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1.
Oral Oncol ; 137: 106300, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36638697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral cavity cancer (OCC) is traditionally associated with smoking, but there is an increasing prevalence of the disease among non-smokers. This review investigates possible modifiable risk factors in the development of OCC in non-smokers (OCCNS). METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched for publications prior to June 2021. Comparative studies investigating modifiable OCCNS risk factors were identified following PRISMA guidelines. Publication date, population size, and results were indexed. Study quality was assessed using MINORS (Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies). Factors examined by multiple studies were analyzed using random-effect meta-analysis framework. RESULTS: Literature search resulted in 1,625 unique publications. 52 records met inclusion criterion, investigating alcohol (n = 22), chewing products (n = 18), diet (n = 7), dental health (n = 11), and medical comorbidities (n = 6). CONCLUSION: This review demonstrates the paucity of large studies investigating OCCNS risk factors. Further investigation is warranted to help clinicians risk-stratify patients without traditional risk factors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Bucais , não Fumantes , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos
2.
BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 613, 2022 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36527041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lip and oral cavity cancer has been reported as the 10th most common cancer in Thailand. Recently, a screening program for oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) and oral cancer was conducted in the northeastern Thailand which took into consideration a total of 371,911 people who resided in the provinces of Buriram, Chaiyaphum, Nakhon Ratchasima, and Surin. METHODS: A total of 330,914 subjects were consecutively screened for risk factors of oral cancer by village health volunteers (VHVs) using a questionnaire (S1). Then, 186,710 subjects with one or more risk factors for oral cancer were referred for oral screening by dental auxiliaries or dentists at sub-district level hospitals (S2) where 86,941 subjects were subsequently screened. Afterwards, 1576 subjects with suspicious oral lesions for OPMDs or oral cancer attended local hospitals for further investigation and treatment. Oral medicine specialists, oral surgeons, and local dentists at the district level hospitals performed biopsies and the samples were sent for histopathological analysis. The objectives of the study were to report the histopathology findings from the biopsies obtained from these subjects and the associated risk factors. RESULTS: Out of 427 subjects who received biopsies, complete diagnostic results were obtained from 409 patients (462 specimens). The 5 most common histopathological results from these specimens were mild epithelial dysplasia (27.3%), fibroepithelial hyperplasia (14.5%), oral lichen planus/oral lichenoid reactions (11.5%), moderate epithelial dysplasia (8%), and acanthosis with or without hyperkeratosis (5%). Oral squamous cell carcinoma was detected in 14 subjects and 11 other forms of oral cancer were revealed. Among the analyzed risk factors, habitual betel quid chewing was established as a statistically significant risk factor associated with OPMDs and oral cancer. CONCLUSION: The most frequently observed histopathological results of clinically suspected oral cancer and OPMDs included mild epithelial dysplasia, fibroepithelial hyperplasia, oral lichen planus/oral lichenoid reactions, moderate epithelial dysplasia, and acanthosis with or without hyperkeratosis. Betel quid chewing habit was found to be associated with OPMDs and oral cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Líquen Plano Bucal , Doenças da Boca , Neoplasias Bucais , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Líquen Plano Bucal/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Hiperplasia/complicações , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/epidemiologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/complicações , Doenças da Boca/epidemiologia , Doenças da Boca/complicações , Análise Fatorial
3.
Braz Oral Res ; 36: e073, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36507760

RESUMO

In Brazil, there are 15,500 incident cases of oral cancer (OC) yearly, and early diagnosis is the main factor for a better prognosis. The objective of this study was to analyze the interval between the first symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment commencement in patients with malignant neoplasms in the oral cavity, lips, and oropharynx diagnosed between 2012-2018. Epidemiological data, duration, history of lesion, biopsy, and diagnosis were obtained from the medical records of these patients, who were then contacted via phone and interviewed about their oncological treatment. The results were analyzed and expressed as mean, median, and SD. Of 184 patients, most were men, white, 50-69 years old, smokers, and alcoholics. The longest interval was between the first symptoms and first evaluation (a mean of 275 days). The interval between the first appointment and the result of the biopsy was shorter (13 days). Among the 85 patients interviewed, the interval between the diagnosis, the first appointment at the oncological clinic and treatment commencement was 55 days (mean) for patients using private-sector health care, and 96 days (mean) for patients using public health care. The interval was twice as long in the public health system compared with the private sector, which highlights the inequality of access to health care in Brazil. Delay in seeking health care after the appearance of the first symptoms remains a major problem.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Labiais , Neoplasias Bucais , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Feminino , Brasil/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/terapia
4.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 21: 15330338221147771, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36567633

RESUMO

Background: Mass screening of high-risk populations for oral cancer has proven to be effective in reducing oral cancer mortality. However, the magnitude of the effectiveness of the various screening scenarios has rarely been addressed. Methods: We developed a simulation algorithm for a prospective cohort under various oral cancer screening scenarios. A hypothetical cohort of 8 million participants aged ≥30 years with cigaret smoking and/or betel quid chewing habits was constructed based on parameters extracted from studies on oral cancer screening. The results of a population-based screening program in Taiwan and a randomized controlled trial in India were used to validate the fitness; then, the effectiveness of the model was determined by changing the screening parameters. Results: There was a reduction in the risk of advanced oral cancer by 40% (relative risk [RR] = 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]:0.59-0.62) and oral cancer mortality by 29% (RR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.69-0.73) at the 6-year follow-up in a screening scenario similar to the biennial screening in Taiwan, with a 55.1% attendance rate and 92.6% referral rate. The incremental effect in reducing advanced oral cancer was approximately 5% with a short 1-year screening frequency, and the corresponding reduction in mortality was, on average, 6.5%. The incremental reduction in advanced oral cancer per 10% increase in the compliance rate was 3% to 4%, while only 1% to 2% reduction was noted per 10% increase in the referral rate. The effectiveness of screening in reducing advanced oral cancer was 5% to 6% less when both betel quid chewing and alcohol drinking habits were present. Conclusion: Our computer simulation model demonstrated the effect of screening on the reduction in oral cancer mortality under various scenarios. The results provide screening policymakers with the necessary guidance to implement screening programs to save lives.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Bucais , Fumar , Humanos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Simulação por Computador , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Programas de Rastreamento
5.
Probl Radiac Med Radiobiol ; 27: 324-340, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Ucraniano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36582098

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to establish cellular immunity in clean-up workers of the Chornobyl accident compared to patients with malignant neoplasms of the oral cavity, oral and laryngeal parts of the pharynx according to the subpopulation organization of peripheral blood leukocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined 112 males, age (56,92 ± 6,17) years (M ± SD), including 26 male clean-up workers exposed at the radiation dose 10-500 mSv; 20 male clean-up workers exposed at the dose range 504-990mSv; 33 patients with malignant neoplasms of the oral cavity, oral and laryngeal parts of the pharynx and 33 non-exposed subjects of the control group. Immune cell subsets analysis was performed by the expression of differential and activation antigens of peripheral blood leukocytes using flow cytometry. RESULTS: In assessing each group's cellular immunity, there was a decrease in the number of CD19+ B-lymphocytes, CD3+ HLA-DR+ T- and CD3- HLA-DR+ B-lymphocytes, CD3- 16+ 56+ natural killer cells, combined with an increase in the number of CD8+ T-lymphocytes. An increase in the relative number of CD4+ CD8+ T-lymphocytes was determined in clean-up workers (D < 500 mSv) and cancer patients. An increase in the number of CD8+ T-lymphocytes and a decrease in the number of CD4+ T-lymphocytes were observed in clean-up workers (D > 500 mSv), as well as in cancer patients. In addition, a decrease of monocytes, CD3+ 16+ 56+ , and CD3+ TCRαß+ T-lymphocytes was determined in patients with oncological pathology. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results show the unidirectionality of changes in cellular immunity in the participants of the liquidation of the consequences of the accident at the Chornobyl nuclear power plant and patients with the investigated oncological pathology, which indicates the formation of persistent violations of antitumor protection in the participants of the liquidation of the consequences of the accident as the basis of oncogenesis. Determining changes in the number of lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, CD4+ T-lymphocytes, CD4+ CD8+ immature T-lymphocytes, the immunoregulatory ratio CD4+ / CD8+, CD3+TCRαß+ T-lymphocytes and CD3+ 16+ 56+ CTL can have an additional effect on the effectiveness antitumor protection and the probability of oncogenesis risk in immunocompromised individuals.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Chernobyl , Imunidade Celular , Neoplasias Bucais , Neoplasias Faríngeas , Humanos , Masculino , Carcinogênese , Antígenos HLA-DR , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Faringe , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Faríngeas/epidemiologia
6.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 25: e220034, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383844

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the trend in incidence, mortality and Disability Adjusted Life Years of oral cancer in Latin America according to sex between 2000 and 2020. METHODS: This ecological study extracted oral cancer information from 20 Latin American countries from the GBD-2020 database. Oral cancer burden was described by age-standardized rate (ASR) of incidence, mortality, and DALYs. The data was compared according to sex and countries. Trends (Average Annual Percentage Change-AAPC) were estimated for each indicator, sex, and country between 2000 and 2020 using Joint-point software. RESULTS: Between 2000 and 2020, the highest incidence of oral cancer (ASR) occurred in Cuba (5.18), Brazil (4.38) and Uruguay (4.62). The countries with the highest mortality for both sexes were (ASR): Cuba (2.89), Brazil (2.71) and the Dominican Republic (2.58). The DALYs registered an average of 37.52 (Women: 22.39; Men: 52.62). The Dominican Republic reports increasing trends in incidence (AAPC: Men: 2.2; Women: 1.4), in mortality (AAPC: Men: 1.8; Women: 1.1), and in DALYs (AAPC: Men: 1.0; Women: 2.0). Costa Rica shows decreasing trends in men in incidence (AAPC: -1.3), mortality (AAPC: -1.6), and DALYs (AAPC: -1.8). CONCLUSION: Oral cancer shows increasing trends in: the incidence in both sexes in 10 countries, in mortality and DALYs in 6 countries, while the affectation between sexes does not show differences in trends.


Assuntos
Anos de Vida Ajustados pela Incapacidade , Neoplasias Bucais , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Incidência , América Latina/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Mortalidade
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361205

RESUMO

The nationwide oral cancer screening program was launched for high-risk people (tobacco smokers or betel-nut chewers) in 1999 in Taiwan, but no study has taken the prevalence of tobacco smoking and betel-nut chewing into account for evaluating the impact of the screening program on oral cancer mortality. This study incorporated the risk fraction method with interrupted time-series analysis to evaluate the impact of the nationwide oral mucosal screening program among men in Taiwan. This study estimated the expected oral cancer mortality trend if the screening program had not launched in 1999, which revealed that the increasing oral cancer mortality trend would level off after 2009 due to the declining prevalence of tobacco smoking and betel-nut chewing. In 2000-2007, the percentage changes between the observed (implementation of the screening program) and expected (if the screening program had not launched) oral cancer mortality rate was not statistically significant for each age group. In 2008-2020, the significant percentage changes were -178% (99% CIs: -140.8 to -215.2), -75.4% (-59.4 to -91.4), -33.7% (-24.7 to -42.7), -18.8% (-12.0 to -25.6), and -15.3% (-9.5 to -21.2) for age groups of 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49, and 50-54, respectively. In addition to its influence on tobacco smoking and betel-nut chewing, the oral mucosal screening program was associated with the reduction of oral cancer mortality among men in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias Bucais , Masculino , Humanos , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Areca , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Mastigação
8.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 23(11): 3931-3937, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36444607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most important malignancies, worldwide. Oncogenic viruses, such as human papilloma virus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), are linked to these cancers and studies suggest a possible interaction between HPV and EBV during co-infections to promote oncogenesis. Nonetheless, these reports are controversial and demand more investigations in this regard. The present work to assessed the prevalence of HPV and co-infection with EBV in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas. METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues were collected from 166 archived oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma samples from Ahvaz Imam Khomeini hospital, Ahvaz, Iran, from March 2013 and December 2019. Nested-PCR was used to detect the viruses and type-specific PCR/nested-PCR and sequencing were performed for virus genotyping. RESULTS: Out of the 166 specimens, 84.33% and 16.42% were from oral cavity and oropharynx, respectively; of which, 32 cases (19.3%) were HPV-positive (16.42% of oral cavity and 34.6% of oropharynx). HPV was detected in 36.36%, 25%, and 16.42% of base of tongue, tonsil, and oral tongue tumors, respectively. HPV was more associated with well differentiated tumors (24;18.04%) in compared to moderately and poorly differentiated ones. Regarding HPV-16 genotyping, 7 (21.8%) out of the 32 samples were found to be HPV-16 (4/26 (15.38%) for oropharynx and 3/140 (2.14%) for oral cavity). Moreover, 90 samples were evaluated for EBV infection and co-infection; of which, 4 (4.4%) subjects tested positive for EBV, including two cases with HPV co-infection. All the positive cases were EBV type B, from oral cavity, and histologically well differentiated. CONCLUSIONS: HPV was more associated with oropharyngeal cancer. This association has been linked to various factors such as repeated oral and oropharyngeal exposure to HPV due to change in patterns of sexual behaviors; a phenomenon that may demand routine HPV vaccination.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus , Coinfecção , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Bucais , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Humanos , Papillomaviridae/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia
9.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 22(1): 270, 2022 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36229788

RESUMO

Mapping spacetime disease rates can provide a more in-depth understanding of their distribution and trends. Traditional spatiotemporal kriging methods can break the constraints of geopolitical boundaries and time intervals. Still, disease rates in densely and sparsely populated areas are stabilized to the same degree, resulting in a map that is oversmoothed in some places but undersmoothed in others. The stabilized spatiotemporal kriging method proposed in this study overcomes this problem by allowing for nonconstant variances over space and time. A spatiotemporal map of the standardized incidence ratio for oral cancer in men in Taiwan between 1997 and 2017 reveals that the high-risk areas for oral cancer are in the midwestern and southeastern regions of Taiwan, spreading toward the center and north, with persistent cold spots in the northern and southwestern urban regions. However, the corresponding map for breast cancer in women in Taiwan reveals that the high-risk areas for breast cancer are concentrated in densely populated urban regions in the west. Spatiotemporal maps facilitate our understanding of disease risk dynamics. We recommend using the proposed stabilized spatiotemporal kriging method for mapping disease rates across space and time.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias Bucais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Análise Espacial , Taiwan/epidemiologia
10.
Lipids Health Dis ; 21(1): 96, 2022 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36209108

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore the relationship between the fatty acid lipophilic index (LI) of the erythrocyte membrane and oral cancer risk, as well as to evaluate the possibility of LI acting as a mediator of the association between body mass index (BMI) and oral cancer. METHOD: Twenty-three fatty acids (FAs) of the erythrocyte membrane were measured using gas chromatography in 380 patients with oral cancer and 387 control subjects. The LI was calculated based on the FA proportion and FA melting points. The association of BMI and erythrocyte LI with oral cancer risk was analysed using logistic regression. The mediation effect of LI on the association between BMI and oral cancer risk was evaluated using mediation analysis. RESULTS: Among the control group, 46.0% were overweight or obese, which was significantly higher than that of oral cancer patients (29.5%). Significant differences in erythrocyte membrane saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were observed between the patient and control groups. The proportion of C18:1 n-9 from the MUFA family increased in oral cancer patients (12.67%) compared with controls (12.21%). While the total proportion of n-3 PUFAs decreased in oral cancer patients compared with controls, with C20:5 n-3 decreasing from 0.66 to 0.47%, and C22:6 n-3 decreasing from 5.82 to 4.86%. The LI was lower in the control participants (M = 27.6, IQR: 27.3-27.9) than in the oral cancer patients (M = 28.2, IQR: 27.9-28.5). BMI was inversely associated with oral cancer risk with a fully adjusted OR of 0.59 (95% CI: 0.43-0.83), while LI was positively associated with oral cancer risk with a fully adjusted OR of 1.99 (95% CI:1.36-2.94). LI explained 7% of the variance in the relationship between BMI and oral cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of the FA profile in erythrocyte membranes differed between the oral cancer patients and the control group. The LI derived from the profile of FAs was positively associated with the risk of oral cancer, and the associations between BMI and oral cancer risk can be explained, at least in part, by LI.


Assuntos
Análise de Mediação , Neoplasias Bucais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Membrana Eritrocítica/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia
11.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 68(9): 1337-1341, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228268

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe and discuss the epidemiological indicators of lip and oral cavity cancer in Brazil, in 2017, according to data from the Global Burden of Disease data. METHODS: This is a descriptive study reported according to STROBE guidelines. We identified epidemiological indicators using the Global Burden of Disease results tool. Mortality/incidence rates were described per 100,000 population. Global Burden of Disease 2017 reviews were completed using Python version 2.7, Stata version 13.1, and R version 3.3. RESULTS: In 2017, there were 5,237 deaths from the lip or oral cavity cancer in Brazil, most of them were males aged between 50 and 69 years (2,730 cases, which was equivalent to 52% of the universe of deaths resulting from this cause). Regarding the burden of lip and oral cavity cancer, per 100,000 Brazilians, we observed an incidence of 3.99, prevalence of 15.46, and mortality of 2.29 (with higher indicators in the South and Southeast regions of the country). CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiological indicators of lip and oral cavity cancer were higher in men, with higher mortality indicators in individuals aged 50-69 years, and higher rates (incidence, prevalence, and mortality) in the South and Southeast regions of Brazil. From 2002-2015, there was a reduction in mortality; however, in the period from 2015-2017, there was a resumption in the growth of this indicator.


Assuntos
Lábio , Neoplasias Bucais , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia
12.
Oral Oncol ; 134: 106189, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36208599

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the characteristics of risk factors for oral cancer and the disease burden they caused. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from GBD2019, where the EAPC was calculated to understand mortality trends and the APC model was used for the analysis of age characteristics. RESULTS: Overall oral cancer mortality showed a promising downward trend [EAPC = -0.05 (-0.08 to -0.02)]. Oral cancer mortality attributable to tobacco chewing alone showed a significant upward trend [EAPC = 0.44 (0.36-0.52)]. Males are the majority of oral cancer deaths, while the disease burden of oral cancer in females could be largely attributable to chewing tobacco. The age of death attributable to each risk factor for oral cancer is concentrated between 45 and 74 years. Mortality for oral cancer caused by alcohol and smokeless tobacco was increasing in younger age groups (age < 45), and this trend was more pronounced in middle and middle-high SDI areas. The disease burden of oral cancer in high SDI regions was mainly attributed to alcohol consumption, while in middle and lower SDI regions it was mainly attributed to tobacco. CONCLUSION: Smokeless tobacco proved a critical factor in the significant regional distribution of oral cancer. Oral cancer is on the increase in younger age groups. According to the characteristics of the distribution of risk factors, in traditionally high-incidence regions, such as India and Pakistan, oral cancer kept the highest ASDR, but was not experiencing the fastest growth rate. Additionally, it was oral cancer in middle SDI regions that needs more attention.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença , Neoplasias Bucais , Idoso , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco
13.
In Vivo ; 36(6): 2669-2677, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36309370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The over-expression of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) protein is found in oral cancer tissues. However, the genetic role of the enhancer of EZH2 in the etiology of oral cancer is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of EZH2 genotypes with oral cancer risk among Taiwanese. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three polymorphic variants of EZH2, rs887569 (C to T), rs41277434 (A to C), and rs3757441 (T to C), were analyzed regarding their association with oral cancer risk among 958 oral cancer patients and the same number of healthy controls by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). In addition, the interaction of EZH2 rs887569, rs41277434, and rs3757441 genotypes with personal behaviors such as smoking, alcohol drinking, and betel quid chewing were also examined. RESULTS: The EZH2 genotypes rs887569, rs41277434, and rs3757441, were not significantly associated with oral cancer risk (p for trend=0.1735, 0.5658, and 0.4606, respectively). The analysis of allelic frequency distribution also supported the findings that the variant alleles at EZH2 rs887569, rs41277434, and rs3757441 may not serve as determinants of oral cancer risk (all p>0.05). There was no interaction between EZH2 rs887569, rs41277434, or rs3757441 genotypes with personal smoking, alcohol drinking or betel quid chewing behaviors. CONCLUSION: EZH2 genotypes cannot predict oral cancer risk in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste , Neoplasias Bucais , Humanos , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Genótipo , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Taiwan , Fatores de Risco , Estudos de Casos e Controles
14.
Head Neck ; 44(12): 2925-2937, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114663

RESUMO

This study aimed to map systemic alterations predisposing to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) onset. This review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Five databases were used to access (1) reports of OSCC co-occurring in patients with systemic conditions, (2) prevalence of OSCC among these patients, and (3) clinicopathological profiles. Data from more than 1 million patients worldwide showed that Fanconi's anemia, xeroderma pigmentosum, dyskeratosis congenital, chronic fatigue syndrome, and patients post bone marrow transplantation (BMT) present increased risk for OSCC development. The overall prevalence of OSCC in syndromic patients and post-BMT were 0.65% (95% CI = 0.13-3.11, p < 0.01) and 5.83% (95% CI = 0.00-30.90, p < 0.01), respectively. The certainty of the evidence was moderate. This study demonstrated that some systemic conditions predispose to OSCC. These results present an impact on the screening of OSCC in systemically compromised patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Bucais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Humanos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Anemia de Fanconi , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia
15.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 18(4): 984-989, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36149150

RESUMO

Context: Areca nut (AN) is a potent cytotoxic and genotoxic agent. Oxidative stress-induced by chewing of AN can cause DNA damage leading to nuclear anomalies such as micronuclei (MN) and also alters antioxidant defense mechanisms, leading to genomic instabilities and the development of oral cancer. Aims: The aim of this study is to study the correlation between the levels of glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in exfoliated buccal mucosal cells and the genotoxicity levels (MN count) in chronic AN chewers. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted with the approval of the Research Ethics Board in 60 individuals; 40 cases (Group I-20 raw AN chewers, Group II-20 dried areca with tobacco chewers), and 20 controls as Group III in the age group of 18-68 years who attended the outpatient department of our college. Estimation of SOD and GR and MN assessment was done using buccal exfoliated cells. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using the Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA. Results: Antioxidant levels were found to be significantly reduced in both Group I and Group II in comparison to the control group. Group II showed significantly reduced level of GR in comparison to Group I. The MN count was significantly increased in Group II in comparison to Group I. The MN counts showed an inverse correlation to the activities of the antioxidant enzymes. Greater activities of antioxidant enzymes correlated with decreased MN counts. Conclusions: Detection of MN in AN chewers with or without tobacco can be a useful biomarker for clinical screening procedures that may be used as a risk marker for oral cancer. It is important to increase the awareness programs to educate the public about the deleterious effects of AN chewing, emphasize on early intervention of AN chewing habit and thus prevent the development of oral cancer.


Assuntos
Areca , Neoplasias Bucais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antioxidantes , Areca/efeitos adversos , Glutationa Redutase , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Nozes , Superóxido Dismutase , Tabaco , Adulto Jovem
16.
Clin Oral Investig ; 26(12): 6855-6869, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36131100

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the proportion of young (up to 45 years of age) and older (over 45 years of age) oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients who report tobacco and alcohol consumption. METHODS: Observational studies reporting tobacco and alcohol consumption among young and older OSCC patients were selected in a two-phase process. Search strategies were conducted on five main electronic databases and complemented by grey literature. The risk of bias was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute's Critical Appraisal Checklist for Studies Reporting Prevalence Data. Synthesis of results was calculated with the software R Statistics version 4.0.2 (The R Foundation). RESULTS: From 6675 records identified, 38 studies met the eligibility criteria and were selected for qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis, encompassing 2439 young and 13,393 older patients. Tobacco smoking was reported by 39.5% (confidence interval (CI) = 31.7% to 47.9%, I2 = 78%) of the young patients and 48.4% (CI = 37.8% to 59.2%, I2 = 94%) of the older patients. Alcohol consumption was reported by 30.9% (CI = 22.7% to 40.5%, I2 = 83%) of the young and 45.8% (CI = 35.6% to 56.5%, I2 = 95%) of the older patients (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The comparison in the proportion of individuals reporting tobacco and alcohol consumption demonstrated that these habits were more prevalent in the older group (48.4% and 45.8% respectively) than in the young group (39.5% and 30.9%, respectively). CLINICAL RELEVANCE: As a significant proportion of patients with OSCC reported no habits, novel risk factors for OSCC need to be investigated in further research.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Bucais , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Tabaco , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/complicações , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
17.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 15(11): 733-746, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095092

RESUMO

Smokeless tobacco (SLT) use is a significant cause of lip and oral cavity cancers. Globally, oral cancer prevalence is strongly linked to the types of tobacco products used, their chemical composition, and their pattern of use. Except snus, all SLT products sold in different World Health Organization regions are strongly associated with oral cancer incidence. Shammah showed the highest association OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI; OR, 38.74; 95% CI, 19.50-76.96), followed by oral snuff (OR, 11.80; 95% CI, 8.45-16.49), gutkha (OR, 8.67; 95% CI, 3.59-20.93), tobacco with betel quid (OR, 7.74; 95% CI, 5.38-11.13), toombak (OR, 4.72; 95% CI, 2.88-7.73), and unspecified chewing tobacco (OR, 4.72; 95% CI, 3.13-7.11). Most SLT products containing high levels of carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) exhibit a high risk of oral cancer. There is an urgent need to frame and implement international policies for oral cancer prevention through legal control of the TSNA levels in all SLT product types. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: Most smokeless tobacco products sold worldwide, mainly shammah, toombak, gutkha, betel quid with tobacco, and dry snuff, are associated with a high risk of oral cancer. A high concentration of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in smokeless tobacco products is the major causative factor for oral cancer development.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Bucais , Uso de Tabaco , Tabaco sem Fumaça , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Nitrosaminas , Medição de Risco , Uso de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Tabaco sem Fumaça/análise , Tabaco sem Fumaça/toxicidade , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Metanálise como Assunto
18.
In Vivo ; 36(5): 2248-2254, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: This study aimed to investigate the link between preoperative glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and oral cancer patients and diabetes mellitus (DM). We aimed to highlight the importance of point-of-care HbA1c measurements in oral cancer patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 214 patients were admitted to the Department of Inpatient Care at Semmelweis University's Department of Oromaxillofacial Surgery and Stomatology between 1 September 2020 and 21 May 2021; individuals, who had undergone maxillofacial surgery under general anesthesia, were included in the study. RESULTS: There was a significant difference between the oral cancer group and the control group in terms of smoking (p=0.009) and alcohol intake (p=0.003). There was no statistically significant difference regarding sex (p=0.132) and DM (p=0.147) between the two groups. The tumor group had an 8.52% greater prevalence of DM, which was not significant. In the oral cancer group, twenty individuals (17.69%) had a higher HbA1c level than the upper level of the optimal metabolic value (6.9%). Nine participants (8.91%) in the control group had an HbA1c value greater than 6.9%, which means that their metabolic level was poor. The oral cancer group did not have higher blood glucose levels than those of the control group. CONCLUSION: No direct connection between high blood glucose levels and oral cancer was found. However, point-of-care HbA1c measurement can be a diagnostic tool to detect DM in the dental office.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hiperglicemia , Neoplasias Bucais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , /metabolismo , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/terapia , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito
19.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 23(9): 2929-2935, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36172654

RESUMO

Background: The global incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is on the rise with no improvement seen in survival rates. Tobacco consumption varies depending on geographic location, ethnicity and culture. The present case-controlled study aimed to determine the relative risk of OSCC for different tobacco consumption patterns in a selected Sri Lankan population. Methods: One hundred and five patients with histopathologically confirmed OSCC attending the National Cancer Institute (Apeksha Hospital) of Sri Lanka and 210 age and gender-matched controls from the community responded to an interviewer-administered questionnaire regarding their smoking and betel-quid chewing (with/ without smokeless tobacco) habits were included in the study. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. p<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The overall risk of OSCC increased 2.93-fold for smokers. Those smoking two packets of cigarettes or more per day (OR=5.56; 95% CI-2.822- 10.984; p=0.000) had more than double the risk of OSCC than those smoking 1-2 packets per day. Smoking for more than 20 years had a 3.4-fold risk of OSCC. Consumption of betel quid containing tobacco (smokeless tobacco) had a 4.26-fold higher risk for OSCC (OR=4.26; 95% CI-2.21-8.21; p=0.000), and the risk increased when all four ingredients (betel leaf, slaked lime, areca nut, and tobacco) were consumed together (OR=4.26; 95% CI-2.34-7.74; p=0.000). The combined effect from concurrent smoking and betel chewing emerged as the highest risk for OSCC (OR=15.34) which significantly exceeded the risks evident for the two habits practised in isolation from each other. Conclusions: Use of smokeless tobacco, consumption of all four ingredients together, duration of smoking, the number of cigarettes smoked per day and combined consumption of betel quid and smoking are significant risk factors in the development of OSCC among Sri Lankans.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Bucais , Areca/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Tabaco , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011897

RESUMO

Tobacco use is a major public health concern and is linked to myriad diseases, including cancer. The link between tobacco use and oral cancer, specifically, is very strong, making tobacco use one of the primary risk factors for oral cancer. While this association is well known, the underlying biochemical changes that result from tobacco use, and how this links to metabolic phenotypes of oral cancer, is not well understood. To address this knowledge gap, a combination of literature reviews and metabolomics studies were performed to identify commonalities in metabolic perturbations between tobacco use and oral cancers. Metabolomics analysis was performed on pooled reference urine from smokers and non-smokers, healthy and malignant oral tissues, and cultured oral cells with or without treatment of the well-known tobacco carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Alterations in amino acid metabolism, carbohydrates/oxidative phosphorylation, fatty acid oxidation, nucleotide metabolism, steroid metabolism, and vitamin metabolism were found to be shared between tobacco use and oral cancer. These results support the conclusion that tobacco use metabolically reprograms oral cells to support malignant transformation through these pathways. These metabolic reprogramming events may be potential targets to prevent or treat oral cancers that arise from tobacco use.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Bucais , Nitrosaminas , Carcinógenos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Nitrosaminas/análise , Tabaco/química , Uso de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia
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