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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445145

RESUMO

The main goal of growing plants under various photoperiods is to optimize photosynthesis for using the effect of day length that often acts on plants in combination with biotic and/or abiotic stresses. In this study, Brassica juncea plants were grown under four different day-length regimes, namely., 8 h day/16 h night, 12 h day/12 h night, 16 h day/8 h night, and continuous light, and were infected with a necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. The development of necroses on B. juncea leaves was strongly influenced by leaf position and day length. The largest necroses were formed on plants grown under a 16 h day/8 h night photoperiod at 72 h post-inoculation (hpi). The implemented day-length regimes had a great impact on leaf morphology in response to A. brassicicola infection. They also influenced the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents and photosynthesis efficiency. Both the 1st (the oldest) and 3rd infected leaves showed significantly higher minimal fluorescence (F0) compared to the control leaves. Significantly lower values of other investigated chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, e.g., maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), were observed in both infected leaves compared to the control, especially at 72 hpi. The oldest infected leaf, of approximately 30% of the B. juncea plants, grown under long-day and continuous light conditions showed a 'green island' phenotype in the form of a green ring surrounding an area of necrosis at 48 hpi. This phenomenon was also reflected in changes in the chloroplast's ultrastructure and accelerated senescence (yellowing) in the form of expanding chlorosis. Further research should investigate the mechanism and physiological aspects of 'green islands' formation in this pathosystem.


Assuntos
Alternaria/patogenicidade , Mostardeira/microbiologia , Mostardeira/fisiologia , Necrose/microbiologia , Necrose/patologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Necrose/metabolismo , Fotoperíodo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia
2.
Avian Dis ; 65(1): 132-137, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339132

RESUMO

Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a common disease that causes great economic loss to the broiler industry due to mortality and reduced performance. Although Clostridium perfringens (CP) is a necessary component of this disease, coccidia species are a well-defined predisposing factor that exacerbates the condition. Different Eimeria species have been reported to influence NE to different degrees. In a pair of experiments, six different Eimeria species were evaluated in the presence and absence of C. perfringens. Male broiler chicks were housed in battery cages for the duration of both experiments. Feed conversion, body weight gain, and NE mortality were reported in both experiments. Experiment 1 challenged birds with E. maxima, E. acervulina, E. tenella, E. necatrix, and E. brunetti at day 13 and subsequently inoculated birds with CP on days 18, 19, and 20. In the second experiment, E. maxima, E. acervulina, E. tenella, and E. praecox were inoculated on day 15 and challenged with CP on days 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, and 22 of the experiment. In the first experiment, E. acervulina, E. brunetti, E. maxima, and E. necatrix with the addition of CP all stimulated necrotic enteritis mortality. In the second experiment, E. praecox had minimal impact on performance during the challenge (14-23 days) while E. maxima + CP decreased body weight gain and increased mortality compared to the CP alone control. Eimeria maxima had the highest mortality (21.9%) in this experiment followed by E. acervulina (6.3%). The remaining Eimeria with added CP in the second experiment did not induce NE mortality. While the challenge with CP alone did not induce mortality, feed conversion was increased compared to the unchallenged control group. When using isolated Eimeria species in these experiments, disturbances created by E. brunetti and E. maxima resulted in the most-severe challenges. These experiments highlight the NE risk of these species of Eimeria and give insight into how other species interact with the host in a controlled CP challenge model.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/fisiologia , Enterite/veterinária , Necrose/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Clostridium perfringens/fisiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Enterite/microbiologia , Enterite/parasitologia , Masculino , Necrose/microbiologia , Necrose/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
Vet J ; 271: 105655, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840482

RESUMO

Porcine ear necrosis (PEN) is a condition that mainly occurs in intensive pig production systems and mostly affects piglets after weaning. The syndrome manifests itself with lesions on the pinna, which can heal or become more severe resulting in partial loss of the ear. The pathogenesis of the condition is not fully known. Three different hypotheses for the development of PEN are described in this review: (1) damage of the epidermis due to Staphylococcal exfoliative toxins; (2) occlusion of small blood vessels; and (3) ear biting with subsequent ß-hemolytic streptococcal infection. Risk factors have not been completely elucidated, but viral and bacterial infections, and husbandry factors such as environment, housing conditions and management, have been suggested. It is also possible that some cases are due to a combination of these factors. The role of parasitic infestations has been not investigated. Due to bacterial involvement, severely affected pigs can be treated with antimicrobials. Control and preventive measures should focus on reducing potential risk factors by implementing herd immunization, as well as improvement of sanitary conditions, feed quality (with respect to mycotoxin contamination), management (appropriate stocking density), and environmental conditions (e.g. number of drinkers and feeders and/or optimal ventilation). Further research is needed to better understand the precise etiology and pathogenesis of PEN, so that risk factors can be identified and more targeted control measures can be implemented.


Assuntos
Orelha/patologia , Necrose/veterinária , Sus scrofa , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Abrigo para Animais , Infecções/veterinária , Necrose/microbiologia , Necrose/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/etiologia , Desmame
4.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100806, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516484

RESUMO

A reliable and reproducible in vivo experimental model is an essential tool to study the pathogenesis of broiler necrotic enteritis and to evaluate control methods. Most current in vivo models use Eimeria as predisposing factor. Nevertheless, most models only result in a limited number of animals with intestinal necrosis. This research describes the necrotic enteritis incidence and severity using 2 previously described experimental models varying in the time point and frequency of Eimeria administration: single late and early repeated Eimeria administration models. In an in vivo model in which Clostridium perfringens is administered at 3 consecutive days between day 18 and 20 of age, birds belonging to the single late Eimeria administration regimen received a single administration of a tenfold dose of a live attenuated Eimeria vaccine on the second day of C. perfringens challenge. Broilers belonging to the early repeated administration regimen were inoculated with the same Eimeria vaccine 4 and 2 d before the start of the C. perfringens challenge. Early repeated coccidial administration resulted in a significant increase in average necrotic lesion score (value 3.26) as compared with a single late Eimeria administration regimen (value 1.2). In addition, the number of necrotic enteritis-positive animals was significantly higher in the group that received the early repeated coccidial administration. Single Eimeria administration during C. perfringens challenge resulted in a skewed distribution of lesion scoring with hardly any birds in the high score categories. A more centered distribution was obtained with the early repeated Eimeria administration regimen, having observations in every lesion score category. These findings allow better standardization of a subclinical necrotic enteritis model and reduction of the required numbers of experimental animals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Clostridium , Coccidiose , Enterite , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Clostridium perfringens , Coccidiose/microbiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Enterite/microbiologia , Enterite/parasitologia , Enterite/veterinária , Necrose/microbiologia , Necrose/parasitologia , Necrose/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Vacinas Protozoárias/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 108: 73-79, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285163

RESUMO

A unique strain of Vibrio harveyi is the causative agent of scale drop and muscle necrosis disease (SDMND) in Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer). This study investigated the protein profiles of SDMND-causing Vibrio harveyi isolates compared to the reference V. harveyi ATCC 14126 strain. A distinct protein band of 33 kDa, namely HP33, found from only V. harveyi SDMND was subjected to analysis by LC-MS/MS and the identified peptide sequences matched to an unknown hypothetical protein. Detection of HP33 coding sequence was investigated at both genomic and transcriptional levels and the results consistently supported the protein analysis. Recombinant HP33 protein was then produced using Escherichia coli system. The rHP33 protein did not cause mortality or visible clinical signs to Asian sea bass. However, the rHP33 protein was able to stimulate antibody response in Asian sea bass as evidenced by Western blotting and agglutination tests. Here, we proposed that rHP33 might be a good protein target for development of subunit vaccine and/or immunostimulant to protect Asian sea bass from SDMND.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Bass , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Necrose/veterinária , Vibrioses/veterinária , Vibrio/imunologia , Escamas de Animais/patologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Doenças Musculares/imunologia , Doenças Musculares/microbiologia , Doenças Musculares/veterinária , Necrose/imunologia , Necrose/microbiologia , Vibrio/genética , Vibrioses/imunologia , Vibrioses/microbiologia
6.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334767

RESUMO

An 83-year-old man with a history of chronic myelogenous leukaemia in remission maintained with bosutinib presented with new-onset fevers. He denied pain and had no other focal symptoms. Ultrasound imaging revealed mild gallbladder wall thickening. Non-contrasted CT revealed right upper quadrant inflammation of indeterminate source. The diagnosis of acalculous cholecystitis was made on the third day when a CT with oral contrast demonstrated a remarkably inflamed biliary tree. The gallbladder was surgically removed and found to be necrotic. The case highlights an unusual presentation for a well-known condition. Both ultrasound and CT have limited diagnostic sensitivity for acalculous cystitis. This case adds to existing literature to support development of acalculous cholecystitis in non-critically ill patients. Clinicians should maintain awareness of this condition among patients presenting to the hospital or clinic with abdominal pain. Careful discussion with radiology and surgery is indicated to guide diagnostic testing when initial imaging results are indeterminate.


Assuntos
Colecistite Acalculosa/diagnóstico , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Febre/microbiologia , Vesícula Biliar/patologia , Colecistite Acalculosa/complicações , Colecistite Acalculosa/microbiologia , Colecistite Acalculosa/terapia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Colecistectomia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Febre/sangue , Febre/imunologia , Febre/terapia , Vesícula Biliar/diagnóstico por imagem , Vesícula Biliar/microbiologia , Vesícula Biliar/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Necrose/complicações , Necrose/diagnóstico , Necrose/microbiologia , Necrose/terapia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(8)2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816933

RESUMO

A 79-year-old man with liver failure, hypertension and hyperlipidemia presented with a 1.5-month history of progressive nasal crusting and pain on the inside of the nose, advancing into a necrotic columella and philtrum. On rigid endoscopy, debris extended to middle and inferior turbinate to midway posteriorly. Initial culture swabs and CT were negative. The patient underwent endoscopic biopsy of the lesion, with histopathological findings revealing abundant acute inflammation and minute fragments of atypical squamous epithelium, favouring reactive atypia. Non-invasive fungal hyphae were identified. Bacterial cultures revealed Staphylococcus epidermidis, Corynebacterium accolens, Curvularia species and Pseudomonas putida A current literature search failed to find other published cases of P. putida nasal infections. P. putida is generally difficult to isolate on swab culture as the surrounding tissue is necrosed; this case highlights the importance of reconsidering bacterial infection and obtaining a tissue biopsy in the case of non-healing necrotic-appearing tissue with negative culture swab and CT without evidence of mass.


Assuntos
Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Falência Hepática Aguda/imunologia , Necrose/microbiologia , Nariz/microbiologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/diagnóstico , Pseudomonas putida/isolamento & purificação , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Masculino , Nariz/patologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/complicações , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/patologia
8.
J Surg Res ; 256: 187-192, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) are life-threatening surgical emergencies associated with high morbidity and mortality. Fungal NSTIs are considered rare and have been largely understudied. The purpose of this study was to study the impact of fungal NSTIs and antifungal therapy on mortality after NSTIs. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on patients with NSTIs from 2012 to 2018. Patient baseline characteristics, microbiologic data, antimicrobial therapy, and clinical outcomes were collected. Patients were excluded if they had comfort care before excision. The primary outcome measured was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 215 patients met study criteria with a fungal species identified in 29 patients (13.5%). The most prevalent fungal organism was Candida tropicalis (n = 11). Fungal NSTIs were more prevalent in patients taking immunosuppressive medications (17.2% versus 3.2%, P = 0.01). A fungal NSTI was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 3.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-8.40; P = 0.02). Furthermore, fungal NSTI patients had longer lengths of stay (32 d [interquartile range, 16-53] versus 19 d [interquartile range, 11-31], P < 0.01), more likely to require initiation of renal replacement therapy (24.1% versus 8.6%, P = 0.02), and more likely to require mechanical ventilation (64.5% versus 42.0%, P = 0.02). Initiation of antifungals was associated with a significantly lower rate of in-hospital mortality (6.7% versus 57.1%, P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Fungal NSTIs are more common in patients taking immunosuppressive medications and are significantly associated with in-hospital mortality. Antifungal therapy is associated with decreased in-hospital mortality in those with fungal NSTIs. Consideration should be given to adding antifungals in empiric treatment regimens, especially in those taking immunosuppressive medications.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Micoses/terapia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/terapia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Adulto , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Terapia Combinada/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/complicações , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/mortalidade , Necrose/microbiologia , Necrose/mortalidade , Necrose/terapia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/complicações , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/microbiologia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1160-1169, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486923

RESUMO

Candida auris is an emerging worldwide concern, but comparative data about the virulence of different C. auris lineages in mammalian hosts is lacking. Different isolates of the four prevalent C. auris clades (South Asian n = 5, East Asian n = 4, South African n = 5, and South American n = 5) were compared to assess their virulence in a neutropenic murine bloodstream infection model with C. albicans as reference. C. auris, regardless of clade, proved to be less virulent than C. albicans. Highest overall mortality at day 21 was observed for the South American clade (96%), followed by the South Asian (80%), South African (45%) and East Asian (44%) clades. Fungal burden results showed close correlation with lethality. Histopathological examination revealed large aggregates of blastoconidia and budding yeast cells in the hearts, kidneys and livers but not in the spleens. The myocardium of apparently healthy sacrificed mice as well as of mice found moribund showed contraction band necrosis in case of all lineages. Regardless of clade, the heart and kidneys were the most heavily affected organs. Isolates of the same clade showed differences in virulence in mice, but a markedly higher virulence of the South American clade was clearly demonstrated.


Assuntos
Candida/patogenicidade , Candidemia/microbiologia , Neutropenia/microbiologia , Animais , Antifúngicos , Carga Bacteriana , Candida/classificação , Candida albicans/patogenicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Coração/microbiologia , Rim/microbiologia , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Necrose/microbiologia , Virulência
11.
Res Vet Sci ; 132: 142-149, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575030

RESUMO

With the voluntary and regulatory withdrawal of antibiotic growth promoters from animal feed, coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis (NE) emerge as the top two enteric poultry infectious diseases responsible for major economic loss worldwide. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between the cecal microbiota compositions with the growth trait after coccidiosis and NE. In this study, the effects of Eimeria maxima and/or Clostridium perfringens infections on the microbial composition and potential correlation with the body weight gain were investigated in broiler chickens using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. E. maxima and C. perfringens coinfection successfully induced NE with its typical gut lesions and significant reductions in the percentage of relative body weight gain (RBWG%). The NE challenge model did not affect cecal microbial diversity, but influenced the cecal microbial composition. KEGG enzymes in microbiota were significantly altered in abundance following dual infections. Furthermore, significant correlations between cecal microbiota modules and RBWG% were identified in the sham control, E. maxima or C. perfringens infected groups. Understanding of host-microbiota interaction in NE would enhance the development of antibiotics-independent strategies to reduce the harmful effect of NE on the gut microbiota structure, and improve the gut health and poultry production.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coinfecção/veterinária , Enterite/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/fisiopatologia , Ganho de Peso , Animais , Ceco/microbiologia , Ceco/parasitologia , Ceco/patologia , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/fisiopatologia , Clostridium perfringens/fisiologia , Coccidiose/microbiologia , Coccidiose/fisiopatologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Coinfecção/patologia , Eimeria/fisiologia , Enterite/microbiologia , Enterite/parasitologia , Enterite/patologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Necrose/microbiologia , Necrose/parasitologia , Necrose/patologia , Necrose/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA de Protozoário/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
12.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(2): 407-415, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549572

RESUMO

Over a period of 5 mo, seven out of eight American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) housed on a spring-fed pond at a zoo died or were euthanized. Clinical signs included inability to stand, anorexia, and weight loss. Clinicopathologic findings included heterophilic leukocytosis and elevated creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase. Histopathologic findings on all pelicans demonstrated severe, chronic, diffuse rhabdomyofiber degeneration and necrosis, making vitamin E deficiency a differential diagnosis despite routine supplementation. Based on tissue and pond water assays for the cyanobacterial toxin, microcystin, toxicosis is suspected as the inciting cause of death in these cases. We hypothesize that vitamin E exhaustion and resultant rhabdomyodegeneration and cardiomyopathy were sequelae to this toxicosis.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Aves , Microcistinas/envenenamento , Necrose/veterinária , Envenenamento/mortalidade , Envenenamento/veterinária , Alabama/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves/mortalidade , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Masculino , Necrose/diagnóstico , Necrose/microbiologia , Necrose/mortalidade , Envenenamento/complicações , Envenenamento/diagnóstico
13.
Virulence ; 11(1): 840-848, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543985

RESUMO

Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTI) progress to severe necrosis and result in fatal sepsis within a short time. Vibrio vulnificus is a causative agent and can spread from the initial infection site through soft tissue finally to the systemic circulation of the host. The motility and chemotaxis of this bacterium are essential for proliferation and lethality in a murine model of the infection, but their role in pathogenicity has not been characterized. In this study, we revealed the roles of motility and chemotaxis during the process of V. vulnificus infection. We compared a nonmotile mutant and two nonchemotactic mutants with their parent strain (WT) with regard to bacterial spread using an in vivo imaging system (IVIS) and invasion by detection of bacteria from the muscle and spleen of a murine infection model. WT rapidly spread throughout the infected thigh and invaded deep muscle causing severe tissue damage. The detection rate in the systemic circulation and the lethality were high. On the other hand, the nonmotile mutant stayed at the inoculation site, and the nonchemotactic mutants spread only slowly through the soft tissue of the infected thigh. Detection in the systemic circulation, the degree of tissue damage, and the lethality of nonchemotactic mutants were significantly reduced in mice compared with WT. This study demonstrated that chemotaxis is essential for invasion from the infection site to the deep and distant tissues and the main pathogenic factor for the rapid progression leading to sepsis in V. vulnificus NSTI.


Assuntos
Quimiotaxia , Necrose/microbiologia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/microbiologia , Vibrioses/fisiopatologia , Vibrio vulnificus/patogenicidade , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculos/microbiologia , Músculos/patologia , Vibrioses/microbiologia , Fatores de Virulência
14.
Poult Sci ; 99(5): 2581-2594, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359594

RESUMO

Undigested proteins entering the hindgut may favor the proliferation of Clostridium perfringens. Using phytase to eliminate the need for meat and bone meal (MBM) as a P source may reduce potential infection with C. perfringens. A study was conducted to determine the impact of MBM, phytase, and antibiotics (AB) on intestinal permeability and morphology, organ weights, and jejunal gene expression in Ross 308 chickens challenged with subclinical necrotic enteritis (NE). Male Ross 308-day-old chicks (672 each) were randomly allocated to 8 treatments with 6 replicate pens each housing 14 birds. A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used: MBM (no or yes); AB (no or yes-Zn bacitracin 100 in S and 50 ppm in G/F and salinomycin Na 60 ppm in all phases); phytase (500 or 1,500 FTU/kg, both using 500 FTU matrix values) using wheat-SBM-canola meal diets. Birds were challenged with Eimeria spp on day 9, and C. perfringens strain EHE-NE18 on day 14 and 15. An AB × MBM interaction (P < 0.05) was detected for relative gizzard weight (with contents) being lower in birds fed MBM and AB compared to those fed MBM and no AB. A MBM × AB interaction (P > 0.01) was detected for lymphocyte counts being lower with MBM and AB compared to MBM without AB. A phytase × AB interaction (P < 0.05) was observed for villi length being increased with high phytase and no AB compared to with AB. Inclusion of MBM increased (P < 0.05) blood FICT-d concentration, whereas AB decreased it (P < 0.05). Antibiotics increased RBC (P < 0.05), Hgb (P < 0.05), and PCV (P < 0.05) and expression of Ca-binding protein, CALB1 (P > 0.05). Inclusion of MBM decreased expression of MUC2 (P < 0.05). Results indicate that dietary MBM has a detrimental effect on gut health of broilers but this may be counteracted using AB.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Galinhas , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Enterite/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Infecções Assintomáticas , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/fisiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Clostridium perfringens/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Enterite/microbiologia , Expressão Gênica , Testes Hematológicos/veterinária , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Jejuno/metabolismo , Masculino , Necrose/microbiologia , Necrose/veterinária , Tamanho do Órgão , Distribuição Aleatória
16.
Mycotoxin Res ; 36(3): 311-318, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372256

RESUMO

Fusarium infections have been reported in aquatic animals, but are still poorly investigated in wild salmonids. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of the fungi and their toxins on the health status of brown trout (Salmo trutta morpha trutta) migrating from the Baltic Sea to the freshwater. Individuals from the wild brown trout population exhibiting ulcerative skin lesions were collected from the Slupia River in Poland and subjected to microbiological, histopathological, and hematological examinations, as well as toxicological analysis for a presence of mycotoxins. The results of microflora isolation from the brown trout skin samples revealed the presence of conditionally pathogenic bacteria and fungi classified by molecular techniques as Fusarium spp. Toxicological analysis allowed for detection of zearalenone (ZEN) in the liver, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract of the fish. In several cases, there was α-zearalenone (α-ZEL) identified at trace levels in the liver, as well as sterigmatocystin and enniatin B at low levels in the kidney and the liver. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of fungal hyphae disrupting the epidermis and penetrating into the necrotic dermis and hypodermis. The decreased values of the blood parameters, i.e., hemoglobin concentration (HGB), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and white blood cell count (WBC), were indicative of osmoregulation failure being a consequence of the skin damage. The results of the study provide new information regarding Fusarium sp. infection in brown trout and serve as the basis for further research on the potential impact of the fungi and their mycotoxins on the Baltic salmonid population, including their role in ulcerative dermal necrosis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Fusarium/metabolismo , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Necrose/veterinária , Dermatopatias/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Fusarium/química , Micotoxinas/análise , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Necrose/microbiologia , Necrose/patologia , Polônia , Pele/microbiologia , Dermatopatias/microbiologia , Dermatopatias/patologia , Truta/microbiologia
17.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 2048-2060, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241490

RESUMO

Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an infection of the gastrointestinal tract and is estimated to cost the global poultry industry billions of dollars annually. A study was conducted to examine whether reducing the crude protein might offset the severity of NE in broilers experimentally challenged with Eimeria spp. on day 9 and Clostridium perfringens on days 14 and 15. Furthermore, increasing the dietary amino acid (AA) density of the diet was also examined owing to identified benefits of improving performance compromised from low protein (LP) diets or NE. A 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments at 6 replicates per treatment was used with 972 Ross 308 cockerels fed wheat-sorghum-soy-based diets to 35 D. Factors were NE challenge: no or yes; protein: standard (SP) or LP; and AA density: 100% AA, 115% with only essential AA (115% EAA) increased, and 115% AA with both essential and nonessential AA (115% AA) increased. The performance was measured in grower (days 7-21), finisher (days 21-35), and overall (day 7-35) periods. In addition, on day 16, intestinal lesion score and cecal short-chain fatty acids were measured. Only in nonchallenged birds fed LP diets, 115% AA increased grower feed intake (P < 0.01) and body weight gain (P < 0.05) compared to 115% EAA treatments. Challenge increased jejunal lesions (P < 0.001) with no difference between dietary treatments. Finisher body weight gain was greater in nonchallenged birds fed the 115% AA diets than in challenged birds (P < 0.05). Feeding diets with higher nonessential AA encouraged faster recovery from NE challenge. When fed the SP diets, NE challenge increased cecal butyric acid (P < 0.01) and total short-chain fatty acids (P < 0.05). The nutrient matrix used in LP diets does not favor beneficial butyric acid-producing bacteria. Using LP diets to mitigate NE severity does not offset the predisposing effect of E. spp. when attacking the gastrointestinal tract, and NE recovery is favored when feeding SP diets or additional AA.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Coccidiose/veterinária , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/veterinária , Enterite/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/terapia , Aminoácidos/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Infecções Assintomáticas , Galinhas , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/terapia , Clostridium perfringens/efeitos dos fármacos , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/terapia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eimeria/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterite/microbiologia , Enterite/parasitologia , Enterite/terapia , Necrose/microbiologia , Necrose/parasitologia , Necrose/terapia , Necrose/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Distribuição Aleatória
18.
J Dermatol ; 47(6): 673-676, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207545

RESUMO

Several virulence factors of Aeromonas such as hemolysin, proteases and lipases have been characterized. The relationship between these virulence factors and disease remains unclear. A 71-year-old man underwent thoracoscopic esophagectomy, lymph node dissection and Roux-en-Y reconstruction for esophageal cancer. On postoperative day 1, redness around the wound on the thoracic abdominal wall gradually enlarged and necrosis became apparent with septic shock. Necrotizing soft tissue infection was suspected and emergency surgical debridement was performed. Blood and wound cultures were positive for Aeromonas hydrophila. The strain was found to have hemolytic activity, proteolytic activity and extremely high elastolytic activity. In addition, the strain actively produced elastolytic metalloprotease, which may contribute to extensive tissue necrosis.


Assuntos
Parede Abdominal/patologia , Aeromonas hydrophila/isolamento & purificação , Esofagectomia/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/diagnóstico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/diagnóstico , Toracoscopia/efeitos adversos , Parede Abdominal/microbiologia , Parede Abdominal/cirurgia , Idoso , Desbridamento , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Esofagectomia/métodos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Necrose/diagnóstico , Necrose/microbiologia , Necrose/cirurgia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/cirurgia
19.
Avian Pathol ; 49(5): 423-427, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208870

RESUMO

Necrotic enteritis (NE) is one of the most detrimental infectious diseases in the modern poultry industry, characterized by necrosis in the small intestine. It is commonly accepted that NetB-producing C. perfringens type G strains are responsible for the disease. However, based on both macroscopic and histopathological observations, two distinct types of NE are observed. To date, both a haemorrhagic form of NE and the type G-associated non-haemorrhagic disease entity are commonly referred to as NE and the results from scientific research are interchangeably used, without distinguishing between the disease entities. Therefore, we propose to rename the haemorrhagic disease entity to necro-haemorrhagic enteritis.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Galinhas/microbiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Clostridium perfringens/metabolismo , Enterite/veterinária , Enterotoxinas/metabolismo , Necrose/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Animais , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/patologia , Enterite/microbiologia , Enterite/patologia , Intestino Delgado/microbiologia , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Necrose/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Terminologia como Assunto
20.
Cancer Radiother ; 24(2): 93-98, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Postradiation nasopharyngeal necrosis (PRNN) is a notorious complication after radiotherapy that affects prognosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). It is important for clinical doctors to realize this problem in order to cope with this severe clinical situation. The aim of our study was to assess the bacteriology of PRNN and to demonstrate the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern that should guide the clinicians towards more appropriate antibiotic use. METHODS: Sixty-nine NPC patients with PRNN in our department between March 2013 and December 2017 were retrospectively enrolled. Pathogenic culture and drug sensitivity test were performed in these 69 NPC patients with PRNN. The infection rate of Pathogens and the sensitivity of the drugs were analyzed based on these results. RESULTS: Sixty-nine NPC patients with PRNN were enrolled in our study. Pathogens were identified in 58 (84%) patients. Of the 58 patients, Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 34 (58.6%) patients. And the second most common group of bacterial isolates was Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antibiotic sensitivity showed that Levofloxacin was the highest (88.5%), followed by Ciprofloxacin (85.2%) and Gentamicin (80.3%). The only pathologic fungus was Candidaalbicans, about 6.8%. The positive rates of bacterial and fungal culture in PRNN patients were not significantly different from the patients' gender, age, stage, number of radiotherapy courses (P>0.05), but the cure rate was statistically higher in culture-negative patients in comparison with culture-positive patients (63.6% vs 20.7%, P=0.011). CONCLUSION: Our results provide an overall picture of the microbiology and drug susceptibility patterns for NPC patients with PRNN and could help implement guidelines for more rational treatment and improve therapeutic outcome.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/radioterapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/radioterapia , Nasofaringe/efeitos da radiação , Lesões por Radiação/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciprofloxacina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Gentamicinas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Levofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/diagnóstico por imagem , Nasofaringe/patologia , Necrose/diagnóstico por imagem , Necrose/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesões por Radiação/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões por Radiação/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
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