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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3870, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747621

RESUMO

Soils harbor a substantial fraction of the world's biodiversity, contributing to many crucial ecosystem functions. It is thus essential to identify general macroecological patterns related to the distribution and functioning of soil organisms to support their conservation and consideration by governance. These macroecological analyses need to represent the diversity of environmental conditions that can be found worldwide. Here we identify and characterize existing environmental gaps in soil taxa and ecosystem functioning data across soil macroecological studies and 17,186 sampling sites across the globe. These data gaps include important spatial, environmental, taxonomic, and functional gaps, and an almost complete absence of temporally explicit data. We also identify the limitations of soil macroecological studies to explore general patterns in soil biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships, with only 0.3% of all sampling sites having both information about biodiversity and function, although with different taxonomic groups and functions at each site. Based on this information, we provide clear priorities to support and expand soil macroecological research.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/parasitologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biomassa , Clima , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Geografia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/metabolismo , Oligoquetos/classificação , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Solo/química , Temperatura
2.
Annu Rev Phytopathol ; 58: 277-311, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853099

RESUMO

The loss of methyl bromide as a soil fumigant and minimal advances in the development and registration of new chemical fumigants has resulted in a resurgence of interest in the application of organic amendments (OAs) for soilborne plant pathogen and plant-parasitic nematode management. Significant progress has been made in the characterization of OAs, application of strategies for their use, and elucidation of mechanisms by which they suppress soilborne pests. Nonetheless, their utility is limited by the variability of disease control, expense, and the logistics of introducing them into crop production systems. Recent advances in molecular techniques have led to significant progress in the elucidation of the role of bacteria and fungi and their metabolic products on disease suppression with the addition of OAs. Biosolarization and anaerobic soil disinfestation, developed to manipulate systems and favor beneficial microorganisms to maximize their impact on plant pathogens, are built on a strong historical research foundation in OAs and the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of disease-suppressive soils. This review focuses on recent applications of OAs and their potential for the management of soilborne plant pathogens and plant-parasitic nematodes, with emphasis primarily on annual fruit and vegetable production systems.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Animais , Produção Agrícola , Fungos , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
3.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(7): e1008104, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735589

RESUMO

High levels of heterozygosity present a unique genome assembly challenge and can adversely impact downstream analyses, yet is common in sequencing datasets obtained from non-model organisms. Here we show that by re-assembling a heterozygous dataset with variant parameters and different assembly algorithms, we are able to generate assemblies whose protein annotations are statistically enriched for specific gene ontology categories. While total assembly length was not significantly affected by assembly methodologies tested, the assemblies generated varied widely in fragmentation level and we show local assembly collapse or expansion underlying the enrichment or depletion of specific protein functional groups. We show that these statistically significant deviations in gene ontology groups can occur in seemingly high-quality assemblies, and result from difficult-to-detect local sequence expansion or contractions. Given the unpredictable interplay between assembly algorithm, parameter, and biological sequence data heterozygosity, we highlight the need for better measures of assembly quality than N50 value, including methods for assessing local expansion and collapse.


Assuntos
Mapeamento de Sequências Contíguas , Genoma Helmíntico , Heterozigoto , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/métodos , Nematoides/genética , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Animais , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Funções Verossimilhança , Proteoma , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 738: 140164, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806343

RESUMO

Machair is a vulnerable low-lying coastal ecosystem with internationally recognised conservation importance. It is characterised by wind-blown calcareous shell-sand soils that support a patchwork of low-input land-use types including species rich grasslands and small-scale arable production. In contrast to numerous above-ground studies, few below-ground studies have been made on the Machair. Thus, a knowledge gap exists, and no baseline data is available to determine the impact, if any, of fundamental changes in Machair land management practices such as a move from traditional rotational to permanent grazing, and increased use of inorganic fertiliser. To address this knowledge deficit, we assessed the impact of different agronomic management practices (cropped, fallow and grasslands) on the structure of soil nematode communities over a two-year period along a geographically limited north-south gradient of coastal Machair of the Outer Hebrides archipelago. Land use followed by season were the main drivers of nematode communities from Machair soils. Functionally, nematode communities from grassland were typically distinct from cropped or fallow communities driven primarily by differential contributions to the overall nematode community by the dominant bacterial-feeding nematodes. Temporally, nematode communities sampled in spring and autumn were distinct.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Nematoides , Animais , Bactérias , Estações do Ano , Solo
5.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(7): 2287-2292, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715693

RESUMO

Bacillus sp. SMrs28, metabolites from which had significant nematicidal activity, was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Stellera chamaejasme. To determine the optimal fermentation conditions of the strain and the resin type of preliminary purified active ingredient, fermentation conditions were optimized by single factor experiment, while the macroporous resin types were screened in a static adsorption experiment. The results showed that the optimal fermentation conditions of SMrs28 strain were as follows: glucose and yeast powder were the best carbon source and nitrogen source, fermentation for 48 h, inoculum volume of 10%, temperature at 28 ℃,a rotation speed of 180 r·min-1, liquid volume of 30 mL in 150 mL triangular flask, and with an initial pH of 7.2. The static adsorption experiments showed that the adsorption and desorption of active ingre-dients in the fermentation broth by the macroporous adsorption resin D101 was significantly better than that of XAD-4, HP20 and AB-8, with the nematicidal activity of the desorption liquid being significantly improved. The nematicidal activity of fermentation broth was significantly improved by the optimization of fermentation conditions and the screening of optimal macroporous adsorption resins. These results laid a foundation for the further isolation and purification of active ingredients from SMrs28 strain, and provided theoretical basis for the development and utilization of microbial nematicides.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Nematoides , Adsorção , Animais , Fermentação , Rizosfera
6.
BMC Ecol ; 20(1): 39, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Manure and biochar soil amendments have shown many benefits to soil quality and crop productivity. This study aimed to reveal the effects of biochar and manure applications on soil fertility improvement and crop productivity in yellow cinnamon soil. RESULTS: This study based on a 5-year field experiment. Four treatments were designed, included the control (CK), biochar amendment, manure amendment, and both biochar and manure amendment (BM). The results showed that: after five years, both biochar and manure treatment improved soil structure by increasing soil mean weight diameter (MWD), and soil water and nutrient supply was also increased by increasing the contents of water content, available potassium and available phosphorus. The productivity was also enhanced as wheat yield under the biochar, manure, and BM treatments increased by 3.59-11.32% compared with CK. In addition, biochar and manure treatment increased soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) by > 15%, and soil total nematode abundance was significantly increased. Furthermore, the nematode community structure was significantly affected by biochar and manure treatment, dominant trophic group in CK was herbivores, but bacterivores were dominant in the biochar and manure treatments. The distribution of nematode genera was closely related to soil chemical properties and microbial biomass. Increases in the Shannon's diversity index, and decreases in the dominance index and summed maturity index after the 5-year treatment indicated a sustainable soil ecosystem after the biochar and manure applications. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that biochar and manure result in better soil quality and increased productivity in yellow cinnamon soil.


Assuntos
Esterco , Nematoides , Animais , Carvão Vegetal , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Ecossistema , Fertilizantes , Solo
7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 157: 111375, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658716

RESUMO

At the end of March 2020, ivermectin was confirmed as a drug for COVID-19 treatment. A significant amount of ivermectin could deposit into sediments of the semi-closed Mediterranean Sea, where three European COVID-19 epicenters are located: Italy, Spain, and France. Meiobenthic nematodes were exposed to three ivermectin doses (1.8 ng.g-1, 9 ng.g-1, and 18 ng.g-1) for 10 days. Ivermectin caused a great reduction in abundance. However, the diversity indices decreased only at high doses. Ivermectin disadvantaged the 1B-Cr-Id functional type (non-selective deposit feeders and nematodes with circular or indistinct amphids) and benefited the 2A-REL-Sp type (epistrate feeders and nematodes with rounded or elongated loop amphids). Thus, Trophic Diversity and Amphideal Diversity index values increased with sedimentary ivermectin enrichment. Large amphideal foveas were more efficient for 2A-REL-Sp nematodes to avoid ivermectin. The responses of the functional type 2A-REL-Sp and corresponding taxa predict post-COVID-19 environmental concerns and the bioaccumulation of ivermectin in seafoods.


Assuntos
Antivirais/toxicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus , Ivermectina , Nematoides , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , França , Humanos , Itália , Ivermectina/toxicidade , Mar Mediterrâneo , Espanha
8.
Mycorrhiza ; 30(5): 555-566, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647969

RESUMO

This study investigates the impact of the alteration of the monolignol biosynthesis pathway on the establishment of the in vitro interaction of poplar roots either with a mutualistic ectomycorrhizal fungus or with a pathogenic root-knot nematode. Overall, the five studied transgenic lines downregulated for caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT), caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT), cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) or both COMT and CAD displayed a lower mycorrhizal colonisation percentage, indicating a lower ability for establishing mutualistic interaction than the wild-type. The susceptibility to root-knot nematode infection was variable in the five lines, and the CAD-deficient line was found to be less susceptible than the wild-type. We discuss these phenotypic differences in the light of the large shifts in the metabolic profile and gene expression pattern occurring between roots of the CAD-deficient line and wild-type. A role of genes related to trehalose metabolism, phytohormones, and cell wall construction in the different mycorrhizal symbiosis efficiency and nematode sensitivity between these two lines is suggested. Overall, these results show that the alteration of plant metabolism caused by the repression of a single gene within phenylpropanoid pathway results in significant alterations, at the root level, in the response towards mutualistic and pathogenic associates. These changes may constrain plant fitness and biomass production, which are of economic importance for perennial industrial crops such as poplar.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Nematoides , Populus , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lignina , Simbiose
9.
Oecologia ; 193(3): 761-771, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656605

RESUMO

Plant parasitic nematodes are among the greatest consumers of primary production in terrestrial ecosystems. Their feeding strategies can be divided into endoparasites and ectoparasites that differ substantially, not only in their damage potential to host tissue and primary production, but also in their susceptibility to environmental changes. Climate change is predicted to increase variability of precipitation in many systems, yet the effects on belowground biodiversity and associated impacts on primary productivity remain poorly understood. To examine the impact of altered precipitation on endo- and ectoparasitic soil nematodes, we conducted a 2-year precipitation manipulation study across an arid, a semiarid, and a mesic grassland. Plant parasite feeding type abundance, functional guilds, and herbivory index in response to precipitation were evaluated. Responses of endo- and ectoparasites to increased precipitation varied by grassland type. There was little response of ectoparasites to increased precipitation although their population declined at the mesic site with increased precipitation. The abundance of endoparasites remained unchanged with increasing precipitation at the arid site, increased at the semiarid, and decreased at the mesic site. The herbivory index followed closely the trends seen in the endoparasites response by stagnating at the arid site, increasing at the semiarid, and decreasing at the mesic site. Our findings suggest that altered precipitation has differing effects on plant parasite feeding strategies as well as functional guilds. This may have important implications for grassland productivity, as plant parasite pressure may exacerbate the effects of climate change on host plants.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Nematoides , Animais , Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Pradaria , Herbivoria , Chuva , Solo
10.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e023519, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609248

RESUMO

An adult male puma (Puma concolor), hit by a car in an urban area, died three days later despite the therapeutic support provided. At necropsy, multiple firm nodules were identified in the gastric mucosa. The nodules were coated by an intact mucosa with a central opening from which reddish and cylindrical nematodes protruded into the lumen. Twenty-seven nematodes were retrieved for morphological and morphometric evaluations. During histopathological examination of the gastric tissue, the adult nematodes appear in longitudinal and transverse sections, surrounded by thick bands of collagen, interspersed with mixed inflammatory infiltrates. The nematodes had an eosinophilic cuticle with caudal serrated projections (bulbar type), coelomyarian musculature, pseudocoelom, and females with uterus containing numerous larvated eggs, characteristics consistent with the Cylicospirura genus. Morphologically, female nematodes had six large tricuspid teeth in the oral cavity and the vulva had an opening anterior to the esophagus-intestinal junction. Male nematodes had five pairs of small papillae near the tip of the tail. These findings were consistent with Cylicospirura felineus. This parasite should be included in the differential diagnosis of nodular gastric wall lesions in wild felids.


Assuntos
Gastrite , Nematoides , Puma , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Gatos , Feminino , Gastrite/parasitologia , Gastrite/veterinária , Masculino , Nematoides/fisiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/patologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Puma/parasitologia
11.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e001420, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520087

RESUMO

Buteogallus schistaceus (Sundevall) is an endemic bird of prey from the Amazon region, with a declining population according to international conservation agencies. The objective of this study was to report the occurrence of a parasitic nematodes in an individual treated at the Ambulatório de Animais Silvestres of Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia, Belém campus. The animal was captured on campus and showed no resistance to capture. Fluid therapy and deworming were made, later the bird regurgited ten nematodes identified as belonging to the genus Procyrnea Chabaud (1958). Reviewing the scientific literature, it was found that so far there are no records on the helminth fauna of this bird species, which is therefore the first report of a nematode in B. schistaceus.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves/parasitologia , Nematoides/anatomia & histologia , Nematoides/classificação , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação
12.
Exp Parasitol ; 216: 107936, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535116

RESUMO

This study evaluated the germination capacity of Pochonia chlamydosporia (VC4) fungus after its passage through the gastrointestinal tract of domestic chickens and its interaction with Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum eggs. Twenty-two domestic chickens were divided in two groups: control group (G1) received shredded corn substrate without VC4; and treatment group (G2) received a single dose of 29 g corn substrate containing 3.3 × 106 conidia/chlamydospores (VC4). Subsequently, chicken fecal samples were collected at intervals of 0, 6, 8, 10, 12, 18 and 24 h. Petri dishes from fecal samples of the treated group (G2) were subdivided (G2a and G2b), and then replicated in 2% agar-water medium for the microbiological test. After VC4 growth, approximately 200 eggs of A. galli (G2a) and H. gallinarum (G2b) were added to each subgroup to evaluation of ovicidal activity. There was fungal viability after passage through chicken gastrointestinal tract and egg predation of 59.9% and 43.2% for A. galli and H. gallinarum, respectively. The present work demonstrates the ability of the fungus P. chlamydosporia to survive after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of domestic chickens, an extreme environment (low pH, enzymes, microbiota and mechanical action), and still germinate after being excreted with feces.


Assuntos
Ascaridíase/veterinária , Galinhas , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Hypocreales/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Animais , Ascaridia/microbiologia , Ascaridíase/prevenção & controle , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Nematoides/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/prevenção & controle , Spirurina/microbiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234129, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502188

RESUMO

Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus, symbiotically associated with entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), produce a range of antimicrobial compounds. The objective of this study is to identify Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus and their EPNs hosts, which were isolated from soil samples from Saraburi province, and study their antibacterial activity against 15 strains of drug-resistant bacteria. Fourteen isolates (6.1%), consisting of six Xenorhabdus isolates and eight Photorhabdus isolates, were obtained from 230 soil samples. Based on the BLASTN search incorporating the phylogenetic analysis of a partial recA gene, all six isolates of Xenorhabdus were found to be identical and closely related to X. stockiae. Five isolates of Photorhabdus were found to be identical and closely related to P. luminescens subsp. akhurstii. Two isolates of Photorhabdus were found to be identical and closely related to P. luminescens subsp. hainanensis. The remaining isolate of Photorhabdus was found to be identical to P. asymbiotica subsp. australis. The bacterial extracts from P. luminescens subsp. akhurstii showed strong inhibition the growth of S. aureus strain PB36 (MSRA) by disk diffusion, minimal inhibitory concentration, and minimal bactericidal concentration assay. The combination between each extract from Xenorhabdus/Photorhabdus and oxacillin or vancomycin against S. aureus strain PB36 (MRSA) exhibited no interaction on checkerboard assay. Moreover, killing curve assay of P. luminescens subsp. akhurstii extracts against S. aureus strain PB36 exhibited a steady reduction of 105 CFU/ml to 103 CFU/ml within 30 min. This study demonstrates that Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus, showed antibacterial activity. This finding may be useful for further research on antibiotic production.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Nematoides/microbiologia , Photorhabdus/metabolismo , Xenorhabdus/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Oxacilina/farmacologia , Photorhabdus/classificação , Photorhabdus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Solo/parasitologia , Vancomicina/farmacologia , Xenorhabdus/classificação , Xenorhabdus/isolamento & purificação
14.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(4): 1365-1377, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530213

RESUMO

The establishment of Medicago sativa artificial grasslands is an important practice of grassland vegetation restoration in the Loess Plateau. Understanding community characteristics of soil microbes and nematodes can provide important information for evaluating and controlling ecolo-gical and environmental effects of vegetation restoration. In this study, we used M. sativa artificial grasslands with four different cultivation years (1, 2, 6 and 12 years) in southern Ningxia mountainous region, with a farmland and a natural grassland as control, to explore changing trends of the two biological communities during artificial grassland restoration in semi-arid region of the Loess Plateau. The results showed that: 1) After the conversion of farmland to M. sativa grassland, Chao1, ACE and Shannon diversity indices of soil bacterial community increased firstly and then decreased, which reached the maximum after six years of M. sativa grassland establishment. For soil fungal community, Shannon diversity index was lower in 6 and 12 year-old M. sativa grasslands than in the other two artificial grasslands, and the community composition differed across restoration years. 2) With the increases of restoration years, the abundance of soil nematodes showed a similar changing trend with Shannon diversity index of bacterial community. The composition of nematode community did not greatly differ between the 6-year-old M. sativa grassland and farmland, while that in 12-year-old artificial grassland was more similar to that in natural grassland. The proportion of bacterivorous and plant-feeding nematodes, as well as plant parasitic index and nematode channel index of nematode community,were increased, while the proportion of fungivores and omnivores-predators and maturity index were decreased. 3) During the restoration, changes in soil organic carbon, total nitrogen and available phosphorus greatly affected soil microbial community, which could further influence soil nematode community. There were significant correlations between dominant microbial phyla and trophic groups of soil nematodes, implying the possible effects of soil microbes on nematode community. In M. sativa artificial grassland with different establishment years, changes in plant biomass and diversity might significantly affect soil nematode and microbial communities through affecting their food conditions.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Solo , Animais , Carbono , China , Pradaria , Medicago sativa , Microbiologia do Solo
15.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(3): 761-768, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32537970

RESUMO

A high-throughput sequencing approach was used to differentiate the nematode communities in the humus and soil surface layer (0-10 cm) in 20 hm2 plot located in the cold temperate coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest of Yulong Snow Mountain Nature Reserve, Lijiang, Yunnan. A total of 5744582 sequences were obtained, which were further annotated to 44 nematode families. In the humus layer, 37 families were recorded, with Tylenchidae (18.1%) being the most dominant family. For trophic groups, bacterivorous, fungivorous and herbivorous were predominant. The soil surface layer had 41 families, with Mononchidae (45.4%) being the most dominant family. The relative abundance of predatory nematode was highest in the soil surface layer. There was no significant difference in the α diversity indices (Shannon, Simpson and Chao1 index) of nematode communities at the OTU level between two habitats. At the family level, however, α diversity of nematode community in the humus layer was significantly lower than in soil surface layer. ß diversity of the nematode community was significantly different in the two habitats, with lower Cody index but high Sorensen non-similarity index in the humus habitat. Results of non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the internal structure difference of nematode community in the soil surface layer was higher than that in the humus layer.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Traqueófitas , Animais , China , Florestas , Neve , Solo
16.
Phytopathology ; 110(9): 1565-1571, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378451

RESUMO

Breeding for varieties carrying natural resistance (R) against plant-parasitic nematodes is a promising alternative to nematicide ban. In perennial crops, the long plant-nematode interaction increases the risk for R breaking and R durability is a real challenge. In grapevine, the nematode Xiphinema index has a high economic impact by transmitting Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) and, to delay GFLV transmission, rootstocks resistant to this vector are being selected, using Muscadinia rotundifolia in particular as an R source. To optimize in fine this strategy, the durability has been studied under controlled conditions in F1 and BC1 muscadine-derived resistant accessions previously obtained from either hardwood-cutting or in vitro propagation. After inoculation with a mix, in equal proportions, of four lines representative of the X. index diversity, multiplication on plants has been monitored 3 to 6 years. The nematode reproduction factor remained lower than 1 in resistant plants obtained from hardwood cuttings while it increased at values far beyond 1 in resistant plants of in vitro origin. Data for nematode numbers per gram of roots mostly paralleled those obtained for the reproduction factor. The effect of the propagation type on resistance over years was also evaluated for the ratio female/juvenile and the frequency of males. Altogether our results illustrate that the muscadine-derived resistance based on hardwood cuttings is durable. By contrast, in resistant and reference accessions obtained from in vitro, our data suggest that the increased nematode multiplication might be mainly due to the modification of root architecture consecutive to this propagation method.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Vitis , Animais , Cruzamento , Vetores de Doenças , Feminino , Doenças das Plantas
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(20): 10848-10855, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371486

RESUMO

Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) is a picorna-like plant virus transmitted by nematodes that affects vineyards worldwide. Nanobody (Nb)-mediated resistance against GFLV has been created recently, and shown to be highly effective in plants, including grapevine, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we present the high-resolution cryo electron microscopy structure of the GFLV-Nb23 complex, which provides the basis for molecular recognition by the Nb. The structure reveals a composite binding site bridging over three domains of one capsid protein (CP) monomer. The structure provides a precise mapping of the Nb23 epitope on the GFLV capsid in which the antigen loop is accommodated through an induced-fit mechanism. Moreover, we uncover and characterize several resistance-breaking GFLV isolates with amino acids mapping within this epitope, including C-terminal extensions of the CP, which would sterically interfere with Nb binding. Escape variants with such extended CP fail to be transmitted by nematodes linking Nb-mediated resistance to vector transmission. Together, these data provide insights into the molecular mechanism of Nb23-mediated recognition of GFLV and of virus resistance loss.


Assuntos
Nepovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/química , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/farmacologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Capsídeo/química , Proteínas do Capsídeo/química , Proteínas do Capsídeo/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Epitopos/química , Modelos Moleculares , Nematoides/virologia , Nepovirus/ultraestrutura , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Folhas de Planta/virologia , Vírus de Plantas/imunologia , Vírus de Plantas/fisiologia , Conformação Proteica , Vitis
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(5): e0007942, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453724

RESUMO

Efforts to identify new drugs for therapeutic and preventive treatments against parasitic nematodes have gained increasing interest with expanding pathogen omics databases and drug databases from which new anthelmintic compounds might be identified. Here, a novel approach focused on integrating a pan-Nematoda multi-omics data targeted to a specific nematode organ system (the intestinal tract) with evidence-based filtering and chemogenomic screening was undertaken. Based on de novo computational target prioritization of the 3,564 conserved intestine genes in A. suum, exocytosis was identified as a high priority pathway, and predicted inhibitors of exocytosis were tested using the large roundworm (Ascaris suum larval stages), a filarial worm (Brugia pahangi adult and L3), a whipworm (Trichuris muris adult), and the non-parasitic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. 10 of 13 inhibitors were found to cause rapid immotility in A. suum L3 larvae, and five inhibitors were effective against the three phylogenetically diverse parasitic nematode species, indicating potential for a broad spectrum anthelmintics. Several distinct pathologic phenotypes were resolved related to molting, motility, or intestinal cell and tissue damage using conventional and novel histologic methods. Pathologic profiles characteristic for each inhibitor will guide future research to uncover mechanisms of the anthelmintic effects and improve on drug designs. This progress firmly validates the focus on intestinal cell biology as a useful resource to develop novel anthelmintic strategies.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Descoberta de Drogas , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(4): 2664-2676, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238230

RESUMO

This study examined over 20 fungal specimens of the Orbiliaceae (Orbiliomycetes) from different regions in China. Our analyses based on morphological traits and the ITS rDNA sequences revealed two new Orbilia species with drechslerella-like asexual morphs. These new species are able to trap nematodes with constricting rings. In addition, Orbilia cf. orientalis is reported as a new cryptic Chinese variant of European collections of O. orientalis. All three species are described and illustrated in detail in this paper. Their phylogenetic relationships with other orbiliaceous species were identified based on their ITS sequences.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/classificação , Filogenia , Árvores/microbiologia , Animais , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , China , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Florestas , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Nematoides/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Environ Pollut ; 263(Pt B): 114529, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283405

RESUMO

Meiobenthic nematodes have been designated as sensitive global models in the development of biomonitoring and ecotoxicology monitoring programs howbeit the sensitivity of these organisms against oxidative stress biomarkers have never been addressed. The present study aimed to decipher this research axis after selecting and culturing a single nematode species from an entire community through original laboratory protocols. The purpose of this investigation was to change the grain size of the sediment into the immediate environment of nematodes by progressively adding a biosubstrate made from Sepia officinalis endoskeletton. At the end of the experiment, Metoncholaimus pristiurus became the unique component of the nematode species when the sediment was enriched with 80% of S. officinalis powder. After the mono-species level had been achieved, the selected species was fed on an another biosubstrate made from bodies of Porcellio scaber under the identical laboratory controlled conditions of light and temperature adopted during the selection process. Accordingly, the bioassay protocol this study layed new foundations for the study of meiobenthic nematodes in the biomarker field. Our results revealed that, in case of M. pritiurus, discernible oxidative stress responses are valid for catalase and gluthatione S-transferase. Indeed, for both enzymes, a clear increase in the activity was recorded, and the response was more reinforced when zinc and permethrin were administrated in combination. The relevance of the protocols proposed in this work parallels their global applicability to reach and maintain the monospecific level in laboratory by using biosubstrates made from animals widely distributed. It is true also that our data provided the first results in terms of biochemical biomarkers for meiobenthic nematodes and showed that the selected taxa, M. pristiurus, could be one of the first marine taxa responding early to the tested stressors, zinc and permethrin, even at very low concentrations.


Assuntos
Isópodes , Nematoides , Animais , Biomarcadores , Catalase , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estresse Oxidativo
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