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4.
J Urol ; 205(1): 68-77, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856981

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Encrustation is a common phenomenon that can occur following placement of a ureteral stent into the urinary tract, and it can lead to serious complications. The following review addresses the mechanism of encrustation, the management of these stents and the newest technology developed to mitigate this issue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a comprehensive literature search on stent encrustation including peer-reviewed publications, public product listings, and material on current and future stent technology. RESULTS: The mechanism of encrustation is complex and multifaceted, including dwell time, patient specific risk factors, conditioning film formation, biofilm formation and mineral deposition. Several technological developments in stent materials and coatings may have a role in reducing the risk of stent encrustation. It is important to identify the extent of stent encrustation and plan treatment strategies accordingly. We propose a novel treatment algorithm for the management encrusted ureteral stents. CONCLUSIONS: The ubiquity of ureteral stents in urology practice mandates updated knowledge about the prevention of stent encrustation, identification of high risk patients and preparedness for removal using multimodal techniques.


Assuntos
Calcinose/cirurgia , Remoção de Dispositivo/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Stents/efeitos adversos , Ureter/cirurgia , Calcinose/epidemiologia , Calcinose/etiologia , Calcinose/prevenção & controle , Cistoscopia , Dilatação/efeitos adversos , Dilatação/instrumentação , Humanos , Litotripsia , Masculino , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Desenho de Prótese , Fatores de Risco , Tecnologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ultrassonografia , Ureter/diagnóstico por imagem , Ureter/microbiologia , Ureter/patologia , Obstrução Ureteral/cirurgia , Ureterolitíase/etiologia , Ureterolitíase/prevenção & controle
5.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(47): 3801-3805, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33379846

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the feasibility and advantages of establishing percutaneous nephrolithotomy pathway guided by C-arm CT. Methods: The data of 258 patients who were established a percutaneous nephrolithotomy pathway under the guidance of C-arm CT in the Department of Interventional Medicine of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2012 to December 2019 were retrospectively analyzed, including168 males and 90 females, and aged 19-88 (60±11) years. There were 84 cases of single stone, 174 cases of multiple stone, and 18 cases of cast stone. The stone size was 9-42 (22±6) mm. Among them, dual access was established in 18 cases, and nephrolithotomy access was established in 276 cases. The three-dimensional guiding function of C-arm CT was used to puncture the target calyces and establish the percutaneous nephrolithotomy pathway. Results: The pathway was successfully established in 258 cases at the first time, with a success rate of 93.5%; successfully established in 15 cases at the second time, with a success rate of 98.9%; and unable to establish in 3 cases, with a failure rate of 1.1%. The operation time was (7.9-32.5) min, with an average of (16±5) min. The lithotripsy time was (25-115) min, with an average of (43±8) min. The intraoperative blood lose was (45-420) ml, with an average of (75±11) ml. There were 23 cases with postoperative calculus residual (8.3%). Postoperative complications included fever in 86 cases (33.3%), which improved after symptomatic treatment. Postoperative hematuria was observed in 128 patients (49.6%) with varying degrees of gross hematuria, among which 2 patients (0.72%) were treated with arterial embolization due to excessive bleeding and ineffective conservative treatment, while the hematuria disappeared after symptomatic treatment in the rest of the patients. Conclusion: The method of establishing percutaneous nephrolithotomy pathway under the guidance of C-arm CT was simple to operate. Especially for patients without hydronephrosis, this method had a high success rate and low complications, which was worthy of clinical promotion and reference.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais , Litotripsia , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(12): 1696-1701, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331579

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with bilateral kidney stones and burdened by large stones are challenging cases for endourologists. Simultaneous bilateral percutaneous nephrolithotomy (sbPCNL) is an option; however, it may be accompanied by important morbidity. An alternative is a staged PCNL, operating one side each time. Herein, we compare the impact of sbPCNL and staged PCNL on complication rates and renal function. METHODS: Patients who underwent sbPCNL or staged bilateral PCNL with a frame time of 6 months were searched in our prospectively collected kidney stone database. Groups were compared for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities (classification by the American Society of Anesthesiology - ASA), stone size, Guy's score, stone-free status, renal function, blood loss, blood transfusion rate, complication rate, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients and 52 kidney units were enrolled. The mean operative time was 134.7 min. Only 11.3% of cases had complications, all of them minor (Clavien ≤ 2). Overall, the stone-free rate was 61.50%. Comparing the groups, there was a significantly longer operative time in the sbPCNL group (172.5 vs. 126.3 min; p=0.016), as well as a higher transfusion rate (12.5% vs. 5.6%; p=0.036). There was no statistically significant difference in creatinine levels between the groups. Regarding the stone-free rate, there was a significantly higher proportion of patients in the staged PCNL group (64.9% vs. 43.8%; p=0.012). CONCLUSION: sbPCNL is a safe procedure; however, when compared to staged procedures it has a higher transfusion and lower stone-free rate.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Tempo de Internação , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Nefrostomia Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Duração da Cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Urologiia ; (6): 82-88, 2020 12.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377684

RESUMO

AIM: To study the effect of prophylactic immunization with combined Staphylococcus-Proteus-Pseudomonas vaccine in combination with the probiotic Bacillus subtilis on the development of recurrent nephrolithiasis in patients after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 76 patients with a high infectious risk of stone formation in the early postoperative period after PCNL were included in the study. All patients received antibiotic therapy in accordance with the current guidelines as indicated. The patients were divided into 3 groups. In the comparison group (n=30), patients continued to receive antibiotics on the outpatient basis. In the group A (n=20), in addition to antibiotics, two-stage immunization with Staphylococcus-Proteus-Pseudomonas vaccine was performed. In the group B (n=26), additionally, patients received probiotic preparation "Bactisporin dry", which is a lyophilized spore-forming bacteria Bacillus subtilis strain 3N. All participants had urine culture and stone analysis using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A study of specific antibodies level and factors of cellular and humoral immunity was carried out at specific time points. The duration of follow-up was 36 months. RESULTS: The study revealed a difference in the pathogens isolated from urine and infection stones in the same patient. This convincingly suggests that pathogens form biofilms in the stones and are not detected during routine urine culture. The main pathogens isolated from the stones were Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Klebsiella pneumonia. Microbial associations were found in 25.7% of cases. The Staphylococcus-Proteus-Pseudomonas vaccine demonstrated good immunogenicity, its antigenic components provided protective properties against autologous and opportunistic bacteria. In addition to the ability to induce a specific response to antigens, the vaccine stimulated the phagocytic activity of neutrophils. Immunization with the combined Staphylococcus-Proteus-Pseudomonas vaccine in combination with probiotic results in uncomplicated postoperative course in 84% of patients. Hospital-acquired infectious and inflammatory complications were seen in 16.2% of cases. The recurrence of stone formation in this group of patients within 36 months was 8.2%. In patients receiving only combined Staphylococcus-Proteus-Pseudomonas vaccine after PCNL, the postoperative period was uneventful in 65% of cases. The rate of upper urinary tract infection was 35%, while the inflammatory process was accompanied by mild clinical manifestations and quickly resolved. Recurrence of stone formation during the follow-up was seen in 18% of patients. In the control group, the proportion of uncomplicated cases in patients with nephrostomy tube was 40%, the development of pyelonephritis was noted in 60% of cases, and recurrent stones within 36 months were diagnosed in 46.7% of cases. CONCLUSION: Our results emphasize that the role of an infectious factor in the development of recurrent nephrolithiasis after PCNL is often underestimated. The use of a specific vaccination and the Bacillus subtilis preparation in patients with a high infectious risk of recurrent stone formation allows to achieve a significant reduction in the recurrence rate (more than 5 times) compared to the control group during 36 months of postoperative follow-up.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Humanos , Imunização , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vacinação
8.
Urologiia ; (5): 139-148, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185362

RESUMO

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the gold standard treatment of large and staghorn kidney stones. Despite technological progress and improvement of PCNL technique, this procedure is associated with complications and in some cases remain a challenge for endourologists. According to the time, complications can be divided into intra- and postoperative. Intraoperative complications include bleeding, injury of the renal collecting system, visceral organs, pulmonary complications, thromboembolic disorders, extrarenal migration of the stone fragments and incorrect nephrostomy tube placement. Postoperative complications include infection and sepsis, bleeding, persistent urinary fistula, infundibular stenosis and death of the patient. The different recommendations that might be useful for the timely diagnosis of various complications in patients undergoing PCNL are provided in the review. Additionally, information on treatment algorithms is included.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Cálculos Coraliformes , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/diagnóstico , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Nefrostomia Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Arch Esp Urol ; 73(9): 837-842, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144538

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Renal access in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) may be obtained via a pre-existing nephrostomy tube (NT) tract; however, emergent NTs are not always ideal for subsequent surgery. We sought to determine the rate of NT tract usability and assess factors related to the usability of emergently placed NTs. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of UC San Diego subjects undergoing percutaneous renal surgery between January 2016 and October 2018. Demographics and peri-operative variables were collected. The primary outcome was the usability of NT tract for dilation and instrumentation. "Usable" indicated a tract in which PCNL could be completed; "unusable" indicated lack of dilation and the requirement of additional tract(s) for PCNL. RESULTS: 35 PCNL cases had previous emergently placed NT which were indwelling at time of percutaneous surgery. 51% of these NT tracts (18/35) were deemed usable and dilated for PCNL. No significant difference was seen between usable and unusable NT groups for number of dilated tracts during PCNL (p=0.13), or either the location of indwelling NT (p=0.96) or renal stones (p=0.95). In the usable NT tract cohort PCNL access was via the lower pole 56% of the time, where as when previous NT tracts were deemed unusable, a separate upper-pole access was obtained intra-operatively 53% of the time (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Pre-existing, emergent NTs served a ssufficient PCNL access tracts in over half of recorded cases. Contrary to recently published reports, the utility of pre-existing NTs appears to vary among health systems. Other variables, including the desired location of PCNL appear to directly influence the like lihood of NT tract usability.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Humanos , Rim , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 31(11): 1795-1800, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962854

RESUMO

This brief report presents 8 patients with silicone-covered metallic stent placement for ureteral strictures refractory to double-J stent placement, following kidney transplantation. Stent removal was successfully performed in 7 patients via antegrade (n = 4) or retrograde (n = 3) access 6 weeks to 6 months after stenting for elective removal (6-month interval, n = 3), urothelial hyperplasia (n = 2), or stent migration (n = 2), and their mean primary ureteral patency after stent removal was 15.4 months (range, 2-27 months). Hematuria (n = 2) and pain (n = 3) occurred, but resolved within 1 week. One stent was removed during reconstructive surgery. During follow-up of mean 22.6 months after stent removal, ureteral strictures recurred in 2 patients.


Assuntos
Cateterismo/instrumentação , Remoção de Dispositivo , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Stents Metálicos Autoexpansíveis , Silicones , Obstrução Ureteral/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Cateterismo/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Desenho de Prótese , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Obstrução Ureteral/diagnóstico por imagem , Obstrução Ureteral/etiologia
11.
Arch Esp Urol ; 73(7): 643-650, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886079

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare miniaturized percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PNL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) in children with 10-20 mm renal stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2015 and 2019, 63 pediatric patients aged under 16 years who under went mini-PNL and RIRS for the treatment of kidney stones sized 10-20 mm were analyzed retrospectively. The mini-PNL group (n=30) was defined as group 1 and the RIRS group (n=33) was defined as group 2. Peri-operative data including stone-free rate, operative time, fluoroscopy time, hospitalization time, number of anesthesia sessions, complication rates, and cost-effectiveness were analyzed. RESULTS: The mean age was 8.09±5.49 years in group 1 and 5.75±4.56 years in group 2. The stone free rate was not different at the first (80.0% vs. 57.6%) and third month (93.3% vs. 90.9%) follow-up in group 1 and group 2. The mean hospitalization, operative, and fluoroscopy times were statistically significantly longer in group 1. The mean number of anesthesia sessions for patients was 1.20±0.40 in group 1 and 2.15±0.44 in group 2 (p=0.00). Minor complication rates were not different and no major complications were observed in either group. The cost per patient was calculated as 365.97 Euros in group 1 and 698.64 Euros in group 2 (p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that RIRS was an effective alternative treatment method for 10-20 mm kidney stones in children, with comparable stone-free and complication rates. RIRS has a shorter operative time, fluoroscopy time, hospital stay than mini-PNL, with a similar stone-free rate for 10-20 mm kidney stones in children. However, mini-PNL is cheaper and allowed a lower need for anesthesia sessions.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(4): 667-671, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of super-selective renal artery embolization in treatment of post-percutaneous nephrolithotomy bleeding, and to analyse the causes of failure embolization. METHODS: In the study, 65 post-percutaneous nephrolithotomy patients with severe renal bleeding and hemodynamic instability were treated by super-selective renal artery embolization. First of all, we performed selective renal arteriography. After clarifying the location of the bleeding, superselective intubation of the injured vessel with a microcatheter was carried out. Then the injured vessel was embolized with Tornado micro-coil. When complete embolization was not achieved with micro-coil, a small amount of gelatin sponge particles were added. If there was no positive finding of the beginning selective renal arteriography, the following measures could be taken to prevent missing lesions: (1) Abdominal aorta angiography was performed to determine whether there were anatomical variations, such as accessory renal arteries or multiple renal arteries; (2) Ultra-selective intubation angiography next to the nephrostomy tube path was performed; (3) Renal arteriography was repeated; (4) Renal arteriography after removing the nephrostomy tube while retaining the puncture channel. We evaluated the different angiographic findings and analysed the causes of embolization failure. RESULTS: Bleeding was successfully controled in 60 patients (62 kidneys) whose renal arteriography was postive. Positive findings included: pseudoaneurysm formation, patchy contrast extravasation, pseudoaneurysm combined with arteriovenous fistula, contrast agent entering the collection system, extravascular perinephric leakage of contrast. After first embolization, bleeding was controled in 53 patients (55 kidneys). The success rate after the first and second embolization was 88.7% and 96.7% respectively. The second session was required because of failure to demonstrate bleeding arteries during the first session (4 patients, 57.1%) and recurrent hemorrhage of the embolized injured arteries (2 patients, 28.6%). In 5 patients with no positive findings, after conservative treatment, hematuria disappeared. All the patients were followed up for 3, 6, and 12 months after embolization, and no hematuria occurred again, and no sustained and serious renal insufficiency. CONCLUSION: Super-selective renal artery embolization is an effective treatment for post percutaneous nephrolithotomy bleeding. The main cause of failure is omitting of injured arteries during renal arteriography. Renal artery branch injury has various manifestations. Attention should paid to the anatomical variation of the renal artery, and patient and meticulous superselective intubation angiography is the key to avoiding missing the lesion and improving the success rate of embolization.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica , Hemorragia/etiologia , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Humanos , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Artéria Renal , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(4): 672-677, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773799

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To discuss the efficacy and safety of simultaneous bilateral endoscopic surgery (SBES) for bilateral upper urinary tract calculi, and to summarize the initial experience. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with bilateral upper urinary tract calculi who underwent SBES in the Department of Urology, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital from January 2019 to January 2020 were enrolled retrospectively. The demographic and clinical data of the patients were recorded, and the operation status, stone free rate (SFR) and peri-operative complications were analyzed. The primary end point was SFR, and second end point was peri-operative complications. RESULTS: A total of 23 patients underwent SBES, of which SBES was completed in 19 patients (12 males, and 7 females). The mean age was (41.3±12.0) years. Fourteen patients underwent modified supine position surgery and 4 patients in prone split-leg position. There was no statistical difference in the demographic and baseline clinical data of the patients in different positions. One patient underwent right percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and left endoscopic combined intra-renal surgery (ECIRS) in the prone split-leg position, while 18 patients received simul-taneous surgery with PCNL and contralateral retrograde intra-renal surgery (RIRS). The mean anesthesia and operation time was (128.7±26.5) min and (70.7±20.3) min, respectively, which was significantly longer in the patients with prone split-leg position than in the patients with modified supine position, anesthesia time in the patients with prone split-leg position and modified supine position: (148.4±20.4) min vs. (121.6±25.3) min, respectively, t=-2.121, P=0.049, while the operation time in the patients with prone split-leg position and modified supine position: (86.4±21.1) min vs. (65.1±17.4) min, respectively, t=-2.222, P=0.040. There was no significant difference between the two groups in indwelling of nephrostomy [prone split-leg position and modified supine position: (2.6±0.9) d vs. (2.1±1.0) d, respectively; t=-0.880, P=0.391] and the length of hospital stay [prone split-leg position and modified supine position: (6.0±2.7) d vs. (5.2±1.8) d, respectively; t=-0.731, P=0.475]. One month after the operation, the SFR was 78.9%, and 3 patients had minor peri-operative complications (Clavien-Dindo grades Ⅰ/Ⅱ) without any serious complications (Clavien-Dindo grades Ⅲ/Ⅳ/Ⅴ). CONCLUSION: The simultaneous bilateral endoscopic surgery would decrease the operation time and anesthesia exposure under the premise of ensuring the SFR, which is helpful to reduce the risk of peri-operative complications, especially to the patients who can not tolerate the second-stage or long-time operation.


Assuntos
Calcinose/cirurgia , Doenças Urológicas/cirurgia , Adulto , Endoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Cálculos Renais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(4): 692-696, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773803

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcomes of endoscopic combined ultrasound-guided access (EUGA) with the conventional ultrasound-guided access (UGA) to achieve percutaneous renal access in endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery (ECIRS). METHODS: A retrospective review of 53 patients undergoing ECIRS to treat upper urinary tract calculi between January 2017 and October 2019 was con-ducted. All of the cases were of complex upper urinary tract stones larger than 2 cm in diameter. The com-plex stone situations, such as multiple renal calyces calculi or staghorn calculi necessitated ECIRS. Under general anesthesia, the patients were placed in the galdakao-modified supine valdivia (GMSV) position, thus allowing both antegrade and retrograde accesss. The patients were divided to UGA and EUGA groups according to the protocol of achieving percutaneous renal access. In 28 cases, endoscopic combined ultrasound-guided accesss were obtained. Puncture and dilation were performed under direct flexible ureteroscopic visualization, while percutaneous renal access of 25 cases were performed with the conventional technique employing ultrasound guidance. Demographic and perioperative information, such as stone burden, presence of hydronephrosis and number of calyces involved was compared. Primary outcomes included total operative time, renal access time, repeat puncture, hemoglobin level, perioperative complications, and stone-free rate. RESULTS: No major intra-operative complication was recorded in all the 53 ECRIS. No significant difference was observed between the groups in age and gender. There was no significant difference in body mass index[BMI (29.21±3.14) kg/m2 vs.(28.53±2.56) kg/m2], stone burden (37.68±6.89) mm vs. (35.53±6.52) mm, number of calyces involved 2.72±0.68 vs. 2.86±0.71, presence of hydronephrosis (56.0% vs. 46.4%), total operative time (93.0±12.2) min vs. (96.8±14.2) min, hemoglobin level reduction (6.56±2.16) g/L vs. 97.54±2.64) g/L, stone-free rate (92.0% vs. 92.8%), hospital stay (5.52±0.59) d vs. (5.64±0.62) d, perioperative complication rate (8.0% vs. 7.2%). Two patients in EUGA group experienced perioperative complications (one urinary tract infection and one hematuria) while two patients in UGA group experienced perioperative urinary tract infection. None in both groups received blood transfusion. The patients undergoing EUGA had shorter renal access time [(4.0±0.7) min vs. (6.8±2.6) min, P < 0.01] and less repeat puncture (0 vs. 4 cases, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: EUGA is an optimal technique to establish percutaneous renal access in ECIRS, which minimizes access time and repeated procedures.


Assuntos
Ureteroscopia , Humanos , Cálculos Renais , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
15.
Urologiia ; (3): 26-33, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597582

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Given the increase in antibiotic resistance of uropathogens, one of the urgent problems is a development of optimal antimicrobial prophylaxis for surgical interventions, as well as an adequate regimen of antibiotic therapy after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). AIM: to determine an effective perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis for PCNL in patients with kidney stones. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 90 patients with staghorn or multiple large kidney stones who underwent PCNL were included in the study. Before PCNL, urine culture was performed in all patients in order to determine the sensitivity not only to antibiotics, but also to bacteriophages. In addition, urine was taken for additional microbiological studies after the puncture of the collecting system, as well as on the 3rd and 7th day after PCNL. All patients were divided into three groups of 30 patients depending on the regimen of perioperative prophylaxis. In group 1, patients were prescribed ciprofloxacin 1000 mg i.v. intraoperatively, then 1000 mg i.v. q.d. for 3-5 days. In the group 2, patients received one dose of cefotaxime + sulbactam (1.0 g + 0.5 g) 2 hours before PCNL i.m. In the group 3, a polyvalent pyobacteriophage purified was given orally 1 hour before PCNL in a dose of 40 ml and the same dose was used t.i.d. for 3-5 days postoperatively. RESULTS: In all three groups of patients, the following infectious complications were evaluated: acute pyelonephritis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and urosepsis. There were no serious infectious and inflammatory complications in the early postoperative period among all patients. SIRS developed on days 1-3 after PCNL in 26.6%, 20% and 20% of patients in group 1, 2 and 3, respectively. However, by days 4-7 after PCNL, there was normalization of blood cells count (leukocytes, neutrophil band cells), temperature and general condition. CONCLUSION: Different regimens of antimicrobial prophylaxis for PCNL have the same efficiency. The development of SIRS on days 1-3 after PCNL is correlated not only with the antimicrobial agents used and the route of their administration (intravenously, intramuscularly and orally). Most likely, the development of SIRS is more associated with surgical trauma.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Sepse , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica
16.
Urologiia ; (3): 133-136, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597600

RESUMO

This lecture is dedicated to increasing stone free rate (SFR) in patients with staghorn renal stones by using a multimodal approach. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the "gold standard" for the treatment of this group of patients. Depending on a stone size and complexity, SFR for PCNL varies from 55 to 98%. Due to low SFR, which is a main criterion for the effective procedure, various approaches currently are being suggested. In this lecture, we highlighted the following approaches: multi-access PCNL, a use of a ureteroscope in case of antegrade stone migration, a use of flexible instruments, ureterorenoscopy in combination with PCNL. Various lithotripsy techniques are briefly described. The advantage of ultrasound-guided puncture of the kidney is also discussed.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/terapia , Litotripsia , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Cálculos Coraliformes , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ureteroscopia
18.
Urologe A ; 59(9): 1017-1025, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous access to the renal pelvis still remains the most difficult step before nephrolitholapaxy (PCNL). New imaging techniques, such as 3D imaging and various navigation instruments such as electromagnetic, sonographic, CT-controlled and marker-based/iPAD try to simplify this step and reduce complications. OBJECTIVES: In this review, various new techniques for puncturing the renal collecting system are presented and their advantages and disadvantages are evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was carried out in MEDLINE, whereby only puncture techniques that have already been evaluated in clinical studies were included. RESULTS: Five different navigation methods for puncturing the renal pelvis before PCNL were found. CONCLUSION: Intraoperative navigation can be useful when puncturing the collecting system. The combination of ultrasound and fluoroscopy currently remains the gold standard. However, there is still a need for further, primarily clinical, prospective studies to determine which new imaging technology and navigation systems will prevail and thus facilitate the access route to the kidney, especially in the case of special anatomical conditions.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Nefrostomia Percutânea/métodos , Punções/métodos , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
Urologiia ; (2): 51-55, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32351064

RESUMO

AIM: to compare the results of treatment of patients with acute obstructive calculous pyelonephritis, who underwent to retroperitoneoscopic procedure, with patients, who underwent to drainage of the collecting system by means of ureteral stent or nephrostomy tube as the first stage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 121 patients were treated from 2011 to 2019. Of these, 78 patients were included in the main group. The stones were located in the ureteropelvic junction (n = 20) and the upper and middle ureter (n = 58). The average size of the stone was 12.9 +/- 4.8 mm. Preliminary upper urinary tract drainage was not carried out and the stone was removed completely. The group 2 consisted of 26 people. The stones were located in the upper (n = 18) and the middle ureter (n = 8); the average size was 9 +/- 2.8 mm. Renal drainage was done using ureteral stent and when pyelonephritis resolved, ureterolithotripsy was performed. The group 3 was represented by 17 patients. All stones were located in the ureteropelvic junction. The average size was 20.3 +/- 10.7 mm. Renal drainage was done using percutaneous nephrostomy; when there were no inflammatory changes, percutaneous nephrolithotripsy was performed. RESULTS: In the main group, normalization of body temperature and resolution of inflammatory changes in the blood and urine occurred earlier. The stone was removed completely and there were no residual fragments. Period of rehabilitation was are also significantly shorter than in groups 2 and 3. The retroperitoneoscopic method was more effective and safer for the treatment of patients with acute obstructive pyelonephritis caused by large stones located in the upper or middle ureter and ureteropelvic junction.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/terapia , Litotripsia , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Pielonefrite/terapia , Ureter , Cálculos Ureterais , Humanos , Masculino
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