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1.
West J Emerg Med ; 23(3): 408-411, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679501

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Emergency department (ED) testing for sexually transmitted infections (STI) in women is typically performed with a pelvic examination and an endocervical swab. However, vaginal swabs are effective for STI testing and the preferred specimen type according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The utility of using vaginal swabs in the ED for STI screening has not been thoroughly investigated. Our objective was to assess detection rates for two bacterial STIs before and after implementing a screening protocol using vaginal swabs. METHODS: We conducted a quasi-experimental, pre-post study using standardized data from electronic health records across nine metropolitan Detroit hospital EDs. Patients included women who were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the ED between April 2018-December 2019. Pre-implementation tests from April 2018-February 2019 were done using endo-cervical swabs, and post-implementation tests from February 2019-December 2019 were done with vaginal swabs. We used non-inferiority testing for proportion with a non-inferiority margin of one percentage point absolute difference in detection rates of STI. RESULTS: The study included 22,291 encounters with 11,732 in the pre-implementation and 10,559 in the post-implementation phases. The C. trachomatis detection rates were 7.5% pre-implementation and 7.6% post-implementation (between-group difference, 0.1 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.7, 0.4; p<.01 for non-inferiority). The N. gonorrhoeae detection rates were 3.1% pre-implementation and 3.6% post-implementation (between-group difference, 0.5 percentage points; 95% CI: -0.8, 0.04; p<.01 for non-inferiority). CONCLUSION: Using vaginal swabs for STI testing in the ED may be a non-inferior alternative to using endocervical swabs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 524, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP) performs annual sentinel surveillance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae susceptibility to therapeutically relevant antimicrobials across the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA). We present the Euro-GASP results from 2019 (26 countries), linked to patient epidemiological data, and compared with data from previous years. METHODS: Agar dilution and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) gradient strip methodologies were used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility (using EUCAST clinical breakpoints, where available) of 3239 N. gonorrhoeae isolates from 26 countries across the EU/EEA. Significance of differences compared with Euro-GASP results in previous years was analysed using Z-test and the Pearson's χ2 test was used to assess significance of odds ratios for associations between patient epidemiological data and antimicrobial resistance. RESULTS: European N. gonorrhoeae isolates collected between 2016 and 2019 displayed shifting MIC distributions for; ceftriaxone, with highly susceptible isolates increasing over time and occasional resistant isolates each year; cefixime, with highly-susceptible isolates becoming increasingly common; azithromycin, with a shift away from lower MICs towards higher MICs above the EUCAST epidemiological cut-off (ECOFF); and ciprofloxacin which is displaying a similar shift in MICs as observed for azithromycin. In 2019, two isolates displayed ceftriaxone resistance, but both isolates had MICs below the azithromycin ECOFF. Cefixime resistance (0.8%) was associated with patient sex, with resistance higher in females compared with male heterosexuals and men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM). The number of countries reporting isolates with azithromycin MICs above the ECOFF increased from 76.9% (20/26) in 2016 to 92.3% (24/26) in 2019. Isolates with azithromycin MICs above the ECOFF (9.0%) were associated with pharyngeal infection sites. Following multivariable analysis, ciprofloxacin resistance remained associated with isolates from MSM and heterosexual males compared with females, the absence of a concurrent chlamydial infection, pharyngeal infection sites and patients ≥ 25 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance to ceftriaxone and cefixime remained uncommon in EU/EEA countries in 2019 with a significant decrease in cefixime resistance observed between 2016 and 2019. The significant increase in azithromycin "resistance" (azithromycin MICs above the ECOFF) threatens the effectiveness of the dual therapy (ceftriaxone + azithromycin), i.e., for ceftriaxone-resistant cases, currently recommended in many countries internationally and requires close monitoring.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Gonorreia , Faringite , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/farmacologia , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Cefixima/farmacologia , Cefixima/uso terapêutico , Ceftriaxona/farmacologia , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Ciprofloxacina/farmacologia , Ciprofloxacina/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Lancet Microbe ; 3(6): e452-e463, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genomic surveillance using quality-assured whole-genome sequencing (WGS) together with epidemiological and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) data is essential to characterise the circulating Neisseria gonorrhoeae lineages and their association to patient groups (defined by demographic and epidemiological factors). In 2013, the European gonococcal population was characterised genomically for the first time. We describe the European gonococcal population in 2018 and identify emerging or vanishing lineages associated with AMR and epidemiological characteristics of patients, to elucidate recent changes in AMR and gonorrhoea epidemiology in Europe. METHODS: We did WGS on 2375 gonococcal isolates from 2018 (mainly Sept 1-Nov 30) in 26 EU and EEA countries. Molecular typing and AMR determinants were extracted from quality-checked genomic data. Association analyses identified links between genomic lineages, AMR, and epidemiological data. FINDINGS: Azithromycin-resistant N gonorrhoeae (8·0% [191/2375] in 2018) is rising in Europe due to the introduction or emergence and subsequent expansion of a novel N gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) genogroup, G12302 (132 [5·6%] of 2375; N gonorrhoeae sequence typing for antimicrobial resistance [NG-STAR] clonal complex [CC]168/63), carrying a mosaic mtrR promoter and mtrD sequence and found in 24 countries in 2018. CC63 was associated with pharyngeal infections in men who have sex with men. Susceptibility to ceftriaxone and cefixime is increasing, as the resistance-associated lineage, NG-MAST G1407 (51 [2·1%] of 2375), is progressively vanishing since 2009-10. INTERPRETATION: Enhanced gonococcal AMR surveillance is imperative worldwide. WGS, linked to epidemiological and AMR data, is essential to elucidate the dynamics in gonorrhoea epidemiology and gonococcal populations as well as to predict AMR. When feasible, WGS should supplement the national and international AMR surveillance programmes to elucidate AMR changes over time. In the EU and EEA, increasing low-level azithromycin resistance could threaten the recommended ceftriaxone-azithromycin dual therapy, and an evidence-based clinical azithromycin resistance breakpoint is needed. Nevertheless, increasing ceftriaxone susceptibility, declining cefixime resistance, and absence of known resistance mutations for new treatments (zoliflodacin, gepotidacin) are promising. FUNDING: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Centre for Genomic Pathogen Surveillance, Örebro University Hospital, Wellcome.


Assuntos
Gonorreia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Azitromicina/farmacologia , Cefixima/uso terapêutico , Ceftriaxona/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Genômica , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética
4.
Euro Surveill ; 27(24)2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35713023

RESUMO

We describe a gonorrhoea case with ceftriaxone plus high-level azithromycin resistance. In April 2022, an Austrian heterosexual male was diagnosed with gonorrhoea after sexual intercourse with a female sex worker in Cambodia. Recommended treatment with ceftriaxone (1 g) plus azithromycin (1.5 g) possibly failed. Worryingly, this is the second strain in an Asian Neisseria gonorrhoeae genomic sublineage including high-level azithromycin-resistant strains that developed ceftriaxone resistance by acquisition of mosaic penA-60.001. Enhanced resistance surveillance and actions are imperative to prevent spread.


Assuntos
Gonorreia , Profissionais do Sexo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Áustria , Azitromicina/farmacologia , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Ceftriaxona/farmacologia , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Feminino , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Falha de Tratamento
5.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56091

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To estimate the burden of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Treponema pallidum (TP), and human papillomavirus (HPV) infections among people aged 10 to 25 in Latin America and the Caribbean. Methods. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS databases were searched, as well as documents from regional organizations or national health Institutions. Population-based studies that reported prevalence or incidence of CT, NG, TP, and HPV detected through confirmatory tests in adolescents and young people were included. Two reviewers independently selected studies and extracted data. The quality of studies was assessed using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale. Pooled estimators were calculated in cases where heterogeneity was <70%; when not feasible, prevalence ranges were reported. Results. Out of a total of 3 583 references, 15 prevalence studies complied with the inclusion criteria. Due to substantial heterogeneity (>70%), it was not possible to pool frequency estimators. Among the general population, the prevalence of CT infection ranged between 2.1% and 30.1% (9 studies, 5 670 participants); for NG, prevalence ranged between 0% and 2.9% (8 studies, 5 855 participants); for TP, prevalence varied between 0% and 0.7% (3 studies, 11 208 participants), and for HPV infection, prevalence ranged between 25.1% and 55.6% (8 studies, 3 831 participants). Conclusions. Reliable, population-based data on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in adolescents and youth in Latin America and the Caribbean are limited. Additional studies are needed to better understand the burden of STIs in this population. However, given the substantial prevalence of STIs detected, countries need public health policies for prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of STIs in young people.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Calcular la carga de infecciones por Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Treponema pallidum (PT) y el virus del papiloma humano (VPH) en personas de edades comprendidas entre los 10 y los 25 años en América Latina y el Caribe. Métodos. Se realizaron búsquedas en las bases de datos MEDLINE, EMBASE y LILACS, así como en documentos de organizaciones regionales o instituciones nacionales de salud. Se incluyeron estudios poblacionales que notificaron la prevalencia o la incidencia de CT, NG, TP y VPH, detectados mediante pruebas confirmatorias en adolescentes y jóvenes. Dos revisores seleccionaron de forma independiente los estudios y extrajeron los datos. La calidad de los estudios se evaluó mediante la escala de Newcastle-Ottawa. Se hicieron estimaciones combinadas en los casos en que la heterogeneidad era <70 %; cuando no era posible, se presentaron los rangos de prevalencia. Resultados. De un total de 3 583 referencias, 15 estudios de prevalencia cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Debido a una significativa heterogeneidad (>70%), no fue posible agrupar las estimaciones de frecuencia. En la población general, la prevalencia de infección por CT fluctuó entre 2,1 % y 30,1 % (9 estudios y 5 670 participantes); en el caso de NG, la prevalencia fluctuó entre 0 % y 2,9 % (8 estudios y 5 855 participantes); en el caso de PT, la prevalencia varió entre 0 % y 0,7 % (3 estudios y 11 208 participantes) y en el caso de infección por VPH, la prevalencia fluctuó entre 25,1 % y 55,6 % (8 estudios y 3 831 participantes). Conclusiones. Los datos poblacionales fiables sobre las infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) en adolescentes y jóvenes en América Latina y el Caribe son limitados. Es necesario hacer estudios adicionales para comprender mejor la carga de las ITS en este grupo poblacional. Sin embargo, dada la significativa prevalencia de ITS detectada, los países requieren políticas de salud pública para la prevención, el diagnóstico temprano y el tratamiento de las ITS en la población joven.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Estimar a carga de infecção por Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Treponema pallidum (TP) e papilomavírus humano (HPV) na população entre 10 e 25 anos de idade na América Latina e no Caribe. Métodos. Foi realizada uma pesquisa nas bases de dados MEDLINE, EMBASE e LILACS, assim como da documentação de entidades regionais ou nacionais que atuam na área da saúde. Foram incluídos na revisão estudos populacionais que registraram a incidência ou a prevalência de infecção por CT, NG, TP e HPV, verificada por meio de exames confirmatórios realizados em adolescentes e jovens. Dois revisores trabalharam de modo independente na seleção dos estudos e extração dos dados. A qualidade dos estudos foi avaliada utilizando a Escala de Newcastle-Ottawa. Foi feito o cálculo dos estimadores combinados quando a heterogeneidade era <70% e apresentada a variação da prevalência nos outros casos quando essa estimativa não foi possível. Resultados. Das 3 583 referências levantadas, 15 eram estudos de prevalência que satisfizeram os critérios de inclusão. Devido à heterogeneidade considerável entre os estudos (>70%), não foi possível combinar os estimadores de frequência. Na população geral, a prevalência de infecção por CT variou entre 2,1% e 30,1% (9 estudos, 5 670 participantes); a de NG, entre 0 e 2,9% (8 estudos, 5 855 participantes); a de TP, entre 0 e 0,7% (3 estudos, 11 208 participantes); e a de infecção por HPV, entre 25,1% e 55,6% (8 estudos, 3 831 participantes). Conclusões. Faltam dados populacionais confiáveis relativos a infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (ISTs) em adolescentes e jovens na América Latina e no Caribe. Outros estudos devem ser realizados para um entendimento melhor da carga dessas infecções na população. Diante da elevada prevalência verificada, os países precisam dispor de políticas de saúde pública para prevenção, diagnóstico precoce e tratamento de ISTs na população jovem.’


Assuntos
Adolescente , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Revisão Sistemática , Prevalência , Chlamydia trachomatis , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Treponema pallidum , Infecções por Papillomavirus , América Latina , Adolescente , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Revisão Sistemática , Prevalência , Infecções por Papillomavirus , América Latina , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Revisão Sistemática , Prevalência , Infecções por Papillomavirus
6.
J Med Microbiol ; 71(6)2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35700110

RESUMO

Introduction. Azithromycin (AZM) is a therapeutic drug for sexually transmitted infections and is used for Neisseria gonorrhoeae when first- and second-line drugs are not available. Recently, the susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae against AZM has been decreasing worldwide.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. Azithromycin-resistance (AZM-R) rates among N. gonorrhoeae in Japan are increasing, and the gene mutations and epidemiological characteristics of AZM-R in N. gonorrhoeae have not been fully investigated.Aim. We determined the susceptibility to AZM and its correlation with genetic characteristics of N. gonorrhoeae.Methodology. We investigated the susceptibility to AZM and genetic characteristics of N. gonorrhoeae. Mutations in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene and mtrR were examined in 93 isolates, including 13 AZM-R isolates. Spread and clonality were examined using sequence types (STs) of multi-antigen sequence typing for N. gonorrhoeae (NG-MAST), and whole genome analysis (WGA) to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms.Results. The number of AZM-R isolates increased gradually from 2015 to 2019 in Hyogo (P=0.008). C2599T mutations in 23S rRNA significantly increased in AZM-R isolates (P<0.001). NG-MAST ST4207 and ST6762 were frequently detected in AZM-R isolates, and they had higher MICs to AZM from 6 to 24 µg/ml. The phylogenic tree-based WGA showed that all isolates with ST4207 were contained in the same clade, and isolates with ST6762 were divided into two clades, AZM-S isolates and AZM-R isolates, which were different from the cluster containing ST1407.Conclusion. Our study showed yearly increases in AZM-R rates in N. gonorrhoeae. NG-MAST ST4207 and ST6762 were not detected in our previous study in 2015 and were frequently identified in isolates with higher MICs to AZM. WGA confirmed that isolates with these STs are closely related to each other. Continued surveillance is needed to detect the emergence and confirm the spread of NG-MAST ST4207 and ST6762.


Assuntos
Gonorreia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/farmacologia , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , RNA Ribossômico 23S/genética
7.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 66(5): e0010922, 2022 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491832

RESUMO

Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates collected in Nanjing, China, that possessed decreased susceptibility (or resistance) to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) were examined for susceptibility to ertapenem, and their sequence types were determined. Ceftriaxone and cefixime MICs of ≥0.125 mg/L and ≥0.25 mg/L, respectively, were first determined in 259 strains isolated between 2013 and 2019, and then MICs of ertapenem were measured using the antimicrobial gradient Epsilometer test (Etest). Also, genetic determinants of ESC resistance were identified and N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) was performed to analyze associations with ertapenem susceptibility. All isolates displayed ertapenem MICs between 0.006 mg/L and 0.38 mg/L; the overall MIC50 and MIC90 were 0.032 mg/L and 0.125 mg/L, respectively. Forty-four (17.0%) isolates displayed ertapenem MICs of ≥0.125 mg/L; 10 (3.9%) had MICs of ≥0.25 mg/L. The proportion of isolates with ertapenem MICs of ≥0.125 mg/L increased from 4.0% in 2013 to 20.0% in 2019 (χ2 = 24.144, P < 0.001; chi-square test for linear trend). The penA mosaic allele was present in a significantly higher proportion of isolates with ertapenem MICs of ≥0.125 mg/L than of isolates with MICs of ≤0.094 mg/L) (97.7% versus 34.9%, respectively; χ2 = 58.158, P < 0.001). ST5308 was the most prevalent NG-MAST type (8.5%); ST5308 was also significantly more common among isolates with ertapenem MICs of ≥0.125 mg/L than isolates with MICs of ≤0.094 mg/L (22.7% and 5.6%, respectively; χ2 = 13.815, P = 0.001). Ertapenem may be effective therapy for gonococcal isolates with decreased susceptibility or resistance to ESCs and isolates with identifiable genetic resistance determinants.


Assuntos
Gonorreia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Ertapenem/uso terapêutico , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
8.
J Microbiol Methods ; 197: 106480, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526670

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major concern of public health due to its extraordinary capacity to develop and acquire resistance to different antimicrobials used to treat gonorrhoea. Limited treatment options and uncontrolled transmission have raised the need to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates and to establish affordable alternatives for laboratory diagnosis. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to (i) determine the susceptibility profile of 336 clinical isolates of N. gonorrhoeae to ceftriaxone, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, spectinomycin and gentamicin by the gold standard agar dilution method; (ii) assess the agreement among agar dilution and disc diffusion results for ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, ceftriaxone, spectinomycin and gentamicin. RESULTS: All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone and spectinomycin. The levels of resistance to azithromycin and ciprofloxacin were 3.9% and 35.1%, respectively. Intermediate susceptibility to gentamicin was observed in 19.4% of isolates. There was 100% agreement between methods for spectinomycin and ceftriaxone, 99.7% for ciprofloxacin, and 85.7% for azithromycin. For gentamicin, there was 86.3% agreement between agar dilution and disc diffusion, resulting in intermediate susceptible by one method and susceptible by the other method, defined as minor errors. The discordance among agar dilution and disc diffusion results is acceptable for ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone and spectinomycin as per CLSI M23-Ed4. CONCLUSIONS: Spectinomycin and gentamicin can be considered in some cases as options for the treatment of gonorrhoea in Brazil. Disc diffusion can be an alternative method in routine testing with comparable accuracy to agar dilution.


Assuntos
Gonorreia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Ágar , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/farmacologia , Ceftriaxona/farmacologia , Ciprofloxacina/farmacologia , Gentamicinas/farmacologia , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Espectinomicina/farmacologia
9.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0266596, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are common among young people in low- and middle-income countries and are associated with negative reproductive and pregnancy outcomes. Most of the studies have assessed HIV among adolescents and young adults, with limited information on occurrence of other STIs in this population. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of and risk factors associated with Herpes Simplex Virus-type 2 (HSV-2), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Syphilis and HIV infection among young adults attending Higher Learning Institutions (HLIs) in Mbeya, Tanzania. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among students aged 18-24years attending HLIs in Mbeya-Tanzania, randomly selected using a computerized random number. Participants were tested for HSV-2, CT, NG, Syphilis and HIV infection. We used a self-administered questionnaire to collect information on sexual activity and risk factors to the tested STIs. RESULTS: We enrolled 504 students from 5 HLIs, with mean age of 21.5 years (SD 1.7). 17% of the students had at least one STI; prevalence was higher among females than males (21.1% versus 14.1%). CT (11%) and HSV-2 (6.1%) were the most common STIs, while NG (1.1%) and HIV (0.7%) infection had the least occurrence. None of the participants was diagnosed with Syphilis. In univariate analysis, predictors for STIs were Sex, inconsistent condom use in the past 4weeks, report of oral sex, sexual orientation (bisexual/homosexual) and having a sexual partner with an age-difference of at least 5years (either older or younger); while in the multivariate analysis, Sex, inconsistent condom use in the past 4weeks and sexual orientation (bisexual/homosexual) remained significant. CONCLUSION: STIs such as Chlamydia and HSV-2 which are commonly asymptomatic are of concern among young adults attending HLIs. The latter is an important group that needs attention and recognition that is pivotal in transmission of STIs considering their risk. Information, Education and Communication (IEC) campaigns targeting young adults, especially those at HLIs, need to focus on exposure-risk minimization. Funding institutions that have invested heavily on HIV prevention campaigns should consider giving similar recognition to other STIs for a streamlined outcome.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Gonorreia , Infecções por HIV , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Sífilis , Adolescente , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Herpesvirus Humano 2 , Humanos , Masculino , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(6): e0039922, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510509

RESUMO

The number of days until pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) results become negative after treatment remains unknown. Between March 2019 and April 2021, we enrolled men who have sex with men (MSM) who had a clinical positive pharyngeal N. gonorrhoeae Aptima Combo 2 test result but had not yet been treated in a prospective longitudinal cohort study. MSM were enrolled on their day of treatment and self-collected daily pharyngeal specimens for 21 days at home. We used Kaplan-Meier estimates to determine the median time to clearance and the >95% time to clearance and the log rank test for equality to evaluate factors associated with time to clearance. Sixty-four men were enrolled in the study. Analyses excluded 8 men (12.5%) who were N. gonorrhoeae negative by NAAT at enrollment and 11 (17%) who failed to return any home-collected specimens. Among the 45 men included in the analysis, the median time to N. gonorrhoeae NAAT clearance was 3 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 2 to 5 days). Time to clearance for >95% of the cohort was 12 days (95% CI, 10 days to an undefined time). Men with a history of N. gonorrhoeae infection cleared faster than men without such history (8 days versus 17 days for >95% time to clearance; P = 0.03). In the absence of reexposure, positive N. gonorrhoeae Aptima Combo 2 assay results obtained prior to 12 days after treatment are likely false-positive results.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Gonorreia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Faringe , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA/uso terapêutico
11.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(5): e1010497, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35580146

RESUMO

The mechanisms used by human adapted commensal Neisseria to shape and maintain a niche in their host are poorly defined. These organisms are common members of the mucosal microbiota and share many putative host interaction factors with Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Evaluating the role of these shared factors during host carriage may provide insight into bacterial mechanisms driving both commensalism and asymptomatic infection across the genus. We identified host interaction factors required for niche development and maintenance through in vivo screening of a transposon mutant library of Neisseria musculi, a commensal of wild-caught mice which persistently and asymptomatically colonizes the oral cavity and gut of CAST/EiJ and A/J mice. Approximately 500 candidate genes involved in long-term host interaction were identified. These included homologs of putative N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae virulence factors which have been shown to modulate host interactions in vitro. Importantly, many candidate genes have no assigned function, illustrating how much remains to be learned about Neisseria persistence. Many genes of unknown function are conserved in human adapted Neisseria species; they are likely to provide a gateway for understanding the mechanisms allowing pathogenic and commensal Neisseria to establish and maintain a niche in their natural hosts. Validation of a subset of candidate genes confirmed a role for a polysaccharide capsule in N. musculi persistence but not colonization. Our findings highlight the potential utility of the Neisseria musculi-mouse model as a tool for studying the pathogenic Neisseria; our work represents a first step towards the identification of novel host interaction factors conserved across the genus.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Neisseria , Animais , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Portador Sadio/fisiopatologia , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Biblioteca Gênica , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Camundongos , Microbiota/genética , Membrana Mucosa/microbiologia , Neisseria/genética , Neisseria/patogenicidade , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/patogenicidade , Neisseria meningitidis/genética , Neisseria meningitidis/patogenicidade , Simbiose/genética , Simbiose/fisiologia , Fatores de Virulência/genética
12.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1036, 2022 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35606713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections are prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. However, compared to syphilis and HIV, the testing rate for chlamydia and gonorrhea remains low. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility for conducting rapid nucleic acid test for chlamydia and gonorrhea in MSM community-based organizations (CBO). METHOD: We recruited our participants through an MSM CBO where free HV and syphilis testing were routinely provided. We collected data including social-demographic background, sexual history, chlamydia and gonorrhea testing history, and reasons for accepting this on-site rapid testing. Urine and/or anorectal swab samples were collected and tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea on-site and the testing results were delivered in about 1.5 h. Positive cases received on-site free treatment. RESULTS: From August 2020 to October 2020, 634 MSM visited the CBO for syphilis and HIV testing and 158 (158/634, 24.9%) accepted the on-site chlamydia and gonorrhea rapid test, 135 were finally enrolled. The positive rate fo chlamydia was 16.3% (22/135) and 3.0% (4/135) for gonorrhea, respectively. Only 19.3% participants had previously undergone chlamydia and gonorrhea testing and 68.9% (93/135) participants reported that they had heard of gonorrhea, 47.4% (64/135) had heard of chlamydia. The main reason for testing was "free for charge" (66.2%), followed by "convenient, 'shorter waiting time" (45.2%) and "had high-risk sexual behavior recently" (16.3%). CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study showed that the chlamydia and gonorrhea infection rate remains high among MSM, while the testing rate was low. On-site rapid testing is feasible and potentially preferred by MSM.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Gonorreia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Sífilis , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Projetos Piloto , Comportamento Sexual
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(5)2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537765

RESUMO

We present a case of endocarditis secondary to disseminated Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection affecting the native tricuspid valve. After a thorough workup, our patient was treated conservatively with appropriate intravenous antibiotic therapy for 6 weeks. A follow-up echocardiogram showed resolution of the vegetation without any residual valvular involvement. Literature review reveals 99 cases of infective endocarditis which occurred secondary to N. gonorrhoeae infection, of which, only 4 cases (6%) affected the tricuspid valve. Through this case report, we highlight the importance of thorough history taking including a sexual and social history, as well as careful recognition of the clinical signs, which helped us reach this uncommon diagnosis while always maintaining a high clinical suspicion of rare causes of endocarditis.


Assuntos
Endocardite Bacteriana , Endocardite , Gonorreia , Endocardite/diagnóstico , Endocardite Bacteriana/complicações , Endocardite Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Endocardite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Gonorreia/complicações , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Valva Tricúspide
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 440, 2022 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525934

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Prompt diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are essential to combat the STI epidemic in resource-limited settings. We characterized the burden of 5 curable STIs chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, Mycoplasma genitalium, syphilis, and HIV infection in Ugandan men with urethritis. METHODS: Participants were recruited from a gonococcal surveillance program in Kampala, Uganda. Questionnaires, penile swabs were collected and tested by nucleic acid amplification. Gonococcal isolates were tested for antimicrobial sensitivity. Sequential point-of-care tests on blood samples were used to screen for syphilis and HIV. Bivariable and multivariable multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios for preselected factors likely to be associated with STIs. Adherence to STI treatment guidelines were analyzed. RESULTS: From October 2019 to November 2020, positivity (95% CI) for gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, and Mycoplasma genitalium, were 66.4% (60.1%, 72.2%), 21.7% (16.8%, 27.4%), 2.0% (0.7%, 4.9%), and 12.4% (8.7%, 17.3%) respectively. All Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, penicillin, and tetracycline, but susceptible to extended spectrum cephalosporins and azithromycin. HIV and syphilis prevalence was 20.0% (50/250) and 10.0% (25/250), and the proportion unaware of their infection was 4.0% and 80.0% respectively. Most participants were treated per national guidelines. Multivariable analysis demonstrated significant associations between curable STI coinfections and younger age, transactional sex, but not HIV status, nor condom or alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS: STI coinfections including HIV their associated risk factors, and gonococcal AMR were common in this population. The majority with syphilis were unaware of their infection and were untreated. Transactional sex was associated with STI coinfections, and > 80% of participants received appropriate treatment.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Gonorreia , Infecções por HIV , Mycoplasma genitalium , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Sífilis , Tricomoníase , Doenças Uretrais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/complicações , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Prevalência , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/complicações , Sífilis/tratamento farmacológico , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
16.
Pediatr Ann ; 51(5): e206-e208, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35575542

RESUMO

An 11-day-old girl, who was diagnosed with Neisseria gonorrhoeae ophthalmia neonatorum, presents with a purulent ocular discharge. Although rare in regions with high implementation rates of ocular prophylaxis, ophthalmia neonatorum remains an important diagnostic consideration, especially in developing countries and areas of low socioeconomic status. In this article, we review the evolving epidemiology, diagnostic considerations, prevention, and treatment of ophthalmia neonatorum. [Pediatr Ann. 2022;51(5):e206-e208.].


Assuntos
Gonorreia , Oftalmia Neonatal , Feminino , Gonorreia/complicações , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Oftalmia Neonatal/tratamento farmacológico , Oftalmia Neonatal/terapia , Alta do Paciente
17.
Lancet Microbe ; 3(5): e376-e381, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neisseria gonorrhoeae poses an urgent public health threat because of increasing antimicrobial resistance; however, much of the circulating population remains susceptible to historical treatment regimens. Point-of-care diagnostics that report susceptibility could allow for reintroduction of these regimens, but development of such diagnostics has been restricted to ciprofloxacin, for which susceptibility can be predicted from a single locus. We aimed to define genetic variants associated with susceptibility to penicillin and tetracycline. METHODS: We collected publicly available global whole-genome sequencing data (n=12 045) from clinical N gonorrhoeae isolates, with phenotypic resistance data for penicillin (n=6935), and tetracycline (n=5727). Using conditional genome-wide association studies, we defined genetic variants associated with susceptibility to penicillin and tetracycline. We excluded isolates that could not be classified as either susceptible or resistant. To validate our results, we assembled 1479 genomes from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project, for which urethral specimens are collected at sentinel surveillance sites across the USA. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of susceptibility-associated alleles using Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoints for susceptibility and non-resistance in both the global and validation datasets. FINDINGS: In our conditional penicillin genome-wide association study, the presence of a genetic variant defined by a non-mosaic penA allele without an insertion at codon 345 was associated with penicillin susceptibility and had the highest negative effect size (ß) of significant variants (p=5·0x10-14, ß -2·5). In combination with the absence of blaTEM, this variant predicted penicillin susceptibility with high specificity (99·8%) and modest sensitivity (36·7%). For tetracycline, the wildtype allele at rpsJ codon 57, encoding valine, was associated with tetracycline susceptibility (p=5·6x10-16, ß -1·6) after conditioning on the presence of tetM. The combination of rpsJ codon 57 allele and tetM absence predicted tetracycline susceptibility with high specificity (97·2%) and sensitivity (88·7%). INTERPRETATION: As few as two genetic loci can predict susceptibility to penicillin and tetracycline in N gonorrhoeae with high specificity. Molecular point-of-care diagnostics targeting these loci have the potential to increase available treatments for gonorrhoea. FUNDING: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the National Science Foundation, and the Smith Family Foundation.


Assuntos
Gonorreia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Penicilinas/farmacologia , Tetraciclina/farmacologia
18.
Euro Surveill ; 27(18)2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35514307

RESUMO

Because cefixime and ceftriaxone resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and gonorrhoea treatment failures were increasing, a response plan to control and manage multidrug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae (MDR-NG) in Europe was published in 2012. The three main areas of the plan were to: (i) strengthen surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), (ii) implement monitoring of treatment failures and (iii) establish a communication strategy to increase awareness and disseminate AMR results. Since 2012, several additional extensively drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae (XDR-NG) strains have emerged, and strains with high-level ceftriaxone resistance spread internationally. This prompted an evaluation and review of the 2012 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) response plan, revealing an overall improvement in many aspects of monitoring AMR in N. gonorrhoeae; however, treatment failure monitoring was a weakness. Accordingly, the plan was updated in 2019 to further support European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries in controlling and managing the threat of MDR/XDR-NG in Europe through further strengthening of AMR surveillance and clinical management including treatment failure monitoring. The plan will be assessed biennially to ensure its effectiveness and its value. Along with prevention, diagnostic, treatment and epidemiological surveillance strategies, AMR surveillance is essential for effective control of gonorrhoea.


Assuntos
Gonorreia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ceftriaxona/farmacologia , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
19.
Euro Surveill ; 27(18)2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35514308

RESUMO

BackgroundEffective surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is required for the early detection of resistant strains and to ensure that treatment guidelines are appropriate for the setting in which they are implemented. AMR in N. gonorrhoeae has been identified as a global health threat.AimWe performed a systematic review to identify and describe surveillance systems targeting AMR in N. gonorrhoeae.MethodsWe searched Medline, PubMed, Global Health, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science and ProQuest databases and grey literature between 1 January 2012 and 27 September 2020. Surveillance systems were defined as the continuous, systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of N. gonorrhoeae resistance data. The key components of surveillance systems were extracted, categorised, described and summarised.ResultsWe found 40 publications reporting on N. gonorrhoeae AMR surveillance systems in 27 countries and 10 multi-country or global surveillance reports. The proportion of countries with surveillance systems in each of the WHO's six regions ranged from one of 22 countries in the Eastern Mediterranean and five of 54 in Africa, to three of 11 countries in South East Asia. Only four countries report systems which are both comprehensive and national. We found no evidence of a current surveillance system in at least 148 countries. Coverage, representativeness, volume, clinical specimen source, type and epidemiological information vary substantially and limit interpretability and comparability of surveillance data for public health action.ConclusionGlobally, surveillance for N. gonorrhoeae AMR is inadequate and leaves large populations vulnerable to a major public health threat.


Assuntos
Gonorreia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
20.
Trials ; 23(1): 441, 2022 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35610666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) during pregnancy are associated with adverse birth outcomes, including preterm birth, low birth weight, perinatal death, and congenital infections such as increased mother-to-child HIV transmission. Prevalence of STIs among pregnant women in South Africa remains high, with most women being asymptomatic for their infection(s). Unfortunately, most STIs remain undetected and untreated due to standard practice syndromic management in accordance with World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Although lab-based and point-of-care molecular tests are available, optimal screening strategies during pregnancy, their health impact, and cost-effectiveness are unknown. METHODS: We will implement a 3-arm (1:1:1) type-1 hybrid effectiveness-implementation randomized-controlled trial (RCT). We will enroll 2500 pregnant women attending their first antenatal care (ANC) visit for their current pregnancy at participating health facilities in Buffalo City Metro District, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Participants allocated to arms 1 and 2 (intervention) will receive GeneXpert® point-of-care diagnostic testing for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis, with same-day treatment for detected infection(s). Arm 1 will additionally receive a test-of-cure 3 weeks post-treatment, while Arm 2 will receive a repeat test at 30-34 weeks' gestation. Those allocated to Arm 3 will receive syndromic management (standard-of-care). The RE-AIM framework will be used to guide collection of implementation indicators to inform potential future scale up. Primary outcome measures include (1) frequency of adverse birth outcomes among study arms, defined by a composite measure of low birth weight and pre-term delivery, and (2) change in STI prevalence between baseline and birth outcome among intervention arms and compared to standard-of-care. Estimates and comparative costs of the different screening strategies relative to standard-of-care and the costs of managing adverse birth outcomes will be calculated. Cost-effectiveness will be assessed per STI and disability-adjusted life year averted. DISCUSSION: This trial is the first RCT designed to identify optimal, cost-effective screening strategies that decrease the burden of STIs during pregnancy and reduce adverse birth outcomes. Demonstrating the impact of diagnostic screening and treatment, compared to syndromic management, on birth outcomes will provide critical evidence to inform changes to WHO guidelines for syndromic management of STIs during pregnancy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04446611 . Registered on 25 June 2020.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Trichomonas vaginalis , Chlamydia trachomatis , Feminino , Humanos , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle
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