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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111549, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254407

RESUMO

Meiobenthos has been considered as an excellent tool for biomonitoring assessment. Elevated temperature and oil pollution are considered as the most pervasive aspects of global environmental changes and matter of concern for contemporary society. Presently, very limited information is available about the synergistic effect of these stressors on meiobenthic community structure and tolerance potential from tropical intertidal environment. Here, we assessed their impacts on meiobenthic community by conducting a 60 days long benthocosm experiment selecting three sets of temperature (25°, 30° and 35 °C) and two sets of diesel oil (low and high) combinations. Gradual changes in their community composition were revealed discernibly with exposures to both the disturbances after 30 and 60 days of experimental period. Diversity profiles for the nematodes were less affected, but copepods showed a graded response of decreasing density with increasing dose of both the stressors. Other meiobenthic taxa such as halacarid mite, turbellaria and polycheate juveniles were adversely affected and eliminated from the treatments, howbeit abundance of ostracods, foraminiferans and bivalve settlers varied significantly. A 3-factor PERMANOVA indicated a significant effect of temperature, diesel, between their interaction and interaction among stressors and time on meiofaunal abundances. In case of free-living nematodes, temperature rise and diesel contamination synchronously led to an elimination of k-selected species like Halalaimus gracilis, H. longicaudatus, Oxystomina aesetosa and Pomponema sp. with a significant decrease in abundance of H. capitulatus and Oncholaimus sp. The r-selected species Daptonema invagiferoum, Sabatieria praedatrix, Theristus acer, Monhystera sp. and Thalassomonhystera sp. had endured even at high doses of diesel treatment in three different temperatures set up. The effects were evident in term of changes in life strategies with an increment of opportunistic species and increased trophic diversity of deposit feeders in treated sediments. Overall, elevated temperature together with diesel oil contamination were found to alter species dynamics within shallow intertidal meiobenthic communities, which might have significant Armageddon on benthic ecosystem functioning.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Poluição por Petróleo , Temperatura , Animais , Copépodes , Gasolina , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Características de Residência
2.
Aquat Toxicol ; 228: 105632, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010638

RESUMO

An experiment was carried out using microcosms to evaluate the impact of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic on nematode trophic groups structure and bacterial abundance. Sediment samples were experimentally enriched with four increasing doses of ciprofloxacin [D1 (50 ppm), D2 (100 ppm), D3 (200 ppm) and D4 (500 ppm)] and compared to non-enriched sediments (used as control). Ciprofloxacin changed the trophic composition of nematodes taxa where the relative abundance of microvores (M), epigrowth feeders (EF) and ciliate consumers (CF), raised in a control microcosm, was highly affected and significantly decreased in response to the increasing doses. Nevertheless, the abundance of deposit feeders (DF), optional predators (FP) and exclusive predators (Pr) showed a significant increase. Results from the multivariate analysis showed a clear impact of this antibiotic on nematode trophic assemblages. Microcosms treated with the three highest doses [D2, D3 and D4] were different from the control. The exceptions were those treated with the lowest dose, D1, and which were grouped with the control. The SIMPER analysis results showed that the average dissimilarity continuously increased in the treated microcosms compared to the control. Furthermore, our results have shown that ciprofloxacin also leads to a significant decrease in bacterial density with the highest dose, which could explain the results obtained for nematode trophic groups distribution. Thus, the bacteriophages nematodes only use bacteria as a nutrition source and the lack or presence in small quantity of this food could induce a decrease in their abundance as well as changing of nematodes groups repartition. Our work demonstrates that the nematode responses were dependent on sediment enrichment with ciprofloxacin and opens new perspectives on the potential impact of antibiotics on functional nematode diversity.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciprofloxacino/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Nematoides/fisiologia , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise por Conglomerados , Geografia , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Região do Mediterrâneo , Análise Multivariada , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Densidade Demográfica , Análise de Componente Principal , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(5): e0007942, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453724

RESUMO

Efforts to identify new drugs for therapeutic and preventive treatments against parasitic nematodes have gained increasing interest with expanding pathogen omics databases and drug databases from which new anthelmintic compounds might be identified. Here, a novel approach focused on integrating a pan-Nematoda multi-omics data targeted to a specific nematode organ system (the intestinal tract) with evidence-based filtering and chemogenomic screening was undertaken. Based on de novo computational target prioritization of the 3,564 conserved intestine genes in A. suum, exocytosis was identified as a high priority pathway, and predicted inhibitors of exocytosis were tested using the large roundworm (Ascaris suum larval stages), a filarial worm (Brugia pahangi adult and L3), a whipworm (Trichuris muris adult), and the non-parasitic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. 10 of 13 inhibitors were found to cause rapid immotility in A. suum L3 larvae, and five inhibitors were effective against the three phylogenetically diverse parasitic nematode species, indicating potential for a broad spectrum anthelmintics. Several distinct pathologic phenotypes were resolved related to molting, motility, or intestinal cell and tissue damage using conventional and novel histologic methods. Pathologic profiles characteristic for each inhibitor will guide future research to uncover mechanisms of the anthelmintic effects and improve on drug designs. This progress firmly validates the focus on intestinal cell biology as a useful resource to develop novel anthelmintic strategies.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Descoberta de Drogas , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Adv Parasitol ; 108: 1-45, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32291083

RESUMO

Parasitic roundworms (nematodes) cause substantial morbidity and mortality in animals worldwide. Anthelmintic treatment is central to controlling these worms, but widespread resistance to most of the commercially available anthelmintics for veterinary and agricultural use is compromising control, such that there is an urgency to discover new and effective drugs. The purpose of this article is to review information on parasitic nematodes, the treatment and control of parasitic nematode infections and aspects of discovering new anthelmintics in the context of anthelmintic resistance problems, and then to discuss some progress that our group has made in identifying selected compounds with activity against nematodes. The focus of our recent work has been on discovering new chemical entities and known drugs with anthelmintic activities against Haemonchus contortus as well as other socioeconomically important parasitic nematodes for subsequent development. Using whole worm-based phenotypic assays, we have been screening compound collections obtained via product-development-partnerships and/or collaborators, and active compounds have been assessed for their potential as anthelmintic candidates. Following the screening of 15,333 chemicals from five distinct compound collections against H. contortus, we have discovered one new chemical entity (designated SN00797439), two human kinase inhibitors (SNS-032 and AG-1295), 14 tetrahydroquinoxaline analogues, one insecticide (tolfenpyrad) and two tolfenpyrad (pyrazole-5-carboxamide) derivatives (a-15 and a-17) with anthelmintic activity in vitro. Some of these 20 'hit' compounds have selectivity against H. contortus in vitro when compared to particular human cell lines. In our opinion, some of these compounds could represent starting points for 'lead' development. Accordingly, the next research steps to be pursued include: (i) chemical optimisation of representative chemicals via structure-activity relationship (SAR) evaluations; (ii) assessment of the breadth of spectrum of anthelmintic activity on a range of other parasitic nematodes, such as strongyloids, ascaridoids, enoplids and filarioids; (iii) detailed investigations of the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) of optimised chemicals with broad nematocidal or nematostatic activity; and (iv) establishment of the modes of action of lead candidates.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas/tendências , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Humanos , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 70, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal nematodes are parasites that commonly infect dogs, and infections can be subclinical or may cause considerable clinical disease. Some species are zoonotic and may also cause clinical disease in humans. Year-round treatment of dogs is recommended to eliminate existing infections, which also indirectly reduces the potential for subsequent human exposure to zoonotic species. Here we present two studies that evaluated the safety and efficacy of a novel chewable oral tablet containing sarolaner, moxidectin and pyrantel against gastrointestinal nematode infections in dogs presented as veterinary patients in Europe and the USA. METHODS: Dogs naturally infected with Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma caninum and/or Uncinaria stenocephala were enrolled in the European study, and dogs naturally infected with T. canis were enrolled in the USA study. The animals were treated once orally with Simparica Trio™ tablets to provide 1.2-2.4 mg/kg sarolaner, 24-48 µg/kg moxidectin and 5-10 mg/kg pyrantel (as pamoate salt) or with a commercially available product according to the label directions as positive control. Efficacy was based on the post-treatment reduction in geometric mean egg counts (per gram feces) 7 or 10 days after treatment compared to pre-treatment egg counts. RESULTS: Simparica Trio™ was well tolerated in both studies. In the European study, geometric mean egg counts for T. canis, T. leonina, A. caninum and U. stenocephala were reduced by ≥ 98.3% in the Simparica Trio™ group and by ≥ 97.4% in the afoxolaner + milbemycin oxime group. In the USA study, geometric mean egg counts for T. canis were reduced by 99.2% in the Simparica Trio™ group and by 98.6% in the ivermectin + pyrantel group. In the USA study, 48 and 10 dogs in the Simparica Trio™ and the ivermectin + pyrantel group, respectively, were co-infected with A. caninum and the reduction in the post-treatment mean fecal egg counts were 98.6% and 74.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A single oral administration of Simparica Trio™ chewable tablets was well tolerated and was effective in the treatment of dogs with naturally occurring gastrointestinal nematode infections presented as veterinary patients in Europe and the USA.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Administração Oral , Animais , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Cães , Combinação de Medicamentos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Nematoides/classificação , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Pirantel/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
6.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e013119, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049139

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of carvacryl acetate (CVA) and nanoencapsulated CVA (nCVA) on gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. The CVA was nanoencapsulated with chitosan/gum arabic and the efficacy of nanoencapsulation (EE), yield, zeta potential, nanoparticle morphology and release kinetics at pH 3 and 8 were analyzed. Acute and subchronic toxicity were evaluated in rodents and reduction of egg counts in the faeces (FECRT) of sheep. The sheep were divided into four groups (n = 10): G1, 250 mg/kg CVA; G2, 250 mg/kg nCVA; G3, polymer matrix and G4: 2.5 mg/kg monepantel. EE and nCVA yield were 65% and 57%, respectively. The morphology of the nanoparticles was spherical, size (810.6±286.7 nm), zeta potential in pH 3.2 (+18.3 mV) and the 50% release of CVA at pHs 3 and 8 occurred at 200 and 10 h, respectively. nCVA showed LD50 of 2,609 mg/kg. CVA, nCVA and monepantel reduced the number of eggs per gram of faeces (epg) by 57.7%, 51.1% and 97.7%, respectively. The epg of sheep treated with CVA and nCVA did not differ from the negative control (P>0.05). Nanoencapsulation reduced the toxicity of CVA; however, nCVA and CVA presented similar results in the FECRT.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Monoterpenos/administração & dosagem , Nanocápsulas/administração & dosagem , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/toxicidade , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Camundongos , Monoterpenos/toxicidade , Nanocápsulas/toxicidade , Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Roedores , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Testes de Toxicidade
7.
J Helminthol ; 94: e125, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036795

RESUMO

Our objective was to measure the efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) and benzimidazoles (BZ, i.e. fenbendazole and albendazole) in 15 cattle farms in western France and southern Italy. A total of 11 groups were treated with IVM and 11 with BZ. Efficacy was assessed by calculating the percentage of faecal egg count reduction (%FECR) using the pre- and post-treatment arithmetic means. Anthelmintic resistance was considered to be present when the %FECR was <95% and the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval <90%. For IVM, the percentages of FECR ranged from 73% to 100%. Lack of efficacy to IVM was detected in two farms out of four in France, but was not detected in any of the seven farms in Italy. For BZ, the percentages of FECR ranged from 95% to 100%. No case of BZ resistance was detected in the five farms in France and the six farms in Italy.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Animais , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Fazendas , Fezes/parasitologia , França , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Itália , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas
8.
Planta ; 251(3): 70, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086615

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Lipopeptides could help to overcome a large concern in agriculture: resistance against chemical pesticides. These molecules have activity against various phytopathogens and a potential to be transformed by genetic engineering. The exponential rise of pest resistances to different chemical pesticides and the global appeal of consumers for a sustainable agriculture and healthy nutrition have led to the search of new solutions for pest control. Furthermore, new laws require a different stance of producers. Based on that, bacteria of the genus Bacillus present a great agricultural potential, producing lipopeptides (LPs) that have high activity against insects, mites, nematodes, and/or phytopathogens that are harmful to plant cultures. Biopesticide activity can be found mainly in three families of Bacillus lipopeptides: surfactin, iturin, and fengycin. These molecules have an amphiphilic nature, interfering with biological membrane structures. Their antimicrobial properties include activity against bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, and viruses. Recent studies also highlight the ability of these compounds to stimulate defense mechanisms of plants and biofilm formation, which is a key factor for the successful colonization of biocontrol organisms. The use of molecular biology has also recently been researched for continuous advances and discoveries of new LPs, avoiding possible future problems of resistance against these molecules. As a consequence of the properties and possibilities of LPs, numerous studies and developments as well as the attention of large companies in the field is expected in the near future.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Bacillus/metabolismo , Lipopeptídeos/farmacologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Medicamentos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopeptídeos/química , Lipopeptídeos/metabolismo , Ácaros/efeitos dos fármacos , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos Cíclicos/farmacologia , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Plantas/microbiologia , Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 39(5): 1006-1016, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072668

RESUMO

Performing toxicity testing on multiple species with differing degrees of evolutionary relatedness can provide important information on how chemical sensitivity varies among species and can help pinpoint the biological drivers of species sensitivity. Such knowledge could ultimately be used to design better multispecies predictive ecological risk assessment models and identify particularly sensitive species. However, laboratory toxicity tests involving multiple species can also be resource intensive, especially when each species has unique husbandry conditions. We performed lethality tests with 2 metals, copper chloride and zinc chloride, on 5 different nematode species, which are nested in their degree of evolutionary relatedness: Caenorhabditis briggsae, Caenorhabditis elegans, Oscheius myriophila, Oscheius tipulae, and Pristionchus pacificus. All species were successfully cultured and tested concurrently with limited resources, demonstrating that inexpensive, multispecies nematode toxicity testing systems are achievable. The results indicate that P. pacificus is the most sensitive to both metals. Conversely, C. elegans is the least sensitive species to copper, but the second most sensitive to zinc, indicating that species relationships do not necessarily predict species sensitivity. Toxicity testing with additional nematode species and types of chemicals is feasible and will help form more generalizable conclusions about relative species sensitivity. Environ Toxicol Chem 2020;39:1006-1016. © 2020 SETAC.


Assuntos
Metais/toxicidade , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobre/toxicidade , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Zinco/toxicidade
10.
Molecules ; 25(2)2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936073

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal strongyle nematodes (GIS) are included among the most important parasites of small ruminants. The widespread drug resistance and drug residues in products of animal origin have increased the interest in the search for natural compounds with anthelmintic activity as a valid alternative to current synthetic drugs. The aim of the present investigation was to test the 'in vitro' anthelmintic activity of saponins and prosapogenins from different Medicago species, selected for their importance as a forage crop worldwide for animal feeding. From these plants, saponin mixtures were extracted, purified and used at scalar concentrations to evaluate their anthelmintic activities against sheep gastrointestinal strongyles (GISs), by the egg hatch test. Treated and untreated controls were used as the comparison. Data were statistically analyzed, and EC50 and EC90 were also calculated. All saponins and prosapogenins showed inhibiting effects on GIS eggs in a concentration-dependent manner. At higher concentrations, most of them showed an efficacy comparable to the reference drug (Thiabendazole 3 µg/mL) (P < 0.001). With 1.72 mg/mL EC50 and 3.84 mg/mL EC90, saponin from M. polymorpha cultivars Anglona was the most active. Obtained results encourage further studies aimed at evaluating the efficacy 'in vivo' of saponins which resulted as most effective 'in vitro' in this study.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Medicago/química , Saponinas/farmacologia , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Nematoides/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Saponinas/química , Ovinos
12.
Acta Parasitol ; 65(1): 118-127, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reports of a lack of efficacy of most of the anthelmintic compounds for ruminants associated with the long-time necessity for creating new molecules have stressed the urgency to adopt alternative methods to control gastrointestinal parasites infection, such as strategies of sharing grazing areas. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate nematode populations affecting cattle and sheep that share grazing areas before and after treatment with different anthelmintic compounds, and investigate the efficacy of anthelmintic treatment in these naturally infected ruminants at farms in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: The presence of co-infections by Haemonchus species was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for groups treated with a benzimidazole. Farms were selected by: farmers' consent, presence of 42-60 (or more) calves and sheep per farm with counts of ≥ 200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG), availability of calves and lambs aging from 6 to 9 months, absence of anthelmintic treatment for both species for 60 days before the experimental period, and shared grazing areas between this species on each farm. Animals were distributed into six treatment groups for each ruminant species per farm and treated with: ivermectin, doramectin, moxidectin, levamisole, albendazole, and closantel. RESULTS: Levamisol was the most effective anthelmintic compound for both ruminant species. In general, Cooperia spp., Haemonchus spp., and Trichostrongylus spp. were the genus present after tested treatments that were ineffective. PCR showed the presence of Haemonchus species co-infections between cattle and sheep. CONCLUSION: Therefore, this study demonstrated the similarity between nematode population, the presence of multi-resistant nematodes, and the presence of Haemonchus species co-infections affecting different ruminant species that share pastures.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Fazendas , Fezes/parasitologia , Herbivoria , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Nematoides/genética , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
13.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 39(2): 482-491, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692101

RESUMO

Environmental quality guideline values and remediation targets, specific to Antarctic ecosystems, are required for the risk assessment and remediation of contaminated sites in Antarctica. Ecotoxicological testing with Antarctic soil organisms is fundamental in determining reliable contaminant effect threshold concentrations. The present study describes the development of optimal culturing techniques and aqueous toxicity test procedures for an endemic Antarctic soil nematode, Plectus murrayi, which lives within interstitial waters between soil particles. Toxicity tests were of extended duration to account for the species' physiology and life-history characteristics. Plectus murrayi was sensitive to aqueous copper with a 50% effective concentration for egg-hatching success of 139 µg/L. Hatched juveniles that were first exposed to copper as eggs appeared to be less sensitive than those first exposed at the hatched J2 stage, indicating a potential protective effect of the egg. Sensitivity of juveniles to copper increased with exposure duration, with 50% lethal concentrations of 478 and 117 µg/L at 21 and 28 d, respectively. The present study describes new methods for the application of an environmentally relevant test species to the risk assessment of contaminants in Antarctic soil and provides the first estimates of sensitivity to a toxicant for an Antarctic terrestrial microinvertebrate. Environ Toxicol Chem 2020;39:482-491. © 2019 SETAC.


Assuntos
Cobre/toxicidade , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Ecossistema , Nematoides/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Testes de Toxicidade
14.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e013119, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058018

RESUMO

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of carvacryl acetate (CVA) and nanoencapsulated CVA (nCVA) on gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. The CVA was nanoencapsulated with chitosan/gum arabic and the efficacy of nanoencapsulation (EE), yield, zeta potential, nanoparticle morphology and release kinetics at pH 3 and 8 were analyzed. Acute and subchronic toxicity were evaluated in rodents and reduction of egg counts in the faeces (FECRT) of sheep. The sheep were divided into four groups (n = 10): G1, 250 mg/kg CVA; G2, 250 mg/kg nCVA; G3, polymer matrix and G4: 2.5 mg/kg monepantel. EE and nCVA yield were 65% and 57%, respectively. The morphology of the nanoparticles was spherical, size (810.6±286.7 nm), zeta potential in pH 3.2 (+18.3 mV) and the 50% release of CVA at pHs 3 and 8 occurred at 200 and 10 h, respectively. nCVA showed LD50 of 2,609 mg/kg. CVA, nCVA and monepantel reduced the number of eggs per gram of faeces (epg) by 57.7%, 51.1% and 97.7%, respectively. The epg of sheep treated with CVA and nCVA did not differ from the negative control (P>0.05). Nanoencapsulation reduced the toxicity of CVA; however, nCVA and CVA presented similar results in the FECRT.


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia do acetato de carvacrila (ACV) e do ACV nanoencapsulado (nACV) sobre nematóides gastrintestinais de ovinos. O ACV foi nanoencapsulado com quitosana/goma arábica e foi analisada a eficácia de nanoencapsulamento (EE), o rendimento, potencial zeta, morfologia das nanopartículas e cinética de liberação em pH 3 e 8. Foram avaliadas as toxicidades aguda e subcrônica em roedores e a redução da contagem de ovos nas fezes (RCOF) de ovinos. Os ovinos foram divididos em quatro grupos (n = 10): G1, 250 mg/kg ACV; G2, 250 mg/kg de nACV; G3, matriz polimérica e G4: 2,5 mg/kg de monepantel. A EE e o rendimento de nACV foram de 65% e 57%, respectivamente. A morfologia das nanopartículas foi esférica, tamanho (810,6±286,7 nm), potencial zeta no pH 3,2 (+18,3 mV) e a liberação de 50% de CVA nos pHs 3 e 8 ocorreu às 200 e 10 h, respectivamente. nACV apresentou DL50 de 2.609 mg/kg. ACV, nACV e o monepantel reduziram a contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (opg) em 57,7%, 51,1% e 97,7%, respectivamente. A contagem de opg de ovelhas tratadas com ACV e nCVA não diferiu do controle negativo (P>0,05). O nanoencapsulamento reduziu a toxicidade do AVC; no entanto, nACV e ACV apresentaram resultados semelhantes na RCOF.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Monoterpenos/administração & dosagem , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Nanocápsulas/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Roedores , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Ovinos , Testes de Toxicidade , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Monoterpenos/toxicidade , Nanocápsulas/toxicidade , Fezes/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Anti-Helmínticos/toxicidade , Camundongos , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Nematoides/classificação , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia
15.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0522019, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1130141

RESUMO

Since drug-resistant nematodes became a common problem in sheep and goat industries, alternative methods using natural products have emerged as a viable and sustainable anthelmintic treatment option. Here, the in vitro effect of essential oil extracted from Lippia gracilis Schauer was assessed on the hatching process of nematodes recovered from naturally infected goats. Essential oil at concentrations of 0.08% (0.008 µL/mL), 0.12% (0.012 µL/mL), and 0.16% (0.016 µL/mL) was able to induce an average inhibition of 74.7, 84 and 93%, respectively. The effective concentration required to inhibit egg hatching in 50% of eggs (EC50) was 0.03452%. Therefore, essential oil of L. gracilis showed promisor in vitro anthelmintic results against egg-hatching of goat gastrointestinal nematodes.(AU)


Como os nematoides resistentes a drogas se tornaram um problema comum nas indústrias de ovinos e caprinos, métodos alternativos que utilizam produtos naturais surgiram como uma opção de tratamento anti-helmíntico viável e sustentável. Aqui, o efeito in vitro do óleo essencial extraído de Lippia gracilis Schauer foi avaliado no processo de eclosão de nematoides recuperados de caprinos naturalmente infectadas. O óleo essencial nas concentrações de 0,08% (0,008 µL/mL), 0,12% (0,012 µL/mL), e 0,16% (0,016 µL/mL)foi capaz de induzir uma inibição média de 74,7, 84 e 93%, respectivamente. A concentração efetiva necessária para inibir a eclosão de ovos em 50% dos ovos (CE50) foi de 0,03452%. Portanto, o óleo essencial de L. gracilis apresentou resultados anti-helmínticos in vitro promissores contra a eclosão de nematódeos gastrintestinais de caprinos.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Lippia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas In Vitro , Cabras/parasitologia , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Ovinos/parasitologia , Bioprospecção , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem
16.
J Helminthol ; 94: e111, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843032

RESUMO

The efficacy of eight essential oils (EOs) (Solidago canadensis, Eucalyptus globulus, Pelargonium asperum, Ocimum basilicum, Thymus vulgaris, Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon martinii) against gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) was evaluated using eggs collected from naturally infected cattle and cultured infective larvae (L3). The larvae species cultured from the faecal samples and subjected to two in vitro tests were Haemonchus spp. (55.5%), Trichostrongylus spp. (28.0%), Cooperia spp. (15.0%) and Oesophagostomum spp. (1.5%). The genus of EO Cymbopogon (C. citratus and C. martinii) showed the highest anthelmintic activity at the dose of 8.75 mg/ml, for the egg hatch, the larval migration and mortality assays. All of the EOs tested reduced egg hatching to rates <19.0%, compared to the controls (water and water + Tween 20) that had rates >92.0%. Cymbopogon citratus and C. martinii treatments resulted in 11.6 and 8.1% egg hatch, had the lowest migration of larvae through sieves, 60.5 and 54.9%, and the highest mortality rates, 63.3 and 56.3%, respectively. Dose-response tests showed that EO from C. citratus had the lowest larval LC50 and migration inhibition concentration (IC50) values of 3.89 and 7.19 mg/ml, respectively, compared to two other EOs (C. martinii and O. basilicum). The results suggest that EOs from the genus Cymbopogon can be interesting candidates for nematode control in cattle, although it may prove challenging to deliver concentrations to the gastrointestinal tract sufficient to effectively manage GINs.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/fisiologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Extratos Vegetais/química
17.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 700-707, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800888

RESUMO

The aim here is to present data on the efficacy of anthelmintics in sheep flocks in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and to discuss the interpretation of the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) for each nematode genus. Fecal eggs counts and pre- and post-treatment coprocultures were performed, the former to evaluate the efficacy of and the latter to determine the overall parasite prevalence. An additional efficacy test was performed at Farm # 1 a year after the initial test. Severe anthelmintic resistance was found for the flocks, with no FECRT sensitivity at any of the 22 farms evaluated. However, an analysis of the infective larvae showed that some drugs were effective against certain parasitic genera; i.e., levamisole was more effective against Haemonchus spp. and moxidectin against Trichostrongylus spp. In the additional FECRT performed at Farm # 1, moxidectin and nitroxynil were ineffective separately, but when applied in combination they were highly effective due to their efficacy against Haemonchus (nitroxynil) and Trichostrongylus (moxidectin), respectively. The use of the FECRT targeting the parasitic nematode species prevalent on farms may make it possible to choose more effective anthelmintics.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Fezes/parasitologia , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Ovinos
18.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 18: 100325, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796185

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) have been identified in Australia as a major problem in goat production, with few anthelmintics registered for use in goats. Therefore, anecdotally many producers use anthelmintics that have not been registered for goats. Using unregistered products could increase selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance as well as safety and/or meat or milk chemical residues of products from treated goats. This producer survey was conducted in 2014 to establish Australian goat producer knowledge, perception and practises of GIN treatment and control. Eighty-eight producers responded to the survey. Of these respondents, 90% thought that GINs were a problem for the Australian goat industry, and 73% considered GINs had caused production losses or health impacts for their goats during the 5 years prior to the survey. With regard to anthelmintic resistance, 7% believed that anthelmintic resistance was not a problem at all, 93% acknowledged anthelmintic resistance was a problem in Australian goats herds, with 25% of these reporting their properties as being affected. The majority (81%) of respondents believed the number of anthelmintics registered for goats was inadequate for effective GIN control. Of the 85% of producers who used an anthelmintic during the survey period, 69% had used a treatment not registered for use in goats. Fifty respondents listed the anthelmintic dosage used, and 50% of those had used a dose rate greater than the recommended label dose. The average frequency of administration of anthelmintic was 2.5 times per annum. Of the 51% of respondents who listed the frequency of their treatments given during the survey period, 16% administered four or more treatments annually to the majority of their goats and 8% administered treatments on an "as needed" basis. Faecal egg count (FEC) had been performed on 72% of properties in at least one of the six years covered by the survey. These results indicated that the majority of surveyed producers use anthelmintics that are not registered for use in goats and at different dose rates to label. These practises have the potential for increasing the spread of anthelmintic resistance in the GIN populations of goats and sheep. Further, giving dose rates in excess of label recommendations could impact goat safety and/or product residues. Further research is needed to investigate these risks and evaluate more sustainable GIN control options for goat herds. In addition more effective dissemination of information is necessary for the improvement of the Australian goat industry.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Uso Off-Label/veterinária , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Austrália , Resistência a Medicamentos , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Cabras , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Uso Off-Label/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 22(4): 753-760, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867918

RESUMO

We described a first case of resistance to eprinomectin in goat herd in Poland in which resistance to benzimidazoles had been previously reported. The herd was established in 2011 by purchasing several goats from a single herd in south-eastern Poland. Resistance to benzimidazoles in the herd was first reported in 2017. Shortly after the owner started to signal low effectiveness of the treatment with eprinomectin. In June 2018 the larval development test from pooled faecal sample was performed and the results indicated the presence of resistance to macrocyclic lactones and levamisole. In July 2018 a faecal egg count (FEC) reduction test was performed in 39 animals with levamisole, eprinomectin and one untreated control group. Drugs were used in doses recommended for goats. Three methods of calculation of FEC reduction were compared. After eprinomectin treatment, FEC reduction ranged from 0 to 20%, depending on the method of calculation. FEC reduction following levamisole treatment was 100%. Main species present in the faecal samples after treatment and in larvicidal concentrations in larval development test was Haemonchus contortus. This is the first report of anthelminthic resistance to macrocylic lactones (eprinomectin) in goats in Poland.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas
20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19806, 2019 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875039

RESUMO

Methyl bromide (MB), a dominant ozone-depleting substance, is scheduled to be completely phased out for soil fumigation by December 30th 2018, in China. The combined effects of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) plus metham sodium (MNa) were assessed in controlling soilborne pests for soil fumigation. A study was designed in laboratory for the evaluation of the efficacy of DMDS + MNa to control major soilborne pests. At the same time, two trials were conducted in cucumber field located in Tongzhou (in 2012) and Shunyi (in 2013), respectively, in order to assess the potential of DMDS + MNa in controlling soilborne pests. Laboratory studies disclosed positive synergistic effects of almost all four used combinations on Meloidogyne spp., Fusarium spp., Phytophthora spp., Abutilon theophrasti and Digitaria sanguinalis. Field trials found that DMDS + MNa (30 + 21 g a. i. m-2), both at a 50% reduced dose, effectively suppressed Meloidogyne spp. with a low root galling index (2.1% and 11.7%), significantly reduced the levels of Phytophthora and Fusarium spp. with a low root disease index (7.5% and 15.8%), gave very high cucumber yields (6.75 kg m-2 and 10.03 kg m-2), and increased income for cucumber growers with the highest economic benefits (20.91 ¥ m-2 and 23.58 ¥ m-2). The combination treatment provided similar results as MB standard dose treatment (40 g a. i. m-2) or DMDS standard dose treatment (60 g a. i. m-2) in pest control and yield, but was more effective than MNa standard dose treatment (42 g a. i. m-2). Usage of all chemical treatments gave better significant results than the untreated group of control. Considering the economic benefits, the DMDS plus MNa combination (30 + 21 g a. i. m-2) could be used for soil fumigation in cucumber production in China.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dissulfetos/farmacologia , Fumigação/métodos , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Tiocarbamatos/farmacologia , Animais , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados , Permeabilidade , Phytophthora , Doenças das Plantas , Raízes de Plantas , Microbiologia do Solo , Tylenchoidea/efeitos dos fármacos
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