalho/legislação & jurisprudência
3.
J Vasc Surg ; 72(4): 1161-1165, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360683

RESUMO

The appropriate focus in managing the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States has been addressing access and delivery of care to the population affected by the outbreak. All sectors of the U.S. economy have been significantly affected, including physicians. Physician groups of all specialties and sizes have experienced the financial effects of the pandemic. Hospitals have received billions of dollars to support and enable them to manage emergencies and cover the costs of the disruption. However, many vascular surgeons are under great financial pressure because of the postponement of all nonemergency procedures. The federal government has announced a myriad of programs in the form of grants and loans to reimburse physicians for some of their expenses and loss of revenue. It is more than likely that unless the public health emergency subsides significantly, many practices will experience dire consequences without additional financial assistance. We have attempted to provide a concise listing of such programs and resources available to assist vascular surgeons who are small businesses in accessing these opportunities.


Assuntos
Agendamento de Consultas , Compensação e Reparação , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/economia , Renda , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde/economia , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Cirurgiões/economia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/economia , Compensação e Reparação/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/legislação & jurisprudência , Financiamento Governamental/economia , Financiamento Governamental/legislação & jurisprudência , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/economia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Formulação de Políticas , Cirurgiões/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/legislação & jurisprudência
4.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eGS5129, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939526

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Economic evaluation of a scientific advisory program with the Public Defenders Office to mitigate the impacts of the judicialization on health in the municipality, as well as the implementation of an active follow-up program to monitor health outcomes arising from court demands. METHODS: A two-step study, the first documental, retrospective, with data collection of lawsuits in the region of Barbalha (CE), Brazil, from 2013 to 2018, and the second stage, prospective and intervention, through mediation between the citizen and the Public Defenders Office, aiming to reduce the occurrence of the judicialization, and the monitoring of the health outcomes of the processes. The study adopted the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards protocol for economic health assessments. The data obtained from the processes were grouped and treated for characterization of the scenario. A comparison of the profile of the lawsuits in the period of 12 months before and after the installation of the program to delimit a complete fiscal cycle was carried out. RESULTS: The advisory service promoted a decrease of 40% (p=0.01) in lawsuits. There was a 31% reduction in court costs (p=0.003), with medicines accounting for 33% of this amount. There was a decrease in inputs outside the Sistema Único de Saúde lists (27%; p=0.003), however there was no statistical difference among several demanding groups, suggesting an equanimous approach. CONCLUSION: Data from the initial survey were comparable to those reported in Brazil regarding the profile of judicial demands. In view of the scenario, the proposal proved feasible as a means to mitigate the costs of the judicialization through mediation. Finally, the initiative can serve as a model for adoption by municipalities that have characteristics similar to those presented in this study.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Função Jurisdicional , Brasil , Cidades , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
5.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eGS4442, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the legal demands of tiotropium bromide to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS: We included secondary data from the pharmaceutical care management systems made available by the Paraná State Drug Center. RESULTS: Public interest civil action and ordinary procedures, among others, were the most common used by the patients to obtain the medicine. Two Health Centers in Paraná (Londrina and Umuarama) concentrated more than 50% of the actions. The most common specialty of physicians who prescribed (33.8%) was pulmonology. There is a small financial impact of tiotropium bromide on general costs with medicines of the Paraná State Drug Center. However, a significant individual financial impact was observed because one unit of the medicine represents 38% of the Brazilian minimum wage. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the need of incorporating this medicine in the class of long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilator in the Brazilian public health system.


Assuntos
Broncodilatadores/economia , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribução , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Função Jurisdicional , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/economia , Brometo de Tiotrópio/economia , Brasil , Medicamentos Essenciais/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/economia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo
7.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 19(1): 41, 2019 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Precarious status migrants are a group of persons who are vulnerable, heterogeneous, and often suspicious of research teams. They are underrepresented in population-based research projects, and strategies to recruit them are described exclusively in terms of a single cultural group. We analyzed the recruitment strategies implemented during a research project aimed at understanding precarious status migrants' health status and healthcare access in Montreal, Canada. The research sample consisted of 854 persons recruited from a variety of ethnocultural communities between June 2016 and September 2017. This article analyzes the strategies implemented by the research team to respond to the challenges of that recruitment, and assess the effectiveness of those strategies. Based on the results, we share the lessons learned with a view to increasing precarious status migrants' representation in research. METHOD: A mixed sequential design was used to combine qualitative data gathered from members of the research team at a reflexive workshop (n = 16) and in individual interviews (n = 15) with qualitative and quantitative data collected using the conceptual mapping method (n = 10). RESULTS: The research team encountered challenges in implementing the strategies, related to the identification of the target population, the establishment of community partnerships, and suspicion on the part of the individuals approached. The combination of a venue-based sampling method, a communications strategy, and the snowball sampling method was key to the recruitment. Linking people with resources that could help them was useful in obtaining their effective and non-instrumental participation in the study. Creating a diverse and multicultural team helped build trust with participants. However, the strategy of matching the ethnocultural identity of the interviewer with that of the respondent was not systematically effective. CONCLUSION: The interviewers' experience and their understanding of the issue are important factors to take into consideration in future research. More over, the development of a community resource guide tailored to the needs of participants should be major components of any research project targeting migrants. Finally, strategies should be implemented as the result of a continuous reflexive process among all members of the research team.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pacientes , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Projetos de Pesquisa , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Canadá , Comunicação , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Migrantes/legislação & jurisprudência , Migrantes/psicologia
8.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210350, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615663

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic respiratory diseases in Tanzania are prevalent and a silent burden to the affected population, and healthcare system. We aimed to explore the availability of services and level of health facilities readiness to provide management of chronic respiratory diseases and its associated factors. METHODS: The current study is a secondary analysis of the 2014-2015 Tanzania Service Provision Assessment Survey data. Facilities were considered to have a high readiness to provide management of chronic respiratory diseases if they scored at least half (≥50%) of the indicators listed in each of the three domains (staff training and guideline, equipment, and basic medicines) as identified by World Health Organization-Service Availability and Readiness Assessment manual. Descriptive, unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed. A P value < 0.05 was taken to indicate statistical significance. RESULTS: Out of 723 facilities included in this analysis, approximately one-tenth had a high readiness to provide management of chronic respiratory diseases. Less than 10% of the facilities had at least one staff who received training for management of chronic respiratory diseases. In an adjusted model, privately owned facilities [AOR = 3.3; 95% CI, 1.5-7.5], hospitals [AOR = 11.6; 95% CI, 5.0-27.2], health centres [AOR = 5.0; 95% CI, 2.4-10.7], and performance of routine management meeting [AOR = 3.3; 95% CI, 1.4-7.8] were significantly associated with high readiness to provide management for chronic respiratory diseases. CONCLUSION: Majority of Tanzanian health facilities have low readiness to provide management for chronic respiratory diseases. There is a need for the Tanzanian government to increase the availability of diagnostic equipment, medication, and to provide refresher training specifically in the lower-level and public health facilities for better management of chronic respiratory diseases and other non-communicable diseases.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Instalações de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Transtornos Respiratórios/epidemiologia , Transtornos Respiratórios/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Instalações de Saúde/normas , Instalações de Saúde/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
9.
Med Law Rev ; 27(2): 295-317, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30102359

RESUMO

Human rights discourse on the rights of transgender people has to a large extent focused on access to correction of legal gender and medical preconditions for this change. Jurisdictions across the world are now beginning to free legal gender recognition from medical interventions and examinations. State bodies have, however, done little to realise the rights of transgender people to adequate healthcare. A key issue is whether international law obliges states to ensure access to trans-specific healthcare. This article examines the right to healthcare appropriate to transgender persons' needs. Drawing on in-depth interviews with transgender people living in Norway, it investigates how individuals explain their needs for trans-specific healthcare. It shows that Norwegian healthcare practice uses the diagnosis of 'transsexualism' to determine a person's needs for trans-specific healthcare and as such excludes many from receiving the healthcare they need. The article analyses whether trans-specific healthcare falls within the ambit of the right to health under Article 12 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), and the right to necessary healthcare under the Norwegian Patients' Rights Act. It concludes that the Norwegian authorities are obliged to provide equal access to adequate trans-specific healthcare to those who need it.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Direito à Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoas Transgênero/legislação & jurisprudência , Transexualidade/diagnóstico , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Equidade em Saúde/normas , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/normas , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/normas , Humanos , Direito Internacional , Masculino , Noruega , Direito à Saúde/normas , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Transexualidade/psicologia , Transexualidade/terapia
10.
Lancet Oncol ; 19(12): e709-e719, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507437

RESUMO

Medical devices are indispensable for cancer management across the entire cancer care continuum, yet many existing medical interventions are not equally accessible to the global population, contributing to disparate mortality rates between countries with different income levels. Improved access to priority medical technologies is required to implement universal health coverage and deliver high-quality cancer care. However, the selection of appropriate medical devices at all income and hospital levels has been difficult because of the extremely large number of devices needed for the full spectrum of cancer care; the wide variety of options within the medical device sector, ranging from small inexpensive disposable devices to sophisticated diagnostic imaging and treatment units; and insufficient in-country expertise, in many countries, to prioritise cancer interventions and to determine associated technologies. In this Policy Review, we describe the methods, process, and outcome of a WHO initiative to define a list of priority medical devices for cancer management. The methods, approved by the WHO Guidelines Review Committee, can be used as a model approach for future endeavours to define and select medical devices for disease management. The resulting list provides ready-to-use guidance for the selection of devices to establish, maintain, and operate necessary clinical units within the continuum of care for six cancer types, with the goal of promoting efficient resource allocation and increasing access to priority medical devices, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Legislação de Dispositivos Médicos , Oncologia/instrumentação , Oncologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/terapia , Formulação de Políticas , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Regulamentação Governamental , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Segurança do Paciente/legislação & jurisprudência
12.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (44): 73-88, nov. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-176790

RESUMO

La escasez de órganos es un problema global constante, aun cuando se presentan diversas alternativas para superar ese problema que genera miles de muertes cada año. El presente artículo analiza los problemas éticos y jurídicos del mercado regulado de órganos, partiendo del modelo de donación recompensada de riñones en vida entre no parientes, implantado en Irán en 1988. Para ello, se realizarán algunos apuntes históricos, pasando por la presentación de los procedimientos y características de dicho modelo, concluyendo con sus principales resultados, aciertos y errores. Al final, adoptando una base empírica como punto de partida, se pretende contribuir con el debate teórico que existe en torno a esa polémica alternativa


Organ shortage is a constant, global problem, even though various alternatives are presented to overcome a problem that generates thousands of deaths every year. This article analyses the ethical and legal issues of the regulated organ market, based on the model of rewarded donation of living kidneys among non-relatives, introduced in Iran in 1988. To this purpose, some historical notes will be made, including a presentation of the procedures and characteristics of the Iranian model, concluding with its main results, successes and errors. In the end, adopting an empirical basis as a starting point, the aim is to contribute to the theoretical debate that exists around this controversial alternative


L'escassetat d'òrgans és un problema global constant, tot i que es presenten diverses alternatives per superar aquest problema que genera milers de morts cada any. El present article analitza els problemes ètics i jurídics del mercat regulat d'òrgans, partint del model de donació recompensada de ronyons en vida entre no parents implantat a Iran en 1988. A tal fi, es realitzaran algunes anotacions històriques, passant per la presentació dels procediments i característiques d'aquest model i concloent amb els seus principals resultats, encerts i errors. Adoptant una base empírica com a punt de partida, el que es pretén és intervenir en el debat teòric que existeix a l’entorn d'aquesta polèmica alternativa


Assuntos
Humanos , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/ética , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/legislação & jurisprudência , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/ética , Doação Dirigida de Tecido/ética , Doação Dirigida de Tecido/legislação & jurisprudência , Irã (Geográfico) , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/ética , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Diálise Renal/ética , Transplante de Rim/ética
15.
Am J Law Med ; 44(1): 119-144, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29764321

RESUMO

A component of the 1965 Medicaid Act, the Institutions for Mental Diseases ("IMD") Exclusion was supposed to be a remedy for the brutal, dysfunctional mental healthcare system run through state hospitals. In the years since Medicaid was created, the IMD Exclusion has instead barred thousands of those in need of intensive, inpatient treatment from receiving it. As a result, many severely mentally ill individuals are left without adequate care and without a home. They struggle in the street where they are otherized by those in their community and are susceptible to confrontational episodes with law enforcement. Many are ultimately incarcerated, where they are thrust into an abusive environment known to exacerbate mental health issues. This Note's central contention is that the IMD Exclusion creates an access gap for the poorest Americans who suffer from mental illness. Subsequently, prisons and jails fill that gap to the detriment of those individuals. The Note will proceed first by explaining the IMD Exclusion and how it applies to state-run medical care services and facilities. This Note will discuss the nationwide movement, in the 1950s through the 1960s and '70s, to deinstitutionalize notoriously abusive state psychiatric hospitals, a movement that culminated in the passage of the Medicaid Act in 1965, along with the IMD Exclusion. This Note will then shift focus to criticize the practical effects of the IMD Exclusion and its extensive role in the mass incarceration issue today. In doing so, this Note will identify the major weaknesses of the IMD Exclusion and explain how these weaknesses create an access gap for mentally ill persons, while simultaneously making them more vulnerable to contact with the police and the criminal justice system.


Assuntos
Desinstitucionalização/legislação & jurisprudência , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Prisioneiros/legislação & jurisprudência , Desinstitucionalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões/legislação & jurisprudência , Administração em Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos
17.
Wiad Lek ; 71(3 pt 2): 772-776, 2018.
Artigo em Ucraniano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29783265

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The development of international legal cooperation in the field of health has largely been driven by the trade interests of states. The aim: The article analyzes the legal regulation of the circulation of medicines through the prism of the law of the World Trade Organization. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Using the historical legal method has allowed to analyze the genesis of legal regulation of the circulation of medicines through the prism of the law of the World Trade Organization. The dialectical method is widely used, in particular, when it comes to the issue of the ratio of market regulation of medicines circulation and public health protection, the formal logic method, in particular, in formulating the general principles, principles and methods of legal regulation in the field of medicines, as well as the systemic method, in particular, in defining the institutional component of legal regulation in the field of medicines. RESULTS: Review: The activities of the WTO include several areas related to health protection: international control over infectious diseases, international legal regulation of food safety (food security), tobacco control, environmental protection, international legal aspects of access and treatment of medicinal and pharmaceutical products, international legal regulation of medical services provision. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: It is proved that the right to health is a right to access to medicines. However, for many developing countries, it is problematic to obtain patents for the production of necessary medicines or to pay a license fee, which creates a barrier to the realization of the right to health.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Indústria Farmacêutica/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Global , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Direitos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional
18.
Lancet ; 391(10133): 1953-1964, 2018 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29550030

RESUMO

Modern, affordable pathology and laboratory medicine (PALM) systems are essential to achieve the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals for health in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). In this last in a Series of three papers about PALM in LMICs, we discuss the policy environment and emphasise three crucial high-level actions that are needed to deliver universal health coverage. First, nations need national strategic laboratory plans; second, these plans require adequate financing for implementation; and last, pathologists themselves need to take on leadership roles to advocate for the centrality of PALM to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals for health. The national strategic laboratory plan should deliver a tiered, networked laboratory system as a central element. Appropriate financing should be provided, at a level of at least 4% of health expenditure. Financing of new technologies such as molecular diagnostics is challenging for LMICs, even though many of these tests are cost-effective. Point-of-care testing can substantially reduce test-reporting time, but this benefit must be balanced with higher costs. Our research analysis highlights a considerable deficiency in advocacy for PALM; pathologists have been invisible in national and international health discourse and leadership. Embedding PALM in LMICs can only be achieved if pathologists advocate for these services, and undertake leadership roles, both nationally and internationally. We articulate eight key recommendations to address the current barriers identified in this Series and issue a call to action for all stakeholders to come together in a global alliance to ensure the effective provision of PALM services in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito/economia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/legislação & jurisprudência , Países em Desenvolvimento , Educação em Saúde , Gastos em Saúde , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Patologistas , Pobreza , Saúde Pública , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência
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