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2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514620

RESUMO

Complications after renal allograft transplantation are not so uncommon. Most complications are related to graft rejection, immune-suppressive drug toxicity and the operative procedure. Stents are placed after a transplant to prevent urine leak at the site of ureteric reimplantation, to facilitate an early healing in immune-suppressed individuals and to prevent obstruction at the site of ureteral anastomosis. We report a case of a renal allograft recipient with a forgotten ureteral double J stent. where the stent remained in situ for more than 4 years and further complicated by encrustation and stone formation at both the bladder and renal pelvic ends. The stone over the bladder coil was removed by holmium laser cystolithotripsy while the encrusted renal pelvic coil was removed by percutaneous approach. This case is presented for its rarity and also to emphasise on the need for maintenance of a stent register in order to ensure avoidance of such preventable complications.


Assuntos
Remoção de Dispositivo/métodos , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/métodos , Stents/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Aloenxertos , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/métodos , Lasers de Estado Sólido , Masculino , Transplantados , Resultado do Tratamento , Cálculos da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Cálculos da Bexiga Urinária/etiologia , Cálculos da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Cálculos Urinários/diagnóstico por imagem , Cálculos Urinários/etiologia , Cálculos Urinários/cirurgia
3.
Urologiia ; (6): 82-88, 2020 12.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377684

RESUMO

AIM: To study the effect of prophylactic immunization with combined Staphylococcus-Proteus-Pseudomonas vaccine in combination with the probiotic Bacillus subtilis on the development of recurrent nephrolithiasis in patients after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 76 patients with a high infectious risk of stone formation in the early postoperative period after PCNL were included in the study. All patients received antibiotic therapy in accordance with the current guidelines as indicated. The patients were divided into 3 groups. In the comparison group (n=30), patients continued to receive antibiotics on the outpatient basis. In the group A (n=20), in addition to antibiotics, two-stage immunization with Staphylococcus-Proteus-Pseudomonas vaccine was performed. In the group B (n=26), additionally, patients received probiotic preparation "Bactisporin dry", which is a lyophilized spore-forming bacteria Bacillus subtilis strain 3N. All participants had urine culture and stone analysis using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A study of specific antibodies level and factors of cellular and humoral immunity was carried out at specific time points. The duration of follow-up was 36 months. RESULTS: The study revealed a difference in the pathogens isolated from urine and infection stones in the same patient. This convincingly suggests that pathogens form biofilms in the stones and are not detected during routine urine culture. The main pathogens isolated from the stones were Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Klebsiella pneumonia. Microbial associations were found in 25.7% of cases. The Staphylococcus-Proteus-Pseudomonas vaccine demonstrated good immunogenicity, its antigenic components provided protective properties against autologous and opportunistic bacteria. In addition to the ability to induce a specific response to antigens, the vaccine stimulated the phagocytic activity of neutrophils. Immunization with the combined Staphylococcus-Proteus-Pseudomonas vaccine in combination with probiotic results in uncomplicated postoperative course in 84% of patients. Hospital-acquired infectious and inflammatory complications were seen in 16.2% of cases. The recurrence of stone formation in this group of patients within 36 months was 8.2%. In patients receiving only combined Staphylococcus-Proteus-Pseudomonas vaccine after PCNL, the postoperative period was uneventful in 65% of cases. The rate of upper urinary tract infection was 35%, while the inflammatory process was accompanied by mild clinical manifestations and quickly resolved. Recurrence of stone formation during the follow-up was seen in 18% of patients. In the control group, the proportion of uncomplicated cases in patients with nephrostomy tube was 40%, the development of pyelonephritis was noted in 60% of cases, and recurrent stones within 36 months were diagnosed in 46.7% of cases. CONCLUSION: Our results emphasize that the role of an infectious factor in the development of recurrent nephrolithiasis after PCNL is often underestimated. The use of a specific vaccination and the Bacillus subtilis preparation in patients with a high infectious risk of recurrent stone formation allows to achieve a significant reduction in the recurrence rate (more than 5 times) compared to the control group during 36 months of postoperative follow-up.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Humanos , Imunização , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vacinação
4.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(47): 3801-3805, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33379846

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the feasibility and advantages of establishing percutaneous nephrolithotomy pathway guided by C-arm CT. Methods: The data of 258 patients who were established a percutaneous nephrolithotomy pathway under the guidance of C-arm CT in the Department of Interventional Medicine of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2012 to December 2019 were retrospectively analyzed, including168 males and 90 females, and aged 19-88 (60±11) years. There were 84 cases of single stone, 174 cases of multiple stone, and 18 cases of cast stone. The stone size was 9-42 (22±6) mm. Among them, dual access was established in 18 cases, and nephrolithotomy access was established in 276 cases. The three-dimensional guiding function of C-arm CT was used to puncture the target calyces and establish the percutaneous nephrolithotomy pathway. Results: The pathway was successfully established in 258 cases at the first time, with a success rate of 93.5%; successfully established in 15 cases at the second time, with a success rate of 98.9%; and unable to establish in 3 cases, with a failure rate of 1.1%. The operation time was (7.9-32.5) min, with an average of (16±5) min. The lithotripsy time was (25-115) min, with an average of (43±8) min. The intraoperative blood lose was (45-420) ml, with an average of (75±11) ml. There were 23 cases with postoperative calculus residual (8.3%). Postoperative complications included fever in 86 cases (33.3%), which improved after symptomatic treatment. Postoperative hematuria was observed in 128 patients (49.6%) with varying degrees of gross hematuria, among which 2 patients (0.72%) were treated with arterial embolization due to excessive bleeding and ineffective conservative treatment, while the hematuria disappeared after symptomatic treatment in the rest of the patients. Conclusion: The method of establishing percutaneous nephrolithotomy pathway under the guidance of C-arm CT was simple to operate. Especially for patients without hydronephrosis, this method had a high success rate and low complications, which was worthy of clinical promotion and reference.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais , Litotripsia , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(12): 1696-1701, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331579

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with bilateral kidney stones and burdened by large stones are challenging cases for endourologists. Simultaneous bilateral percutaneous nephrolithotomy (sbPCNL) is an option; however, it may be accompanied by important morbidity. An alternative is a staged PCNL, operating one side each time. Herein, we compare the impact of sbPCNL and staged PCNL on complication rates and renal function. METHODS: Patients who underwent sbPCNL or staged bilateral PCNL with a frame time of 6 months were searched in our prospectively collected kidney stone database. Groups were compared for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities (classification by the American Society of Anesthesiology - ASA), stone size, Guy's score, stone-free status, renal function, blood loss, blood transfusion rate, complication rate, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients and 52 kidney units were enrolled. The mean operative time was 134.7 min. Only 11.3% of cases had complications, all of them minor (Clavien ≤ 2). Overall, the stone-free rate was 61.50%. Comparing the groups, there was a significantly longer operative time in the sbPCNL group (172.5 vs. 126.3 min; p=0.016), as well as a higher transfusion rate (12.5% vs. 5.6%; p=0.036). There was no statistically significant difference in creatinine levels between the groups. Regarding the stone-free rate, there was a significantly higher proportion of patients in the staged PCNL group (64.9% vs. 43.8%; p=0.012). CONCLUSION: sbPCNL is a safe procedure; however, when compared to staged procedures it has a higher transfusion and lower stone-free rate.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Tempo de Internação , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Nefrostomia Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Duração da Cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Urologiia ; (5): 139-148, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185362

RESUMO

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the gold standard treatment of large and staghorn kidney stones. Despite technological progress and improvement of PCNL technique, this procedure is associated with complications and in some cases remain a challenge for endourologists. According to the time, complications can be divided into intra- and postoperative. Intraoperative complications include bleeding, injury of the renal collecting system, visceral organs, pulmonary complications, thromboembolic disorders, extrarenal migration of the stone fragments and incorrect nephrostomy tube placement. Postoperative complications include infection and sepsis, bleeding, persistent urinary fistula, infundibular stenosis and death of the patient. The different recommendations that might be useful for the timely diagnosis of various complications in patients undergoing PCNL are provided in the review. Additionally, information on treatment algorithms is included.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Cálculos Coraliformes , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/diagnóstico , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Nefrostomia Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Arch Esp Urol ; 73(9): 837-842, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144538

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Renal access in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) may be obtained via a pre-existing nephrostomy tube (NT) tract; however, emergent NTs are not always ideal for subsequent surgery. We sought to determine the rate of NT tract usability and assess factors related to the usability of emergently placed NTs. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of UC San Diego subjects undergoing percutaneous renal surgery between January 2016 and October 2018. Demographics and peri-operative variables were collected. The primary outcome was the usability of NT tract for dilation and instrumentation. "Usable" indicated a tract in which PCNL could be completed; "unusable" indicated lack of dilation and the requirement of additional tract(s) for PCNL. RESULTS: 35 PCNL cases had previous emergently placed NT which were indwelling at time of percutaneous surgery. 51% of these NT tracts (18/35) were deemed usable and dilated for PCNL. No significant difference was seen between usable and unusable NT groups for number of dilated tracts during PCNL (p=0.13), or either the location of indwelling NT (p=0.96) or renal stones (p=0.95). In the usable NT tract cohort PCNL access was via the lower pole 56% of the time, where as when previous NT tracts were deemed unusable, a separate upper-pole access was obtained intra-operatively 53% of the time (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Pre-existing, emergent NTs served a ssufficient PCNL access tracts in over half of recorded cases. Contrary to recently published reports, the utility of pre-existing NTs appears to vary among health systems. Other variables, including the desired location of PCNL appear to directly influence the like lihood of NT tract usability.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Humanos , Rim , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22477, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019439

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is a procedure used for management of refractory renal calculi. Oral and parenteral opioids, along with local anesthetic infiltration, neuraxial anesthesia, and paravertebral blocks are the most common methods of managing intra-operative and post-operative pain for these patients. The erector spinae plane block with catheter (ESPC) is a newer interfascial regional anesthetic technique that can be used to manage peri-operative pain in these patients. CLINICAL FINDINGS: Three patients complained of significant flank pain were scheduled for percutaneous nephrolithotomy under general anesthesia in the prone position. DIAGNOSES: Patients were diagnosed with large renal calculi. THERAPEUTIC INTERVENTIONS: Patients received ESPC in the pre-operative holding area at the level of the T7 transverse process. The ESPCS were bolused with a solution of 30 mL 0.25% bupivacaine with 4 mg dexamethasone prior to surgery. Patients also received oral tramadol 50 mg and acetaminophen 1 g as part of the multimodal pain protocol prior to surgery. After the procedure, the patients were bolused with 0.25% bupivacaine or started on an infusion of 0.25% bupivacaine to manage their pain. OUTCOMES: No opioid or other pain medications, other than the local anesthetic solution given in the ESPCs, were used during the intra-operative or post-operative period for management of pain in these patients. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores were below 4 for all patients in the post-operative period, and patients did not report any issues with post-operative nausea or vomiting. CONCLUSION: These patients were compared to 3 prior patients who had undergone percutaneous nephrolithotomy without ESPC. The 3 patients without ESPC placement reported increased VAS scores, had increased opioid/pain medication consumption intraoperatively and postoperatively, and had increased incidence of perioperative nausea when compared to our ESPC patients. Our report shows that ESPC, in combination with a multimodal pain protocol, can be a good option for management of patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/métodos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Bupivacaína/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculos Paraespinais
9.
Arch. esp. urol. (Ed. impr.) ; 73(8): 753-766, oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197473

RESUMO

Holmium laser has been established as the gold-standard for the ureteroscopic management of urinary stone disease. However the role of laser in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) varies, as multiple energy sources and lithotripters are available. Currently, lasers are becoming more relevant with the development of several miniaturized PCNL techniques. The purpose of this article is to review the role of laser in percutaneous renal surgery, and whether or not it is the best option for this approach. Discussion points include: the history and background of lasers in urologic surgery, PCNL and its outcomes in the literature, the positives and negatives of lasers versus other lithotripters in several different PCNL techniques, emerging laser technology such as thulium fiber laser, the use of lasers in establishing percutaneous renal access, and laser's role in non-stone percutaneous renal surgery


El láser holmium está establecido como gold-standard en el manejo de la litiasis con ureteroscopio. El papel del láser en la nefrolitotomía percutánea varía ya que existen varios tipos de láser. El objetivo de este artículo es revisar el papel del láser en la cirugía percutánea renal para determinar si es una buena opción terapéutica. Discutiremos la historia del láser en urología, nefrolitotomía percutánea y sus resultados en la literatura, los pros y contras de los láseres vs otros litotriptores como el tulio, el uso del láser para establecer el acceso percutáneo; el papel del láser en la cirugía percutánea no-litiásica


Assuntos
Humanos , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/métodos , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Litotripsia a Laser/métodos , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/instrumentação , Rim/cirurgia , Litotripsia a Laser/instrumentação
10.
Arch Esp Urol ; 73(7): 643-650, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886079

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare miniaturized percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PNL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) in children with 10-20 mm renal stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2015 and 2019, 63 pediatric patients aged under 16 years who under went mini-PNL and RIRS for the treatment of kidney stones sized 10-20 mm were analyzed retrospectively. The mini-PNL group (n=30) was defined as group 1 and the RIRS group (n=33) was defined as group 2. Peri-operative data including stone-free rate, operative time, fluoroscopy time, hospitalization time, number of anesthesia sessions, complication rates, and cost-effectiveness were analyzed. RESULTS: The mean age was 8.09±5.49 years in group 1 and 5.75±4.56 years in group 2. The stone free rate was not different at the first (80.0% vs. 57.6%) and third month (93.3% vs. 90.9%) follow-up in group 1 and group 2. The mean hospitalization, operative, and fluoroscopy times were statistically significantly longer in group 1. The mean number of anesthesia sessions for patients was 1.20±0.40 in group 1 and 2.15±0.44 in group 2 (p=0.00). Minor complication rates were not different and no major complications were observed in either group. The cost per patient was calculated as 365.97 Euros in group 1 and 698.64 Euros in group 2 (p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that RIRS was an effective alternative treatment method for 10-20 mm kidney stones in children, with comparable stone-free and complication rates. RIRS has a shorter operative time, fluoroscopy time, hospital stay than mini-PNL, with a similar stone-free rate for 10-20 mm kidney stones in children. However, mini-PNL is cheaper and allowed a lower need for anesthesia sessions.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Arch. esp. urol. (Ed. impr.) ; 73(7): 643-650, sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-195962

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare miniaturized percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PNL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) in children with 10-20 mm renal stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2015 and 2019, 63 pediatric patients aged under 16 years who underwent mini-PNL and RIRS for the treatment of kidney stones sized 10-20 mm were analyzed retrospectively. The mini-PNL group (n=30) was defined as group 1 and the RIRS group (n=33) was defined as group 2. Peri-operative data including stone-free rate, operative time, fluoroscopy time, hospitalization time, number of anesthesia sessions, complication rates, and cost-effectiveness were analyzed. RESULTS: The mean age was 8.09±5.49 years in group 1 and 5.75±4.56 years in group 2. The stonefree rate was not different at the first (80.0% vs. 57.6%) and third month (93.3% vs. 90.9%) follow-up in group 1 and group 2. The mean hospitalization, operative, and fluoroscopy times were statistically significantly longer in group 1. The mean number of anesthesia sessions for patients was 1.20±0.40 in group 1 and 2.15±0.44 in group 2 (p = 0.00). Minor complication rates were not different and no major complications were observed in either group. The cost per patient was calculated as 365.97 Euros in group 1 and 698.64 Euros in group 2 (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that RIRS was an effective alternative treatment method for 10-20 mm kidney stones in children, with comparable stone-free and complication rates. RIRS has a shorter operative time, fluoroscopy time, hospital stay than mini-PNL, with a similar stone-free rate for 10-20 mm kidney stones in children. However, mini-PNL is cheaper and allowed a lower need for anesthesia sessions


OBJETIVO: Comparar nefrolitotomia percutánea mini y ureteroscopia flexible retrógrada intrarenal para litiasis de 10-20 mm en niños. MATERIAL Y METODOS: Entre 2015 y 2019, analizamos retrospectivamente 63 pacientes pediátricos menores de 16 años recibieronmini-nefrolitotomia percutanea y URs flexible para el tratamiento de litiasis renales de entre 10-20 mm. Grupo 1 (n=30) mini nefrolitotomía percutánea, grupo 2 (n= 33) URs flexible. Datos perioperatorios incluyendo la tasa libre de litiasis, tiempo quirúrgico, tiempo hospitalización, número de anestesias requeridas, tasa de complicaciones y coste-efectividad fueron analizados. RESULTADOS: La edad media fue de 8,09±5,49 años en el grupo 1 y 5,75±4,56 en el grupo 2. La tasa libre de litiasis no fue diferente en el primer mes (80,0% vs. 57,6%) y 3er mes (93,3% vs. 90,9%) entre el grupo 1 y grupo 2. La mediana de tiempo hospitalización, tiempo quirúrgico y tiempo exposición a fluoroscopia fueron mas largos en el grupo 1. La media de anestesias fue de 1,20±0,40 en el grupo 1 y 2,15±0,44 en el grupo 2 (p = 0,00). La tasa de complicaciones menores no fue diferente y la de mayores tampoco. El coste por paciente se estableció en 365 euros en el grupo 1 y 698 euros en el grupo 2. CONCLUSIONES: Este estudio sugiere que la ureteroscopia flexible es un tratamiento efectivo como alternativa en niños con litiasis de 10-20 mm con unas tasa libres de litiasis y complicaciones parecidas. La URs flexible comporta un menor tiempo operatorio, fluoroscopia, estancia hospitalaria que la mini percutánea con tasa libre de litaisis similares. Por contra, la mini-percutanea es mas barata y comporta menos sesiones anestésicas


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/métodos , Ureteroscopia/métodos , Nefrolitíase/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Duração da Cirurgia , Seguimentos , Complicações Intraoperatórias
12.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(4): 663-666, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773797

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in the treatment of patients with solitary kidney stones. METHODS: The clinical data of 22 patients with solitary kidney stones treated with PCNL in Peking University People's Hospital from September 2008 to June 2014, with the follow-up data of more than 5 years were analyzed retrospectively. Perioperative indicators, postoperative stone free rate (SFR) and incidence of complications were recorded. Ultrasonography was used to evaluate the long-term stones recurrence rate. Serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were used to assess the long-term renal function. RESULTS: In this group of 22 patients, the average age was (50.3±11.8) years, with 10 cases of anatomic solitary kidneys, 12 functional solitary kidneys, and the median stone diameter was 1.65 (1.1-3.9) cm. All the patients had multiple stones, including 7 cases of staghorn stones. The median pre-operative serum creatinine was 104.5 (60.0-460.0) µmol/L, and the mean eGFR was (60.3±29.4) mL/min, showing no statistically significant difference compared with that before surgery. The mean operative time was (88.2±42.0) min, and there were 11 cases of single-channel and double-channel PCNL. The median serum creatinine on the first day after surgery was 102.0 (63.0-364.0) µmol/L, and the mean eGFR was (58.0±25.1) mL/min. The mean postoperative hospital stay was (8.7±5.2) days. In this group, 5 patients (22.7%) presented short-term complications, among which 4 patients presented postoperative infection and massive hemorrhage at the same time, which improved after conservative treatment, and 1 patient presented pleural injury and improved after closed thoracic drainage. Two patients (9.1%) developed long-term complications, and ureteral stricture occurred 3 months after operation, which improved after balloon dilatation. The median follow-up time was 6.2 (4.7-11.1) years. The median serum creatinine at the last follow-up was 104.0 (72.4-377.0) µmol/L, and the mean eGFR was (60.1±23.7) mL/min, showing no statistically significant difference compared with that before surgery. Renal function decreased in 6 patients (27.3%). Initial and final SFR were 72.7% and 100%, respectively. During the 6.2-year follow-up, 9 patients (40.9%) experienced recurrence of kidney stone. After stone recurrence, 13 lithotomy surgeries were performed, and the SFR by the latest follow-up was 63.6%. CONCLUSION: This study had the longest follow-up time for patients with solitary kidney stones after PCNL reported at home and abroad. Ultrasound-guided standard PCNL was safe and effective in the treatment of solitary kidney stones. Long-term follow-up results showed that the recurrence rate of kidney stones was still high, but the long-term renal function was stable after operation, and some patients showed mild renal function decline.


Assuntos
Nefrolitotomia Percutânea , Rim Único , Adulto , Humanos , Cálculos Renais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rim Único/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(4): 667-671, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of super-selective renal artery embolization in treatment of post-percutaneous nephrolithotomy bleeding, and to analyse the causes of failure embolization. METHODS: In the study, 65 post-percutaneous nephrolithotomy patients with severe renal bleeding and hemodynamic instability were treated by super-selective renal artery embolization. First of all, we performed selective renal arteriography. After clarifying the location of the bleeding, superselective intubation of the injured vessel with a microcatheter was carried out. Then the injured vessel was embolized with Tornado micro-coil. When complete embolization was not achieved with micro-coil, a small amount of gelatin sponge particles were added. If there was no positive finding of the beginning selective renal arteriography, the following measures could be taken to prevent missing lesions: (1) Abdominal aorta angiography was performed to determine whether there were anatomical variations, such as accessory renal arteries or multiple renal arteries; (2) Ultra-selective intubation angiography next to the nephrostomy tube path was performed; (3) Renal arteriography was repeated; (4) Renal arteriography after removing the nephrostomy tube while retaining the puncture channel. We evaluated the different angiographic findings and analysed the causes of embolization failure. RESULTS: Bleeding was successfully controled in 60 patients (62 kidneys) whose renal arteriography was postive. Positive findings included: pseudoaneurysm formation, patchy contrast extravasation, pseudoaneurysm combined with arteriovenous fistula, contrast agent entering the collection system, extravascular perinephric leakage of contrast. After first embolization, bleeding was controled in 53 patients (55 kidneys). The success rate after the first and second embolization was 88.7% and 96.7% respectively. The second session was required because of failure to demonstrate bleeding arteries during the first session (4 patients, 57.1%) and recurrent hemorrhage of the embolized injured arteries (2 patients, 28.6%). In 5 patients with no positive findings, after conservative treatment, hematuria disappeared. All the patients were followed up for 3, 6, and 12 months after embolization, and no hematuria occurred again, and no sustained and serious renal insufficiency. CONCLUSION: Super-selective renal artery embolization is an effective treatment for post percutaneous nephrolithotomy bleeding. The main cause of failure is omitting of injured arteries during renal arteriography. Renal artery branch injury has various manifestations. Attention should paid to the anatomical variation of the renal artery, and patient and meticulous superselective intubation angiography is the key to avoiding missing the lesion and improving the success rate of embolization.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica , Hemorragia/etiologia , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Humanos , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Artéria Renal , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(4): 672-677, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773799

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To discuss the efficacy and safety of simultaneous bilateral endoscopic surgery (SBES) for bilateral upper urinary tract calculi, and to summarize the initial experience. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with bilateral upper urinary tract calculi who underwent SBES in the Department of Urology, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital from January 2019 to January 2020 were enrolled retrospectively. The demographic and clinical data of the patients were recorded, and the operation status, stone free rate (SFR) and peri-operative complications were analyzed. The primary end point was SFR, and second end point was peri-operative complications. RESULTS: A total of 23 patients underwent SBES, of which SBES was completed in 19 patients (12 males, and 7 females). The mean age was (41.3±12.0) years. Fourteen patients underwent modified supine position surgery and 4 patients in prone split-leg position. There was no statistical difference in the demographic and baseline clinical data of the patients in different positions. One patient underwent right percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and left endoscopic combined intra-renal surgery (ECIRS) in the prone split-leg position, while 18 patients received simul-taneous surgery with PCNL and contralateral retrograde intra-renal surgery (RIRS). The mean anesthesia and operation time was (128.7±26.5) min and (70.7±20.3) min, respectively, which was significantly longer in the patients with prone split-leg position than in the patients with modified supine position, anesthesia time in the patients with prone split-leg position and modified supine position: (148.4±20.4) min vs. (121.6±25.3) min, respectively, t=-2.121, P=0.049, while the operation time in the patients with prone split-leg position and modified supine position: (86.4±21.1) min vs. (65.1±17.4) min, respectively, t=-2.222, P=0.040. There was no significant difference between the two groups in indwelling of nephrostomy [prone split-leg position and modified supine position: (2.6±0.9) d vs. (2.1±1.0) d, respectively; t=-0.880, P=0.391] and the length of hospital stay [prone split-leg position and modified supine position: (6.0±2.7) d vs. (5.2±1.8) d, respectively; t=-0.731, P=0.475]. One month after the operation, the SFR was 78.9%, and 3 patients had minor peri-operative complications (Clavien-Dindo grades Ⅰ/Ⅱ) without any serious complications (Clavien-Dindo grades Ⅲ/Ⅳ/Ⅴ). CONCLUSION: The simultaneous bilateral endoscopic surgery would decrease the operation time and anesthesia exposure under the premise of ensuring the SFR, which is helpful to reduce the risk of peri-operative complications, especially to the patients who can not tolerate the second-stage or long-time operation.


Assuntos
Calcinose/cirurgia , Doenças Urológicas/cirurgia , Adulto , Endoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Cálculos Renais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21847, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846834

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is an X-linked recessive disorder presenting with uric acid overproduction, neurocognitive disability, and behavioral disturbances. Inhalational anesthesia has been frequently used in LNS patients undergoing surgery. Characteristic compulsive self-injurious behavior and high risk of emesis may hinder inhalational induction. Propofol may be beneficial for these patients because of its easy and rapid titration for anesthetic depth during induction, early recovery from anesthesia, and antiemetic effect as well as uricosuric effect. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 16-year-old male adolescent was scheduled for percutaneous nephrolithotomy. He exhibited poorly controlled muscle, self-injurious behaviors and intellectual disability. DIAGNOSIS: The patient presented with neurodevelopmental delay in the first year of life, and was diagnosed with LNS, with a substitution of phenylalanine to leucine in hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) 1 gene on the X-chromosome at 3 years of age. INTERVENTIONS: Total intravenous anesthesia was used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil using target-controlled infusion. OUTCOMES: Time to recovery of consciousness was prolonged after uneventful surgery. Serum uric acid levels gradually increased during postoperative period. LESSONS: Propofol anesthesia using target-controlled infusion does not provide significant clinical advantages in rapid emergence from anesthesia and management of hyperuricemia in LNS patients undergoing urological surgery.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Hipoxantina Fosforribosiltransferase/genética , Síndrome de Lesch-Nyhan/psicologia , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Adolescente , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperuricemia/etiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/etiologia , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Síndrome de Lesch-Nyhan/sangue , Síndrome de Lesch-Nyhan/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Lesch-Nyhan/genética , Masculino , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/métodos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Vômito/induzido quimicamente
16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 97: 162-166, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the relevance of urine test (UT), urine culture (UC) and stone culture (SC) for postoperative infections and to investigate the optimal perioperative antibiotic treatment strategy in association with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in patients with renal calculi. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between September 2016 and September 2018 1,060 patients treated with PCNL were included in the study. The results of UT, UC and SC were reviewed. The details of perioperatively administered antibiotics and postoperative infections were recorded. RESULTS: A positive UT was associated with an increased incidence of infection; this was also the case in patients with negative UC (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in incidence of infection between patients who were given a single dose of antibiotics compared with those given multiple doses when UC was negative, whether UT was positive or negative (all p > 0.05). The incidence of infection was decreased when pre-operative antibiotics were administered according to the sensitivity pattern based on UC (p < 0.05). This outcome was particularly evident when the treatment duration exceeded 7 days (p < 0.05). A positive SC was associated with increased incidence of infection, even if the patient had a negative UC and UT (p < 0.05). The incidence of infection was significantly decreased when antibiotic treatment was administered based on the results of SC (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Pre-operative prophylaxis with a single-dose antibiotic was sufficient in patients with negative UC, whether UT was positive or negative. Pre-operative treatment with antibiotics according to the bacterial sensitivity pattern should be administered for ≥7 days in patients with positive UC. The postoperative antibiotic treatment strategy should be tailored according to the SC results.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea , Adulto , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/complicações , Cálculos Renais/microbiologia , Cálculos Renais/urina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Urologiia ; (3): 26-33, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597582

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Given the increase in antibiotic resistance of uropathogens, one of the urgent problems is a development of optimal antimicrobial prophylaxis for surgical interventions, as well as an adequate regimen of antibiotic therapy after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). AIM: to determine an effective perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis for PCNL in patients with kidney stones. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 90 patients with staghorn or multiple large kidney stones who underwent PCNL were included in the study. Before PCNL, urine culture was performed in all patients in order to determine the sensitivity not only to antibiotics, but also to bacteriophages. In addition, urine was taken for additional microbiological studies after the puncture of the collecting system, as well as on the 3rd and 7th day after PCNL. All patients were divided into three groups of 30 patients depending on the regimen of perioperative prophylaxis. In group 1, patients were prescribed ciprofloxacin 1000 mg i.v. intraoperatively, then 1000 mg i.v. q.d. for 3-5 days. In the group 2, patients received one dose of cefotaxime + sulbactam (1.0 g + 0.5 g) 2 hours before PCNL i.m. In the group 3, a polyvalent pyobacteriophage purified was given orally 1 hour before PCNL in a dose of 40 ml and the same dose was used t.i.d. for 3-5 days postoperatively. RESULTS: In all three groups of patients, the following infectious complications were evaluated: acute pyelonephritis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and urosepsis. There were no serious infectious and inflammatory complications in the early postoperative period among all patients. SIRS developed on days 1-3 after PCNL in 26.6%, 20% and 20% of patients in group 1, 2 and 3, respectively. However, by days 4-7 after PCNL, there was normalization of blood cells count (leukocytes, neutrophil band cells), temperature and general condition. CONCLUSION: Different regimens of antimicrobial prophylaxis for PCNL have the same efficiency. The development of SIRS on days 1-3 after PCNL is correlated not only with the antimicrobial agents used and the route of their administration (intravenously, intramuscularly and orally). Most likely, the development of SIRS is more associated with surgical trauma.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Sepse , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica
18.
Urologiia ; (3): 133-136, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597600

RESUMO

This lecture is dedicated to increasing stone free rate (SFR) in patients with staghorn renal stones by using a multimodal approach. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the "gold standard" for the treatment of this group of patients. Depending on a stone size and complexity, SFR for PCNL varies from 55 to 98%. Due to low SFR, which is a main criterion for the effective procedure, various approaches currently are being suggested. In this lecture, we highlighted the following approaches: multi-access PCNL, a use of a ureteroscope in case of antegrade stone migration, a use of flexible instruments, ureterorenoscopy in combination with PCNL. Various lithotripsy techniques are briefly described. The advantage of ultrasound-guided puncture of the kidney is also discussed.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/terapia , Litotripsia , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Cálculos Coraliformes , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ureteroscopia
20.
Curr Urol Rep ; 21(6): 23, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378073

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: We investigate articles in the literature published in the last 5 years (2014-2019) regarding ultrasound education in the specialty of urology. RECENT FINDINGS: Ultrasound has been touted as the modern day stethoscope. Medical educational governing bodies have encouraged the incorporation of ultrasound in medical school education. However, in this review, we find that there are gaps in educational opportunities and standardization in residency and continuing education for urology practitioners. We have identified several new tools for procedure-specific training published in the last 5 years including MRI fusion prostate biopsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy. New technology is being fused with traditional ultrasound training to provide procedure-specific ultrasound knowledge. There is a need to incorporate new technology and standards into resident and continuing medical education.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência/métodos , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/métodos , Ultrassonografia , Urologia/educação , Cateterismo/métodos , Currículo , Educação Médica Continuada/métodos , Humanos , Hidronefrose/diagnóstico por imagem , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Imagem Multimodal , Próstata/patologia , Treinamento por Simulação , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Realidade Virtual
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