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6.
Front Immunol ; 11: 599417, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362783

RESUMO

The complement system comprises the frontline of the innate immune system. Triggered by pathogenic surface patterns in different pathways, the cascade concludes with the formation of a membrane attack complex (MAC; complement components C5b to C9) and C5a, a potent anaphylatoxin that elicits various inflammatory signals through binding to C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1). Despite its important role in pathogen elimination, priming and recruitment of myeloid cells from the immune system, as well as crosstalk with other physiological systems, inadvertent activation of the complement system can result in self-attack and overreaction in autoinflammatory diseases. Consequently, it constitutes an interesting target for specialized therapies. The paradigm of safe and efficacious terminal complement pathway inhibition has been demonstrated by the approval of eculizumab in paroxysmal nocturnal hematuria. In addition, complement contribution in rare kidney diseases, such as lupus nephritis, IgA nephropathy, atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, C3 glomerulopathy, or antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis has been demonstrated. This review summarizes the involvement of the terminal effector agents of the complement system in these diseases and provides an overview of inhibitors for complement components C5, C5a, C5aR1, and MAC that are currently in clinical development. Furthermore, a link between increased complement activity and lung damage in severe COVID-19 patients is discussed and the potential for use of complement inhibitors in COVID-19 is presented.


Assuntos
Complemento C5a/antagonistas & inibidores , Inativadores do Complemento/uso terapêutico , Complexo de Ataque à Membrana do Sistema Complemento/antagonistas & inibidores , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor da Anafilatoxina C5a/antagonistas & inibidores , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/tratamento farmacológico , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/patologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Ativação do Complemento/imunologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/tratamento farmacológico , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/patologia , Humanos , Rim/patologia , Nefropatias/imunologia , Nefropatias/patologia , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21121, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871981

RESUMO

BACKGROUD: Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has been recommended for the treatment of lupus nephritis (LN). Although inter-racial differences exist regarding the appropriate dose and efficacy of MMF in patients with LN, no definitive meta-analysis has yet been conducted in Chinese patients. This analysis investigated the efficacy and safety of MMF in Chinese patients with proliferative LN. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted to select randomized controlled trials that reported at least one of the following: complete remission (CR), partial remission, total remission (TR; defined as complete remission + partial remission), relapse rate, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, end-stage renal disease, death, infections, amenorrhea, leukopenia, alopecia, gastrointestinal symptoms, or liver damage. RESULTS: Eighteen trials (927 patients) were included; 14 (750 patients) reported CR, partial remission, and TR. Two trials (58 patients) reported relapse rates during maintenance treatment. MMF induction significantly improved CR and TR vs cyclophosphamide (relative risk 1.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.13-1.58; P < .001; relative risk 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.33; P = .03), and was associated with significantly lower risks of infection (P < .001), amenorrhea (P < .001), leukopenia, and alopecia. No significant difference in relapse rate was evident between the MMF and azathioprine groups (P = .66). CONCLUSION: According to this meta-analysis of 18 trials, MMF is significantly more effective than cyclophosphamide induction, and is associated with reduced incidences of infections, amenorrhea, leukopenia, and alopecia in Chinese patients with proliferative LN.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Nefrite Lúpica/etnologia , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Ácido Micofenólico/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22328, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lupus nephritis (LN) remains a predominant cause of morbidity and mortality in SLE. Here we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the induction treatment with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and cyclophosphamide (CYC) for LN. METHODS: Relevant literature was searched by computer from the establishment of the database to November 2019. A meta-analysis was conducted to analysis the efficacy and safety between mycophenolate mofetil and cyclophosphamide as induction therapy in LN patients. The primary end-point was response to urine protein, serum creatinine (Scr) and serum complement C3, and the secondary end-points were complete remission and adverse reactions. RESULTS: Eighteen articles were selected for the final meta-analysis, involving 1989 patients with LN, of which the renal biopsy result could be classified into class III-V according to the standards of WHO/ISN. The results revealed that MMF was superior to CYC in increasing the level of serum complement C3 [SMD = 0.475, 95%CI (0.230-0.719)] and complete remission [RR = 1.231, 95%CI (1.055-1.437)]. Furthermore, the subgroup analysis showed that it was in Asian patients, rather than in Caucasian patients, that CYC exerted a better effect on lowering the level of urine protein (UPRO) than MMF [SMD = 0.405, 95%CI (0.081-0.730)]. Besides, when the initial UPRO level was less than 4 g/day, the effect of CYC was better than MMF [SMD = 0.303, 95%CI (0.014-0.591)]. There was no significant difference between MMF and CYC in improving Scr [SMD = 0.090, 95%CI (-0.060-0.239)]. When it came to the comparison of safety between MMF and CYC, the meta-analysis showed that MMF was superior to CYC in decreasing infection in Caucasian patients [RR = 0.727, 95%CI (0.532-0.993)], reducing the risk of leukopenia and menstrual abnormalities in Asian patients and lowering the frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms [RR = 0.639, 95%CI (0.564-0.724)], independent of race. CONCLUSIONS: MMF precedes CYC in improving serum complement C3 and complete remission regardless of race, as well as shows fewer adverse drug reactions in the induction treatment of LN belonging to type III-V. But for Asian patients or those initial UPRO levels are less than 4 g/day, CYC may be superior to MMF.


Assuntos
Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Indução de Remissão
9.
N Engl J Med ; 383(12): 1117-1128, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In adults with active lupus nephritis, the efficacy and safety of intravenous belimumab as compared with placebo, when added to standard therapy (mycophenolate mofetil or cyclophosphamide-azathioprine), are unknown. METHODS: In a phase 3, multinational, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 104-week trial conducted at 107 sites in 21 countries, we assigned adults with biopsy-proven, active lupus nephritis in a 1:1 ratio to receive intravenous belimumab (at a dose of 10 mg per kilogram of body weight) or matching placebo, in addition to standard therapy. The primary end point at week 104 was a primary efficacy renal response (a ratio of urinary protein to creatinine of ≤0.7, an estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] that was no worse than 20% below the value before the renal flare (pre-flare value) or ≥60 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area, and no use of rescue therapy), and the major secondary end point was a complete renal response (a ratio of urinary protein to creatinine of <0.5, an eGFR that was no worse than 10% below the pre-flare value or ≥90 ml per minute per 1.73 m2, and no use of rescue therapy). The time to a renal-related event or death was assessed. RESULTS: A total of 448 patients underwent randomization (224 to the belimumab group and 224 to the placebo group). At week 104, significantly more patients in the belimumab group than in the placebo group had a primary efficacy renal response (43% vs. 32%; odds ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 2.3; P = 0.03) and a complete renal response (30% vs. 20%; odds ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.7; P = 0.02). The risk of a renal-related event or death was lower among patients who received belimumab than among those who received placebo (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.77; P = 0.001). The safety profile of belimumab was consistent with that in previous trials. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving patients with active lupus nephritis, more patients who received belimumab plus standard therapy had a primary efficacy renal response than those who received standard therapy alone. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline; BLISS-LN ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01639339.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Creatinina/urina , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Infusões Intravenosas , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Nefrite Lúpica/mortalidade , Masculino , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Indução de Remissão
10.
Orv Hetil ; 161(31): 1293-1301, 2020 08.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750018

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lupus nephritis is the most severe complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), its development and the effectiveness of immunosuppressive therapy substantially influence patients' quality of life and survival. AIM: In this retrospective observational investigation, the long term-outcome of patients with lupus nephritis, followed at the St. Margit Hospital Immunonephrological Outpatient Clinic, was evaluated. RESULTS: Between 1997 December 1 and 2019 April 30, 73 patients (age 33.7 ± 15 years, 82% female, 18% male) were under care with median observation of 119 [between 3-264] months. At diagnosis, eGFR showed 68 [7-120] ml/min, proteinuria was 2800 [23-16812] mg/day; 10 patients needed dialysis treatment acutely. Renal biopsy, performed in 68 patients, proved proliferative lupus nephritis in 55 and pure membranous lupus nephritis in 6 patients. Administering combined immunosuppressive therapy, complete remission was achieved in 50 and partial remission in 21 cases; one or repeated relapses developed in 28 subjects. Two patients, by the time they got under our care, had already required chronic dialysis, and in the long term, three more patients progressed to end-stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy. Renal function stabilized in all other participants, clinical activity of SLE, SLEDAI score, complement levels and immunserology results improved significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Lupus nephritis can be effectively treated by combined induction and prolonged maintenance immunosuppression, but to prevent progression of the disease, long-term care is necessary by co-operation of nephrologist and immunologist. To provide adequate prevention and therapy of the SLE's multiorgan involvement and also the potential complications of immunosuppression, multidisciplinary team is needed with all specialists who may facilitate these patients' complex care. For the long-term management of patients with lupus nephritis, the nephrologists have to be responsible, and the multidisciplinary teams also have to be under their direction. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(31): 1293-1301.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Assistência de Longa Duração , Nefrite Lúpica/imunologia , Nefrite Lúpica/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
F1000Res ; 92020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789005

RESUMO

Lupus nephritis is an important cause of both acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease that can result in end-stage renal disease. Its pathogenic mechanisms are characterized by aberrant activation of both innate and adaptive immune responses, dysregulation of inflammatory signaling pathways, and increased cytokine production. Treatment of lupus nephritis remains a challenging issue in the management of systemic lupus erythematosus since the clinical presentation, response to treatment, and prognosis all vary considerably between patients and are influenced by ethnicity, gender, the degree of chronic kidney damage, pharmacogenomics, and non-immunological modulating factors. Elucidation of the various immunopathogenic pathways in lupus nephritis has resulted in the development of novel therapies, including biologics that target specific antigens on B lymphocytes to achieve B cell depletion, agents that modulate B cell proliferation and development, drugs that block co-stimulatory pathways, drugs that target T lymphocytes primarily, and therapies that target complement activation, signaling pathways, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and neutrophil extracellular traps. This review will discuss recent advances in the understanding of disease pathogenesis in lupus nephritis in the context of potential emerging therapies.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia , Linfócitos B , Citocinas , Humanos , Linfócitos T
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 538, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of life-threatening complications, such as visceral disseminated varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection, is greater in immunosuppressed individuals, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, a case is reported of a Caucasian woman diagnosed with lupus nephritis and anti-phospholipid syndrome, who was subjected to mycophenolate mofetil and high-dose steroid remission-induction therapy. Two months later she developed abdominal pain followed by a fatal rapid multi-organ failure. As no typical skin rashes were evident, death was initially attributed to catastrophic anti-phospholipid syndrome. However, autopsy and virological examinations on archival material revealed a disseminated VZV infection. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this case highlights the importance of having a high clinical suspicion of fatal VZV infections in heavily immunosuppressed SLE patients even when typical signs and symptoms are lacking.


Assuntos
Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/complicações , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/diagnóstico , Herpes Zoster/complicações , Herpes Zoster/diagnóstico , Herpesvirus Humano 3/genética , Nefrite Lúpica/complicações , Nefrite Lúpica/diagnóstico , Dor Abdominal , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Herpes Zoster/patologia , Herpes Zoster/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 3/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Esteroides/uso terapêutico
13.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(8): 1077-1083, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503858

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Short-term predictive endpoints of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are needed in lupus nephritis (LN). We tested response to therapy at 1 year. METHODS: We considered patients with LN who underwent renal biopsy followed by induction therapy between January 1970 and December 2016. LN was assessed using the International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society (2003) criteria and the National Institute of Health (NIH) activity and chronicity index. The renal outcome was CKD. Response was defined according to EULAR/European League Against Rheumatism/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (EULAR/ERA-EDTA) recommendations: complete: proteinuria <0.5 g/24 hours, (near) normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); partial: ≥50% proteinuria reduction to subnephrotic levels, (near) normal eGFR; and no response: all the other cases. Logistic regression analysis was employed for 12-month response and Cox regression for CKD prediction. RESULTS: We studied 381 patients (90.5% Caucasians). After 12-month therapy, 58%, 26% and 16% of patients achieved complete, partial and no response, respectively, according to EULAR/ERA-EDTA. During a median follow-up of 10.7 (IQR: 4.97-18.80) years, 53 patients developed CKD. At 15 years, CKD-free survival rate was 95.2%, 87.6% and 55.4% in patients with complete, partial and no response at 12 months, respectively (p<0.0001). CKD-free survival rates did not differ between complete and partial responders (p=0.067). Serum creatinine (HR: 1.485, 95% CI 1.276 to 1.625), eGFR (HR 0.967, 95% CI 0.957 to 0.977) and proteinuria at 12 months (HR 1.234, 95% CI 1.111 to 1.379) were associated with CKD, yet no reliable cut-offs were identified on the receiver operating characteristic curve. In multivariable analysis, no EULAR/ERA-EDTA response at 12 months (HR 5.165, 95% CI 2.770 to 7.628), low C4 (HR 1.053, 95% CI 1.019 to 1.089) and persistent arterial hypertension (HR 3.154, 95% CI 1.500 to 4.547) independently predicted CKD. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of EULAR/ERA-EDTA response at 12 months predicts CKD.


Assuntos
Nefrite Lúpica/complicações , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 163, 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herbal medication is widely used in our region as a mode of alternative medicine. Its contents and combinations are often modified to suit the needs of different populations. These products are said to boost the immune system and may serve as a protective measure against many diseases including Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Some even lay claims to be able to cure SLE. Although they are not without side effects, these medications are still preferred due to their widespread availability and affordability, compared to modern medications. However, to date, there have been no reported cases in which these traditional medications can trigger a lupus-like reaction, moreover one involving the kidneys. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a patient who developed overt lupus nephritis after consuming a course of herbal supplement. Her renal status did not improve upon cessation of the offending drug, and she required immunosuppressive therapy. After one cycle of IV cyclophosphamide, we managed to get the patient into remission - she is now on tapering doses of steroids. CONCLUSION: We wish to highlight the possibility of consumption of herbal medication and the emergence of drug-induced lupus nephritis. A thorough anamnesis and high index of suspicion of drug-induced lupus nephritis is warranted when a patient on supplements presents with urinary abnormalities.


Assuntos
Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Nefrite Lúpica/induzido quimicamente , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico
15.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233138, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421738

RESUMO

Naringenin is flavonoid mainly found in citrus fruits which has shown several biological properties. In this work, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of the flavonoid Naringenin. Five-month-old B6.MRL-Faslpr/J lupus-prone mice were administered daily orally with Naringenin for seven months. We showed that Naringenin treatment at 50 or 100 mg/kg inhibited the splenomegaly and decreased the levels of anti-nuclear and anti-dsDNA autoantibodies. Furthermore, a reduction in serum concentration of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-6 was observed in the mice provided with Naringenin. Interestingly, serum levels of IL-10 increased. Naringenin decreased the frequency and absolute numbers of splenic effector memory T cells. Additionally, in order to be able to evaluate whether Naringenin prevented kidney damage, twelve-week-old MRL/MpJ-Faslpr/J mice, an accelerated lupus model, were orally administered with Naringenin at 100 mg/kg for six weeks. Surprisingly, Naringenin treatment prevented kidney damage and reduced the development of fibrosis similar to cyclophosphamide group. Moreover, Naringenin treatment increased the percentage of regulatory T cells in this aggressive model of lupus. Together, these results suggest a potential ability of Naringenin to reduce the autoimmunity in lupus-prone mice by modulation of T-cell subsets and cytokines profile that mitigate the development of important lupus clinical manifestations.


Assuntos
Citocinas/imunologia , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Memória Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Nefrite Lúpica/imunologia , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia
16.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(8): 1070-1076, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448782

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To report the 10-year outcome of lupus nephritis (LN) treated with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or tacrolimus (TAC) induction in a randomised controlled trial. METHODS: Patients with active LN were treated with MMF or TAC combined with high-dose prednisolone. Responders were switched to azathioprine (AZA) at month 6. Clinical outcomes at 10 years (renal flares, renal function decline and mortality) were assessed. Factors affecting prognosis were studied by Cox regression. Urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (uPCr) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at different time points were evaluated for their prediction of a poor prognosis by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. RESULTS: 150 patients were studied (age 35.5±12.8 years). Complete renal response rate was similar between MMF (59%) and TAC-treated patients (62%; p=0.71). AZA maintenance was given to 79% patients. After 118.2±42 months, proteinuric and nephritic renal flares occurred in 34% and 37% of the MMF, and 53% and 30% of the TAC groups of patients, respectively (p=0.49). The cumulative incidence of a composite outcome of ↓eGFR ≥30%, chronic kidney disease stage 4/5 or death at 10 years was 33% in both groups (p=0.90). Factors independently associated with a poor renal prognosis were first-time LN (HR 0.12 (0.031 to 0.39); p=0.01), eGFR (HR 0.98 (0.96 to 0.99); p=0.008) and no response at month 6 (HR 5.18 (1.40 to 19.1); p=0.01). ROC analysis revealed an uPCr >0.75 and eGFR of <80 mL/min at month 18 best predicted a poor renal prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term data confirmed non-inferiority of TAC to MMF as induction therapy of LN. An uPCr≤0.75 and eGFR of ≥80 mL/min at month 18 best predicted a favourable 10-year outcome and may be suitable targets for induction/consolidation therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00371319.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia de Indução/métodos , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Manutenção/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Exacerbação dos Sintomas , Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 318(5): F1258-F1270, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249615

RESUMO

B lymphocyte hyperactivity plays a pathogenic role in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and spliced X box-binding protein 1 (XBP1s) has been implicated in B cell maturation and differentiation. We hypothesized that blockade of the XBP1s pathway inhibits the B cell hyperactivity underlying SLE and lupus nephritis (LN) development. In the present study, we systematically evaluated the changes in B cell activation induced by the Xbp1 splicing inhibitor STF083010 in a pristane-induced lupus mouse model. The lupus mouse model was successfully established, as indicated by the presence of LN with markedly increased urine protein levels, renal deposition of Ig, and mesangial cell proliferation. In lupus mice, B cell hyperactivity was confirmed by increased CD40 and B cell-activating factor levels. B cell activation and plasma cell overproduction were determined by increases in CD40-positive and CD138-positive cells in the spleens of lupus mice by flow cytometry and further confirmed by CD45R and Ig light chain staining in the splenic tissues of lupus mice. mRNA and protein expression of XBP1s in B cells was assessed by real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence analysis and was increased in lupus mice. In addition, almost all changes were reversed by STF083010 treatment. However, the expression of XBP1s in the kidneys did not change when mice were exposed to pristane and STF083010. Taken together, these findings suggest that expression of XBP1s in B cells plays key roles in SLE and LN development. Blockade of the XBP1s pathway may be a potential strategy for SLE and LN treatment.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/metabolismo , Nefrite Lúpica/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária , Baço/metabolismo , Terpenos , Proteína 1 de Ligação a X-Box/metabolismo , Animais , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos B/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/induzido quimicamente , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/patologia , Nefrite Lúpica/induzido quimicamente , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Transdução de Sinais , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/patologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Proteína 1 de Ligação a X-Box/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína 1 de Ligação a X-Box/genética
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5210, 2020 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251357

RESUMO

Estrogens have been shown to regulate the immune system and modulate multiple autoimmune diseases. 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE), a synthetic analog of 17ß-estradiol, is prescribed commonly and found in oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapies. Surprisingly, few studies have investigated the immunoregulatory effects of exposure to EE, especially in autoimmunity. In this study, we exposed autoimmune-prone female MRL/lpr mice to a human-relevant dose of EE through the oral route of exposure. Since lupus patients are prone to infections, groups of mice were injected with viral (Imiquimod, a TLR7 agonist) or bacterial (ODN 2395, a TLR9 agonist) surrogates. We then evaluated autoimmune disease parameters, kidney disease, and response to in vivo TLR7/9 pathogenic signals. EE-exposed mice had increased proteinuria as early as 7 weeks of age. Proteinuria, blood urea nitrogen, and glomerular immune complex deposition were also exacerbated when compared to controls. Production of cytokines by splenic leukocytes were altered in EE-exposed mice. Our study shows that oral exposure to EE, even at a very low dose, can exacerbate azotemia, increase clinical markers of renal disease, enhance glomerular immune complex deposition, and modulate TLR7/9 cytokine production in female MRL/lpr mice. This study may have implications for EE-exposure risk for genetically lupus-prone individuals.


Assuntos
Etinilestradiol/toxicidade , Doenças do Complexo Imune/imunologia , Nefrite Lúpica/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/agonistas , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/agonistas , Receptor Toll-Like 9/agonistas , Animais , Autoanticorpos/análise , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Creatinina/sangue , Citocinas/biossíntese , Etinilestradiol/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Imiquimode/farmacologia , Doenças do Complexo Imune/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Complexo Imune/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Complexo Imune/genética , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Glomérulos Renais/imunologia , Glomérulos Renais/patologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Nefrite Lúpica/induzido quimicamente , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos MRL lpr , Proteinúria/etiologia , Baço/patologia
19.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(6): 713-723, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To update the 2012 EULAR/ERA-EDTA recommendations for the management of lupus nephritis (LN). METHODS: Following the EULAR standardised operating procedures, a systematic literature review was performed. Members of a multidisciplinary Task Force voted independently on their level of agreeement with the formed statements. RESULTS: The changes include recommendations for treatment targets, use of glucocorticoids and calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and management of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). The target of therapy is complete response (proteinuria <0.5-0.7 g/24 hours with (near-)normal glomerular filtration rate) by 12 months, but this can be extended in patients with baseline nephrotic-range proteinuria. Hydroxychloroquine is recommended with regular ophthalmological monitoring. In active proliferative LN, initial (induction) treatment with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF 2-3 g/day or mycophenolic acid (MPA) at equivalent dose) or low-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide (CY; 500 mg × 6 biweekly doses), both combined with glucocorticoids (pulses of intravenous methylprednisolone, then oral prednisone 0.3-0.5 mg/kg/day) is recommended. MMF/CNI (especially tacrolimus) combination and high-dose CY are alternatives, for patients with nephrotic-range proteinuria and adverse prognostic factors. Subsequent long-term maintenance treatment with MMF or azathioprine should follow, with no or low-dose (<7.5 mg/day) glucocorticoids. The choice of agent depends on the initial regimen and plans for pregnancy. In non-responding disease, switch of induction regimens or rituximab are recommended. In pure membranous LN with nephrotic-range proteinuria or proteinuria >1 g/24 hours despite renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade, MMF in combination with glucocorticoids is preferred. Assessment for kidney and extra-renal disease activity, and management of comorbidities is lifelong with repeat kidney biopsy in cases of incomplete response or nephritic flares. In ESKD, transplantation is the preferred kidney replacement option with immunosuppression guided by transplant protocols and/or extra-renal manifestations. Treatment of LN in children follows the same principles as adult disease. CONCLUSIONS: We have updated the EULAR recommendations for the management of LN to facilitate homogenization of patient care.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Sociedades Médicas , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Calcineurina/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Europa (Continente) , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Nefrite Lúpica/complicações , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia , Nefrite Lúpica/fisiopatologia , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Proteinúria/etiologia , Proteinúria/terapia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230499, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187230

RESUMO

Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) hexosylceramides and lactosylceramides are elevated in lupus mice and human patients with nephritis. Whereas other renal diseases characterized by increased GSL levels are thought to be a result of upregulated GSL synthesis, our results suggest elevated hexosylceramides and lactosylceramides in lupus nephritis is a result of increased catabolism of ganglioside GM3 due to significantly increased neuraminidase (NEU) activity. Thus, we hypothesized GM3 would be decreased in lupus nephritis kidneys and blocking NEU activity would reduce GSLs and improve disease in lupus mice. Female MRL/lpr lupus mice were treated with water or the NEU inhibitor oseltamivir phosphate at the onset of proteinuria to block GSL catabolism. Age-matched (non-nephritic) female MRL/MpJ lupus mice served as controls. Renal GM3 levels were significantly higher in the nephritic MRL/lpr water-treated mice compared to non-nephritic MRL/MpJ mice, despite significantly increased renal NEU activity. Blocking GSL catabolism increased, rather than decreased, renal and urine GSL levels and disease was not significantly impacted. A pilot study treating MRL/lpr females with GlcCer synthase inhibitor Genz-667161 to block GSL synthesis resulted in a strong significant negative correlation between Genz-667161 dose and renal GSL hexosylceramide and GM3 levels. Splenomegaly was negatively correlated and serum IgG levels were marginally correlated with increasing Genz-667161 dose. These results suggest accumulation of renal GM3 may be due to dysregulation of one or more of the GSL ganglioside pathways and inhibiting GSL synthesis, but not catabolism, may be a therapeutic approach for treating lupus nephritis.


Assuntos
Glicoesfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Nefrite Lúpica/metabolismo , Animais , Ceramidas/metabolismo , Feminino , Gangliosídeo G(M3)/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Lactosilceramidas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos MRL lpr , Neuraminidase/metabolismo , Oseltamivir/análogos & derivados , Oseltamivir/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Fosforosos/uso terapêutico , Projetos Piloto , Proteinúria/tratamento farmacológico , Proteinúria/metabolismo
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