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1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e005021, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133616

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to characterize the anthelmintic resistance (AR) of a sheep gastrointestinal nematode population, named Caucaia, from northeastern Brazil. Phenotypic tests performed were: egg hatch (EHT), larval development (LDT) and fecal egg count reduction (FECRT). Benzimidazoles (BZs) genotypic evaluation was by frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) F200Y, F167Y and E198A, and for levamisole (LEV), by frequency of resistance alleles of Hco-acr-8 gene. The primers were designed specifically for Haemonchus contortus. Effective concentrations 50% (EC50) for BZs (EHT), and for macrocyclic lactones (MLs) and LEV (LDT) were 1.02 µg/mL, 1.81 ng/mL and 0.04 µg/mL, respectively. Resistance ratios for MLs and LEV were 0.91 and 3.07, respectively. FECRT efficacies of BZs, MLs, monepantel (MPTL) and LEV were 52.4; 87.0; 94.5 and 99.6%, respectively. qPCR for BZs demonstrated resistance allele frequencies of 0%, 26.24% and 69.08% for SNPs E198A, F200Y and F167Y, respectively. For LEV, 54.37% of resistance alleles were found. There was agreement between EHT, FECRT and qPCR for BZs, and agreement between LDT and qPCR for LEV. Thus, based on higher sensitivity of qPCR, and phenotypic evaluation, the Caucaia population was considered resistant to BZs, MLs, LEV and suspect for MPTL.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Haemonchus , Nematoides , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Brasil , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Fezes , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e026620, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076056

RESUMO

Bioverm® (Duddingtonia flagrans) is a fungal formulation indicated for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants and horses, which has recently been authorized for commercialization in Brazil. The objective was to determine the efficiency of Bioverm® against larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of cattle. Twelve animals were used, divided into two groups. In the treated group, a single dose of 1 g of Bioverm® per 10 kg of live weight (containing 105 chlamydospores of D. flagrans) was provided for each animal. Fecal samples were obtained from the animals in each group at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours after administration. In assay A, 2 g of feces were added to Petri dishes containing 2% agar-water medium. In assay B, coprocultures were performed. In both assays, the peak of larval predation occurred within 48 hours after administration of Bioverm®. In assay A, a significant larval reduction (P < 0.05) was seen at 48 h (88.2%). In assay B, significant reductions (P < 0.05) were seen at 36 h (43.7%) and 48 h (82.3%). Bioverm® showed high predatory capacity after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of cattle and was effective for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes.


Assuntos
Duddingtonia , Nematoides , Animais , Ascomicetos , Brasil , Bovinos , Fezes , Trato Gastrointestinal , Larva , Controle Biológico de Vetores
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1306: 129-142, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33959911

RESUMO

Dioctophyme renale, the giant kidney worm, is a renal nematode from domestic and wild mammals that has zoonotic potential. In humans, dioctophimosis has been reported in several countries, mainly on the Asian continent, totaling more than 40 cases, which describe the parasite mainly infecting the kidneys, bladder, urethra and skin. Infection in animals and humans is related to the ingestion of the infective larva (L3) present in the aquatic oligochaete annelid (mandatory intermediate host) or fish and anurans (facultative paratenic hosts). Thus, the infection is related to the habit of drinking water contaminated with the mandatory intermediate host, as well as raw or undercooked meat from the facultative paratenic hosts. Dioctophimosis destroys the renal parenchyma and, in some cases, can cause the death of its hosts. In this chapter, we discuss the main topics regarding dioctophimosis in humans, domestic and wild animals, highlighting its importance in public health.


Assuntos
Dioctophymatoidea , Nematoides , Parasitos , Animais , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 224, 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a devastating pathogen of many Pinus species in China. The aim of this study was to understand the interactive molecular mechanism of PWN and its host by comparing differentially expressed genes and candidate effectors from three transcriptomes of B. xylophilus at different infection stages. RESULTS: In total, 62, 69 and 46 candidate effectors were identified in three transcriptomes (2.5 h postinfection, 6, 12 and 24 h postinoculation and 6 and 15 d postinfection, respectively). In addition to uncharacterized pioneers, other candidate effectors were involved in the degradation of host tissues, suppression of host defenses, targeting plant signaling pathways, feeding and detoxification, which helped B. xylophilus survive successfully in the host. Seven candidate effectors were identified in both our study and the B. xylophilus transcriptome at 2.5 h postinfection, and one candidate effector was identified in all three transcriptomes. These common candidate effectors were upregulated at infection stages, and one of them suppressed pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) PsXEG1-triggered cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that B. xylophilus secreted various candidate effectors, and some of them continued to function throughout all infection stages. These various candidate effectors were important to B. xylophilus infection and survival, and they functioned in different ways (such as breaking down host cell walls, suppressing host defenses, promoting feeding efficiency, promoting detoxification and playing virulence functions). The present results provide valuable resources for in-depth research on the pathogenesis of B. xylophilus from the perspective of effectors.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Infecções/genética , Nematoides/genética , Nematoides/parasitologia , Parasitos/genética , Pinus/parasitologia , Virulência/genética , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas
5.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(5): 1825-1834, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042379

RESUMO

Soil nematode communities play an important role in ecosystem material cycling and energy flow. In this study, soil samples were collected from three rotation systems in southern Ningxia mountainous region, including alfalfa continuous cropping (A-A), alfalfa-corn rotation (A-C), alfalfa-potato rotation (A-P). Soil physicochemical properties, nematode community composition and their metabolic footprints were measured. Compared with the A-A plot, the concentrations of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) were significantly increased by 4.6% and 7.4% for SOC, 4.0% and 5.2% for TN in the A-C and A-P plots, respectively. Soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen were significantly higher in the A-C and A-P plots when compared with the A-A plot. The total abundance of soil nematodes in the A-C and A-P plots was higher by 49.5% and 93.7% than that in the A-A plot, respectively, with the dominant trophic group being changed to omnivores-predators from plant parasite. Compared to the A-A plot, the plant parasite index (PPI) was decreased significantly in the A-C and A-P plots, indicating that the harm of plant-parasites was reduced in soil food web. The nematode channel ratio (NCR) in the A-C and A-P plots were higher than that in the A-A plot, indicating that the role of bacterial decomposition was enhanced in soil organic matter decomposition. The maturity index (MI), the total nematode metabolic footprint, enrichment footprint, structure footprint in the A-C and A-P plots were all significantly higher than those in the A-A plot, suggesting that the structure and function of soil food web were more mature and stable, and the productivity and metabolic activity of nematodes were significantly enhanced. In general, the alfalfa-crop rotations improved soil nutrient status and reduced the disturbance degree of soil food web. Furthermore, soil ecosystem developed in the stable and healthy direction, which would be beneficial to the sustainable development of agriculture.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Solo , Animais , Carbono/análise , China , Ecossistema , Medicago sativa
6.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e246116, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978086

RESUMO

The main objective of the current study was to assess the impact of the water taken from the 'Tunisian Refining Industries Company' on meiobenthic nematodes, before and after a series of treatments in decantation basins followed by its discharge in Bizerte bay, Tunisia. The comparison of environmental parameters of the two types of water was clearly indicative of an improvement in the quality of treated waters after a significant reduction in their loads in hydrocarbons. Overall, the water retained a good quality after being treated by 'Tunisian Refining Industries Company' before discharge in the sea. At the end of the experiment, differential responses were observed according to the richness of sediment in organic matter and hydrocarbons. Thus, it was apparent that the nematode assemblage exposed to the treated waters was closer to controls and associated to higher values of abundance, than that under untreated ones. It was also assumed that the species Microlaimus honestus De Man, 1922, Paramonohystera proteus Wieser, 1956 and Cyartonema germanicum Juario, 1972 are sensitive bioindicators of bad environmental statues and of hydrocarbon presence in the environment. On the other hand, Metoncholaimus pristiurus (Zur Strassen, 1894) Filipjev, 1918 would rather be classified as a positive bioindicative species of this type of pollutants.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Indústrias , Esgotos , Tunísia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Curr Protoc ; 1(5): e131, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974358

RESUMO

Chemosensation in nematodes is linked to processes that affect their ability to survive, such as the search for food and the avoidance of toxic substances. Since the 1970s, numerous studies have assessed chemotaxis in the nematode species Caenorhabditis elegans, focusing on a multitude of agents, including bacteria (food), ions, salts, hormones, volatile organic compounds, and, to a lesser extent, metal-contaminated medium/food. The few studies evaluating metal exposure have reported a variety of responses (neutral, attraction, avoidance), which generally appear to be contaminant and/or concentration specific. Differences in experimental designs, however, hinder appropriate comparison of the findings and attainment of firm conclusions. Therefore, we herein propose and describe a detailed protocol for the assessment of the effects of metals on taxis-to-food behavior in C. elegans. Distinct approaches are proposed in two innovative stages of testing to (1) screen metals' effects on taxis-to-food behavior and (2) classify the behavioral response as attraction/avoidance/indifference or preference. Use of such a standard protocol will allow for easy comparison across studies and direct interpretation of results. Findings using this model system can contribute to a deeper understanding of the real risks of metal contamination to nematodes and how such contaminants could impact ecosystems in general, given the key environmental roles that these organisms play. © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol: Assessing the effects of metal contamination on taxis-to-food behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans Support Protocol 1: Synchronization of C. elegans by hand-picking gravid worms Support Protocol 2: Synchronization of C. elegans by using a bleaching solution.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans , Nematoides , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Quimiotaxia , Ecossistema
8.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 165: 137-146, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038810

RESUMO

Plant-nematode associations are the most imperative area of study that forms the basis to understand their regulatory networks and coordinated functional aspects. Nematodes are highly parasitic organisms known so far, to cause relentless damage towards agricultural crops on a global scale. They pierce the roots of host plants and form neo-plastic feeding structures to extract out resources for their functional development. Moreover, they undergo re-differentiation within plant cells to form giant multi-nucleate feeding structures or syncytium. All these processes are facilitated by numerous transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic and epigenetic modifications, that regulate different biological attractions among plants and nematodes. Nevertheless, these mechanisms are quite remarkable and have been explored in the present review. Here, we have shed light on genomic as well as genetic approaches to acquire an effective understanding regarding plant-nematode associations. Transcriptomics have revealed an extensive network to unravel feeding mechanism of nematodes through gene-expression programming of target genes. Also, the regulatory circuits of epigenetic alterations through DNA-methylation, non-coding RNAs and histone modifications very well explain epigenetic profiling within plants. Since decades, research have observed many intricacies to elucidate the dynamic nature of epigenetic modulations in plant-nematode attractions. By this review, we have highlighted the functional aspects of small RNAs in inducing plant-nematode parasitism along with the putative role of miRNAs. These RNAs act as chief genetic elements to mediate the expressional changes in plants through post-transcriptional silencing of various effector proteins as well as transcriptional factors. A pragmatic role of miRNAs in modulating gene expression in nematode infection and feeding site development have also been reviewed. Hence, they have been considered master regulators for functional reprogramming the expression during establishment of feeding sites. We have also encapsulated the advancement of genome-broadened DNA-methylation and untangled the nematode mediated dynamic alterations within plant methylome along with assessing transcriptional activities of various genes and transposons. In particular, we have highlighted the role of effector proteins in stimulating epigenetic changes. Finally, we have emerged towards a molecular-based core understanding about plant-nematode associations.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Tylenchoidea , Animais , Epigênese Genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Doenças das Plantas , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Plantas/genética , Proteômica
9.
10.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(4): 1433-1440, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899412

RESUMO

Soil nematodes are one of the typical indicator organisms for soil health. To reveal the effects of reduction in nitrogen fertilizer application on soil health, we examined community structure of soil nematode under reduced nitrogen fertilizer while combined with organic fertilizer at the jointing stage of winter wheat. There were six fertilization treatments, including CF(315 kg N·hm-2, conventional fertilization), N240 (240 kg N·hm-2), N210 (210 kg N·hm-2)、N180 (180 kg N·hm-2), F150 (180 kg N·hm-2+150 kg·hm-2 fulvic acid), and F225(180 kg N·hm-2+225 kg·hm-2 fulvic acid). The results showed that: 1) The reduction of nitrogen fertilization decreased nematode number by 15.3%-68.5%. 2) Protorhabditis was the dominant genus (19.6%-50.4%) across all treatments. The reduction of nitrogen fertilizer application increased the abundance of fungivores, herbivores, and predators-omnivores, while that of bacterivores decreased first and then increased. Combined application of organic fertilizer decreased the abundance of bacterivores and fungivores, while increased that of herbivores and predators-omnivores. 3) N240 and F225 increased the Shannon diversity (H) of nematode community by 48.1% and 58.5%, respectively. The maturity index (MI) in N240 was the highest (1.95), while the structural index (SI) was the lowest in N180 (43.33). The structural index (SI) of F225 with combined application of organic fertilizer reached 62.72, but its enrichment index (EI) was lowest (80.82). In conclusion, reduced nitrogen fertilizer application and combined with organic fertilizer could improve soil nematode diversity, increase the complexity of soil food web, which would be conducive to the health and stability of agricultural ecosystem.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Nematoides , Agricultura , Animais , Ecossistema , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo , Triticum
11.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e023920, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909838

RESUMO

Fish consumption plays an important role in human diet. Hoplias malabaricus, commonly known as traíra, is a freshwater fish widely appreciated in several Brazilian states and frequently infected by Eustrongylides sp. fourth-instar larvae (L4). The aim of the present study was to evaluate allergenic potential of Eustrongylides sp. L4 crude extract (CEE). BALB/c mice were immunized intraperitoneally (IP) by 10 µg CEE with 2 mg of aluminum hydroxide on days 0 and 35. Specific IgG and IgE antibody levels were determined after immunization and cellular immunity was evaluated by assessing intradermal reaction in ear pavilion. Epicutaneous sensitization was performed in dorsal region by antigen exposure using a Finn-type chamber containing 50 µg of CEE or saline solution, followed by evaluation of specific antibody levels. IP immunization resulted in a gradual increase in IgG antibody levels and transitory IgE production. Significant increase in ear thickness was observed in cellular hypersensitivity reaction. In case of antigen exposure by epicutaneous route, CEE was able to induce meaningfully increased levels of specific IgG and IgE antibodies as well as heightened cellular immunity. Both intraperitoneal immunization and epicutaneous contact with Eustrongylides sp. larval antigens were observed for first time to be capable of inducing immunological sensitization in mice.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Doenças dos Roedores , Animais , Brasil , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imunoglobulina E , Imunoglobulina G , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 167: 112361, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33873039

RESUMO

On March 2020, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was recommended as a treatment for COVID-19 high risk patients. Following the massive and widespread use of HCQ worldwide, a discernible high quantity is anticipated to end-up through the sewage systems in marine coastal areas. A closed microcosm study was undertaken herein for 30 days where meiobenthic nematodes were exposed to a range of HCQ concentrations (3.162, 31.62 and 63.24 µg.ml-1). After one month of exposure in HCQ, the total abundances and Shannon-Wiener index of the assemblages decreased, whereas the individual mass and the Trophic Diversity Index increased at the highest concentrations. Overall, a numerical negative impact was observed for the epistrate feeders and non-selective deposit feeders, however, this benefited to the omnivores-carnivores, and particularly to the Oncholaimids. Such responses of the nematodes 2B and the corresponding taxa are bioindicative of current- or post-COVID-19 crisis risks in relation with the bioaccumulation of HCQ in seafood.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Nematoides , Animais , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/toxicidade , SARS-CoV-2
13.
New Phytol ; 231(2): 801-813, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866563

RESUMO

Plant-parasitic nematodes are severe pests in crop production worldwide. Chemical control of nematodes has been continuously reduced in recent decades owing to environmental and health concerns. Therefore, breeding nematode-resistant crops is an important aim if we are to secure harvests. The beet cyst nematode impairs root development and causes severe losses in sugar beet production. The only sources for resistance are distantly related wild species of the genus Patellifolia. Nematode resistance had been introduced into the beet genome via translocations from P. procumbens. We sequenced three translocations and identified the translocation breakpoints. By comparative sequence analysis of three translocations, we localized the resistance gene Hs4 within a region c. 230 kb in size. A candidate gene was characterized by CRISPR-Cas-mediated knockout and overexpression in susceptible roots. The gene encodes a rhomboid-like protease, which is predicted to be bound to the endoplasmic reticulum. Gene knockout resulted in complete loss of resistance, while overexpression caused resistance. The data confirm that the Hs4 gene alone protects against the pest. Thus, it constitutes a previously unknown mechanism of plants to combat parasitic nematodes. Its function in a nonrelated species suggests that the gene can confer resistance in crop species from different plant families.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris , Cistos , Nematoides , Animais , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920580

RESUMO

Endophytes are symbiotic microorganisms that colonize plant tissues and benefit plants in multiple ways including induced systemic resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Endophytes can be sustainable alternatives to chemical nematicides and enhance plant health in a variety of cropping and natural environments. Several in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated the potential of multiple species of Fusarium and Bacillus against plant-parasitic nematodes in horticultural, agricultural, and fodder crops and in forestry. While there were efforts to commercialize some of the endophytes as bionematicides, a lack of good formulations with consistent field efficacy has been a major hurdle in commercializing endophytes for nematode control. Identification of efficacious and environmentally resilient strains, a thorough understanding of their modes of action, interactions with various biotic and abiotic factors, and developing strategies that improve their effectiveness are critical areas to advance the commercialization of bionematicides based on fungal and bacterial endophytes.


Assuntos
Endófitos , Nematoides , Animais , Bactérias , Fungos , Simbiose
15.
Aquat Toxicol ; 235: 105827, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882407

RESUMO

Toxicity tests using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans have shown that exposure to small microplastics such as polystyrene (PS) beads lead to high body burdens and dietary restrictions that in turn inhibit reproduction. Pharyngeal pumping is the key mechanism of C. elegans for governing the uptake of food and other particles and can be easily monitored by determining the pumping rates. In this study, pharyngeal pumping of C. elegans was examined in response to increasing quantities of food bacteria (E. coli: 106-1010 cells ml-1) and synthetic particles (107-109 beads ml-1) of similar size (1 µm). While the average pumping rate of C. elegans exposed to E. coli depended on the density of the bacterial cells, this was not the case for the synthetic beads. At 107 items ml-1, bacterial cells and synthetic beads triggered a basic stimulation of the pumping rate, independent of the nutritional value of the particle. At quantities >107 items ml-1, however, the nutritional value was essential to maximize the pumping rate, as it was upregulated only by E. coli cells, which can be chemosensorially recognized by C. elegans. Given the unselective uptake of all particles in the size range of bacteria, restricting the pumping rates for particles with low nutritional value to a basic rate, prevents the nematodes from wasting energy by high-frequency pumping, but still allows a food-quality screening at low food levels.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Bactérias , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Alimentos , Nematoides/fisiologia , Plásticos , Poliestirenos/análise
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(15): 4464-4479, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823587

RESUMO

Polyketide synthase-terpenoid synthase (PKS-TPS) hybrid pathways for biosynthesis of unique sesquiterpenyl epoxy-cyclohexenoids (SECs) have been found to be widely distributed in plant pathogenic fungi. However, the natural and ecological functions of these pathways and their metabolites still remain cryptic. In this study, the whole PKS-TPS hybrid pathway in the predominant nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora was first proposed according to all the intermediates and their derivatives from all the A. oligospora mutants with a deficiency in each gene involved in SEC biosynthesis. Most mutants displayed significantly increased trap formation which was correlated with alteration of the ammonia level. Further analysis revealed that the main metabolites involved in ammonia metabolism were largely increased in most mutants. However, significantly retarded colonization in soil were observed in most mutants compared to the wild-type strain due to significantly decreased antibacterial activities. Our results suggested that A. oligospora used the PKS-TPS hybrid pathway for fungal soil colonization via decreasing fungal nematode-capturing ability. This also provided solid evidence that boosting fungal colonization in soil was the secondary metabolite whose biosynthesis depended on a PKS-TPS hybrid pathway.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Policetídeo Sintases , Amônia , Animais , Ascomicetos , Policetídeo Sintases/genética , Solo , Terpenos
17.
Zootaxa ; 4949(2): zootaxa.4949.2.7, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903347

RESUMO

The Kermadec Trench is the world's fifth deepest trench and extends from approximately 26 to 36°S near the northeastern tip of New Zealand's North Island. Here, we describe a new species of Aegialoalaimus, a nematode genus with unusual buccal cavity and pharynx morphology, from a site at 9540 metres water depth in Kermadec Trench, and provide the first SSU and D2-D3 of LSU sequences for Aegialoalaimus, Manganonema, Metasphaerolaimus constrictus and Daptonema amphorum. Aegialoalaimus tereticauda n. sp. is characterised by body length 755-864 µm, cephalic sensilla papilliform ( 1 µm long), excretory pore located slightly anterior to posterior bulb in males and slightly anterior to nerve ring in females, arcuate spicules 18-22 µm long, gubernaculum present, precloacal supplements absent, and cylindrical tail 58-64 µm long with rounded tip. Relationships between Aegialoalaimus and Chromadorean orders could not be elucidated based on our SSU analysis; no link could be found with the Plectida, where the Aegialoalaimidae is currently placed, or with the Isolamiida or Cylindrolaimus (Areaolaimida), which share a similar and unusual buccal and pharynx morphology. Our SSU phylogenetic analysis confirms the placement of Manganonema within the Xyalidae, although relationships with other xyalid genera remain unclear. The Sphaerolaimidae formed a clade together with the Monhysteridae, which contradicts the current classification where the Sphaerolaimidae and Xyalidae are classified together into the superfamily Sphaerolaimoidea and the Monhysteridae into the Monhysteroidea. Although limited research has been conducted on the nematode diversity in Kermadec Trench to date, the available data show that half of all invertebrate species known from the trench are nematodes, which highlights the importance of conducting further taxonomic research on this group in hadal environments.


Assuntos
Cromadoria , Animais , Cromadoria/classificação , Cromadoria/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Nematoides/genética , Faringe , Filogenia
18.
Zootaxa ; 4949(2): zootaxa.4949.2.8, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903348

RESUMO

A new genus of the marine Stilbonematinae (Nematoda, Desmodoridae) is described from the Pacific coast of the United States of America. The worms inhabit the sulfidic sediment among the roots of the surfgrass Phyllospadix sp. in the rocky intertidal. The ectosymbiotic coat is of a new type for Stilbonematinae. It consists of rod-shaped bacteria pointed at both poles densely attached with one pole to the host cuticle. This is the first report of this symbiotic nematode subfamily from the US West Coast.


Assuntos
Cromadoria/classificação , Animais , Cromadoria/fisiologia , Nematoides , Simbiose
19.
Mar Environ Res ; 167: 105289, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667745

RESUMO

Sandy beaches are key economic assets worldwide, however, recreational activities are an important source of disturbance in these ecosystems. Intensive human use of beaches has a negative effect on benthic communities as it alters species abundance, diversity, and/or distribution. Here, we report the impacts of recreational activities (trampling and vehicles) on meiobenthic communities and nematode assemblages on Amazonian sandy beaches for the first time. For this purpose, samples were carried out in four consecutive months encompassing a period of high visitation peak (one month Before Vacation, During Vacation, and two months After Vacation) on three contrasting beaches regarding disturbances (Urban: Atalaia; Intermediary: Farol-Velho; and Protected: Corvinas) at seven equidistant sampling stations (50 m apart) from the high tide water mark to the swash zone. At each sampling station, three biological samples and sediments samples were collected haphazardly. Also, in each station, the sediment compaction was determined using a manual penetrometer. Overall, physical sediment variables (grain size, sorting) were constant over time in all beaches, whereas differences in intensity of recreational activities and sediment compaction were found between beaches and months. Sediment compaction was considered the most important factor for the differences observed in meiofauna community structure in the study areas, and it was related to intensity of recreational activities. Variations in density and changes in richness between periods were observed in Atalaia and Farol-Velho beaches. On the other hand, Corvinas beach remained the same throughout the study. In the first month after vacation, density and richness were similar to those in the period before vacation, thus indicating that the beaches had recovered in one month. Furthermore, vulnerabilities of Tardigrada and Copepoda, as well as of the Nematoda genera Daptonema, and Chromadorita, indicate that they might be potential indicators of recreational activities.


Assuntos
Copépodes , Nematoides , Animais , Praias , Ecossistema , Humanos , Recreação
20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 166: 112249, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756351

RESUMO

The exotic mangrove species Sonneratia apetala has been planted widely in China since 1985. As an exotic mangrove species, it is important to understand the influence of Sonneratia plantations on marine nematode assemblages. We studied the Zhanjiang and Xiatanwei mangrove wetlands on the South China Coast during the four seasons of 2010 and 2019. The results showed that S. apetala plantations increased the number of genera, Shannon-Wiener diversity, richness, evenness, maturity index (MI) and decreased the index of trophic diversity (ITD) values for nematodes compared to those in mudflats, but did not change significantly compared to those of native mangrove forests. In addition, Sonneratia plantations did not significantly change nematode assemblages compared to those of native mangroves, though they did change significantly compared to those in mudflats. Thus, interplanting S. apetala into native mangrove forests may be an effective substitute for using native mangroves in mangrove plantation.


Assuntos
Lythraceae , Nematoides , Animais , China , Estações do Ano , Áreas Alagadas
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