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1.
Autops. Case Rep ; 9(4): e2019112, Oct.-Dec. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1024207

RESUMO

Renal transplant patients are treated with immunosuppressive drugs that decrease the effectiveness of the immune system, making them more prone to developing cancer. Skin and lip carcinomas are common malignancies encountered after transplantation, whereas oral carcinomas are rare. We report the case of a 51-year-old female Caucasian patient, with no history of smoking, who presented white lesions on the tongue and an ulcerated lesion on the lower lip beginning 4 months prior. Diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma for both lesions was made following incisional biopsies. Interestingly, the patient reported a renal transplantation 23 years prior, and was maintained on a combination of cyclosporine, mycophenolate sodium and prednisone. The patient also presented a history of several basal and squamous cell carcinomas on sun-exposed areas of the skin. Both lesions were surgically excised. No sign of recurrence or new lesions in the oral cavity have been observed; however, new skin lesions are frequently diagnosed. This case report highlights that oral cancers may occur in transplant patients in the absence of classical risk factors. Thus, clinicians must be aware of the importance of thorough oral examination in transplant patients in routine follow-up.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Neoplasias Bucais/prevenção & controle , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos
2.
Autops. Case Rep ; 9(4): e2019094, Oct.-Dec. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1024293

RESUMO

Neurofibrosarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm of the head and neck region and accounts for 8% to 16% of all cases. Its origin is varied and may stem from cells of the peripheral nerves, develop de novo, or result from malignant transformation of preexisting neurofibromas. Because the features of neurofibrosarcomas are heterogeneous, the data retrieved during clinical examinations are of great aid for diagnosis. In this case, owing to clinical features and the fact that the patient had neurofibromatosis type 1, the hypothesis of neurofibrosarcoma was promptly established. The final diagnosis was confirmed by associating clinical, imaging, and pathological data. After the treatment, the patient has been followed up for 10 years, with no evidence of recurrence.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Neurofibromatose 1/complicações , Neurofibrossarcoma/diagnóstico , Reconstrução Mandibular , Neurilemoma
3.
Stomatologiia (Mosk) ; 98(4): 34-37, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513146

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to study the influence of components of dental status on the local immunity of the oral cavity; we compared the results of the study of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral mucosa and patients without neoplasm. The study involved 136 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa and 57 patients without neoplasms. In the role of the constituent characteristics of dental status were examined: the use of removable and fixed dentures, dental caries, dental plaque, sharp edges of fullings. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2, 8 and 9, as well as their tissue inhibitors 1 and 2 were assessed in oral fluid. The results suggest the influence of all factors on local immune status of the oral cavity as proved by the significant changes in MMPs level. The use of removable dentures resulted in the pronounced decrease of MMPs and should be considered in oral SSC screening and non-invasive diagnostics.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Cárie Dentária , Neoplasias Bucais , Saúde Bucal , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Humanos , Mucosa Bucal , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia
4.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 932019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328723

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mortality from oral cancer, the prevalence of the main risk factors and the implementation of policies to control current trends and the distribution of data among the countries of Latin America. The objective of this study was to describe the trends of mortality from oral cancer between 2000 and 2017, by sex, in 20 countries in Latin America, and to know the effect of measures to control tobacco consumption and alcohol consumption on the Mortality from oral cancer. METHODS: Ecological study that evaluates the relationship between the rates standardized by the age of cancer by oral sex, the prevalence of tobacco consumption and alcohol consumption, and the implementation of control policies. To calculate the annual percentage change of the rates, the Prais-Winsten regression was used; and the effect of measures of control of risk factors on oral cancer mortality is assessed by Spearman correlations. RESULTS: The greatest decreases in oral cancer mortality were in men in Brazil (APC -7.83, -14.25,-0.93). Mortality from cancer the oral relationship between men and the prevalence of tobacco consumption and alcohol consumption (r = 0.358, r 0.537) (p <0.01), and between the non-implementation of control policies of smoking (r = 0.738) (p= 0.003), the restrictions on the hours and days of sale of alcohol (r = 0.777, p = 0.001), and the states on sponsorship and promotion of alcohol sales (r =0.739 , p =0.040). CONCLUSIONS: The effect of the implementation of control policies is evidenced by a greater relationship with oral cancer mortality in the countries with the least progress in their execution.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Política de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Neoplasias Bucais/mortalidade , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Espanha
5.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 276(9): 2549-2557, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263980

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the feasibility of assessing the cancerization risk of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) through a clinical risk model combined with autofluorescence and brush biopsy with DNA-image cytometry. METHODS: We collected the baseline clinical data of 269 patients; then, performed autofluorescence, brush biopsy with DNA-image cytometry and histopathological examination. Then, we obtained the significant factors by univariate logistic analysis, constructed the clinical risk model by multiple logistic regression and selected the optimal cutoff value according to the maximum Youden index. Finally, we calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the clinical risk score ≥ cutoff value, autofluorescence and brush biopsy with DNA-image cytometry, and plotted the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves and decision curve analysis (DCA). RESULTS: The clinical risk model is represented by the formula: 1 × gender + 1.6 × age group + 1 × lesion site + 1.4 × local stimulus + 1.5 × drink. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.83, and the optimal cutoff score was 3. The AUC indicated that the clinical risk score ≥ 3 (0.74) and autofluorescence (0.77) had a certain diagnostic values, while brush biopsy with DNA-image cytometry (0.92) displayed a good value. Besides, the DCA showed that all three tests had clinical significance. CONCLUSIONS: The cancerization risk of patients can be assessed by the clinical risk model combined with sequence application of autofluorescence and brush biopsy with DNA-image cytometry, to decide whether histopathological examination or other intervention measures should be selected.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Bucal/métodos , Doenças da Boca/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Bucais , Medição de Risco/métodos , Biópsia/métodos , Carcinogênese/patologia , China , Feminino , Humanos , Citometria por Imagem/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Prognóstico
6.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 299, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Programmed death 1 (PD-1) blockade has great effect in the prevention of oral precancerous lesions, but the drug resistance has also been observed. The determinants of immune resistance during the malignant transformation are poorly understood. METHODS: Anti-PD-1 antibody was administered in the 4NQO-induced carcinogenesis mouse models. The mice were then subdivided into PD-1 resistance(PD-1R) group and PD-1 sensitive(PD-1S) group according to the efficacy. The expression of PD-1 and PD-L1, and the abundance of CD3+ T cells in tumor microenvironment between the two groups was tested by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the activation and effector functions, as well as the accumulation of immunosuppressive cells and expression of immune checkpoints of T cells in the draining lymph nodes and spleen between PD-1R and PD-1S group were analyzed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Our results showed that T cell infiltration in tumor microenvironment, effector T cell cytokine secretion and central memory T cell accumulation in peripheral lymphoid organs were all inhibited in the anti-PD-1 resistance group. Furthermore, we found that an increase of regulatory T cell (Treg) population contributed to the resistance of the anti-PD-1 therapy. Notably, TIM-3 was found to be the only immunosuppressive molecule that mediated the resistance to anti-PD-1 therapy in the oral malignant transformation model. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings identified a novel mechanism that T cell dysfunction contributes to the immune resistance during the malignant transformation of the oral mucosa. This study provides new targets for improving the efficacy of immunotherapy for early stage of tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Receptor Celular 2 do Vírus da Hepatite A/genética , Receptor Celular 2 do Vírus da Hepatite A/metabolismo , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Camundongos , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Bucal/metabolismo , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Neoplasias Bucais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
7.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 15(3): 571-575, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169222

RESUMO

The Aim of the Study: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an oncogenic virus and the high-risk genotype HPV 16 and 18 are the most commonly associated with carcinoma. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 in normal oral mucosa, potentially malignant oral disorders (PMOD), and in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in South Indian population and whether it can be used as a biological marker to identify the severity of the disease in patients. Materials and Methods: Cytological samples from buccal mucosa were obtained from ten OSCC patients, ten patients with PMOD, and ten from control group. The samples were subjected to polymerase chain reaction. Results: The prevalence of HPV 16 in control, PMOD, and OSCC was 80%, 50%, and 70%, respectively. The prevalence of HPV 18 in control, PMOD, and OSCC was 70%, 60%, and 50%, respectively. Conclusion: HPV 16 and 18 was noticed in normal oral mucosa, potentially malignant oral lesions, and SCC. The absence of sequential increase or decrease of HPV 16 and 18 in the three groups in this study prevents its use from being used as a marker to identify the progression of the disease.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 18/genética , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , DNA Viral , Feminino , Papillomavirus Humano 16/classificação , Papillomavirus Humano 18/classificação , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Projetos Piloto , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Vigilância da População
8.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 15(3): 582-588, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169224

RESUMO

Objectives: We sought to determine whether smokers with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) have tumors with more adverse pathological features than in nonsmokers and whether or not these are predictive of outcomes. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively identified 163 patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer stages I-IVa OCSCC diagnosed between 2005 and 2015 and treated with curative intent. A pathological risk score (PRS) was calculated using the National Comprehensive Cancer Network adverse risk factors: positive margin, extracapsular extension of lymph node metastases, pT3 or pT4 primary, N2 or N3 nodal disease, perineural invasion, and lymphovascular space invasion. Multivariable models were constructed to determine the independent predictors of overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and PRS. Results: A total of 108 (66.26%) were smokers and 55 nonsmokers. Three-year actuarial OS and RFS were 62% and 68% in smokers and 81% and 69% in nonsmokers, respectively (P = 0.06 and P = 0.63). Smokers were more likely to have advanced disease stage and tumors with aggressive pathological features than nonsmokers. Smokers had significantly worse PRS (mean ± standard deviation; 2.38 ± 2.19, median; 2.00) than nonsmokers (0.89 ± 1.21, 0.00) (P < 0.001). Older age, higher PRS, and smoking status were independent predictors of OS. Smoking or PRS did not predict for worse RFS. On multivariate analysis, independent predictors of PRS were smoking status and grade (P < 0.001). Conclusion: In patients with OCSCC, smokers have more aggressive disease as evidenced by more adverse pathological features than nonsmokers. Moreover, smoking is an independent predictor of OS but not RFS. The PRS is a significant predictor of OS and needs validation in the future studies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Bucais/terapia , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral
9.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 15(3): 620-624, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169230

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Quid-chewing habit is a common and old tradition in India. It causes various potentially malignant disorders. Therefore, a study was undertaken to analyze the association of various quid-chewing habit patterns and different oromucosal lesions. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 cases, where all the individuals selected were having quid-chewing habit and oromucosal lesions. Detailed habit history was taken through preformed questionnaire, clinical examination was done, and the lesion was subjected to incisional biopsy and confirmed histopathologically. Results: The male to female ratio of various quid-chewing habit and oromucosal lesions was 9:1. The middle aged were more commonly involved. Of the various types of quids chewed, a combination of processed betel and processed tobacco which is commercially available was used by majority of the individuals. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) was seen in majority of the cases. Interpretation and Conclusion: The present study confirms the association between betel, tobacco, and various lesions such as OSMF, leukoplakia, chewer's mucosa, lichenoid reaction, and chemical burn. It also confirms the strong association of betel to OSMF and tobacco to leukoplakia.


Assuntos
Doenças da Boca/epidemiologia , Doenças da Boca/etiologia , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Tabaco sem Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Leucoplasia Oral/epidemiologia , Leucoplasia Oral/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Fibrose Oral Submucosa/epidemiologia , Fibrose Oral Submucosa/etiologia , Prevalência , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 15(3): 631-637, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169232

RESUMO

Background: According to Darwin's theory of evolution, complex creatures evolve from more simplistic ancestors. Dollo's law of irreversibility states that evolution is irreversible. However, cancer cells tend to follow anti-Dollo's law. Unfavorable conditions such as hypoxia, acidic pH and low nutrients cause the cancer cells to switch their lifestyle atavistically in order to survive. They start behaving like a unicellular organism. There is a switch from normal metabolism to Warburg effect and finally cannibalism. Cannibalism is a cell eating cell phenomenon. It is defined as a large cell enclosing a smaller one within its cytoplasm and is known by odd names such as "bird's eye cells" or "signet ring cells." Smaller tumor cells are found in the cytoplasm of larger tumor cells with crescent-shaped nucleus. Cannibalistic cells (CCs) are a feature of aggressive tumors. These cell types are vulnerable to metastasis. Aim: The aim of this study is to identify CCs in various histological grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to relate them with the pattern of invasion, lymphocytic response (LR), and mitotic figures (Mfs). The purpose of the article is to establish it as a marker of aggressiveness and metastasis and as an evidence of de-evolution and retroversion of multicellularity. Materials and Methods: Sixty-five histologically confirmed cases of OSCC were studied. Pattern of invasion, LR, number of CCs, and Mfs were recorded on 5 µ hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections. ANOVA and t-test were applied; P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: CCs were more in sections with patchy LR, increased Mfs, and grade IV pattern of invasion. Conclusion: With increase in dedifferentiation, tumor cells start behaving like unicellular organisms with cell eating cell characteristics.


Assuntos
Citofagocitose , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Progressão da Doença , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Gradação de Tumores , Invasividade Neoplásica , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Infiltração de Neutrófilos/imunologia
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(11)2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167516

RESUMO

It has been suggested that Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), a keystone pathogen in chronic periodontitis, is associated with a variety of cancers, including oral cancer. Recently, studies have shown the effects of persistent exposure to P. gingivalis on the promotion of tumorigenic properties of oral epithelial cells, suggesting that chronic P. gingivalis infection is a potential risk factor for oral cancer. On the other hand, Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum), one of the major periodontal pathogens, has emerged as an important factor in the colon cancer progression. Here, we investigated the diagnostic potential of serum immunoglobulin G antibody against periodontal pathogens, P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum, and serum IL-6 for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine and compare the serum levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), F. nucleatum IgG, and P. gingivalis IgG in 62 OSCC patients with 46 healthy controls. The serum levels of P. gingivalis IgG and IL-6 were higher in OSCC patients than in non-OSCC controls, and the difference was statistically significant. In addition, a high serum level of IL-6 was associated with a worse prognosis in OSCC patients. Thus, P. gingivalis IgG and IL-6 could be utilized as potential serum biomarkers for the diagnosis of OSCC, and the serum level of IL-6 contributes to improved prognostic performance.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Biomarcadores , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/sangue , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Porphyromonas gingivalis/imunologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/microbiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Curva ROC
13.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 15(3): 463-469, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169205

RESUMO

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic progressive, scarring disease affecting oral, oropharyngeal, and sometimes the esophageal mucosa. It is characterized by the progressive fibrosis of the submucosal tissue. The pathogenesis of OSMF has been directly related to the habit of chewing areca nut and its commercial preparation, which is widespread in Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. The areca nut has been classified as a "group one human carcinogen." Oral squamous cell carcinoma in the background of OSMF is one of the most common malignancies in South and Southeast Asian countries. Malignant transformation has been reported in 7%-12% cases of OSMF. Histopathological spectrum of OSMF includes the apparent alterations observed in the epithelium and connective tissue. Epithelial atrophy and sometimes epithelial hyperplasia with or without dysplasia are the peculiar alterations seen in the epithelium. In the connective tissue, there is extracellular matrix remodeling which results in excessive collagenization. Further cross-linking of collagen leads to hyalinization which makes the collagen resistant to proteolysis. Owing to fibrosis in the connective tissue, there is narrowing of blood vessels which further results in compromised blood supply to the local tissue milieu, that is, hypoxia. This tissue hypoxia elicits angiogenesis which may result in the malignant transformation of OSMF. Perpetual irritation of areca nut and its constituents to the oral mucosa leads to upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and further juxtaepithelial inflammation. Thus, these coordinated reactions in epithelium and connective tissue leads the OSMF toward malignant transformation.


Assuntos
Fibrose Oral Submucosa/etiologia , Fibrose Oral Submucosa/metabolismo , Animais , Atrofia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Progressão da Doença , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperplasia , Mucosa Bucal/metabolismo , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/etiologia , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Fibrose Oral Submucosa/patologia
14.
Gulf J Oncolog ; 1(30): 13-21, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chewing Betel (areca-nut) can cause oral cancer. This happens when its components are in direct contact with the oral epithelium. The aim of this study is to understand this mechanism by analyzing salivary mucins, in vitro, during and after betel chewing. METHODS: The in vivo analysis would necessarily involve subtraction of betel to understand its effects. This study analyzed the interaction between mucins and betel in vitro. We added increasing amounts of areca powder, and for comparison an equal amount of pure vine tannin to saliva samples provided by a first volunteer. This study analyzes salivary mucins in two volunteers, one of whom is a regular betel consumer, after chewing the areca-nut, on six saliva samples taken at half-hour intervals. RESULTS: In vitro, total precipitation of the salivary mucins occurs after we added 1g of Areca nut (50 mg Tannin equivalent), a concentration five times lower than what is actually present during the chewing period; in vivo, in the first volunteer, there is a statistically significant increase in the mucins after chewing two and half hours: p-value = 0.02034, while for the regular betel consumer there is a significant decrease: p-value = 0.00512. DISCUSSION: In vitro, we conclude that the polyphenol content in betel causes total precipitation of mucins and causes poor defense of the oral epithelium. The increase of mucins in the non-routine consumers, show a transient (up to two hours after the end of chewing) inflammatory process. Inflammation can cause keratinization of the oral epithelium because the saliva increases its viscosity for the higher amount of mucins, with its lower adherence and protection of the oral cavity. Subsequent and regular consumption of betel nut, as in the regular betel consumer, can cause chronic fibrosis in the oral epithelium and cut the salivary mucins.


Assuntos
Areca/química , Mastigação , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Mucinas/análise , Saliva/metabolismo , Adulto , Areca/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Mucinas/química , Saliva/química
15.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(6): 1781-1787, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244300

RESUMO

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of smoking history on the clinical-pathological, sociodemographic and prognostic characteristics of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was carried out with the records of 136 smokers with SCC and 68 nonsmokers with oral SCC who were diagnosed and treated at Haroldo Juaçaba Hospital (2000-2014). Data on patient sex, age, race, education level, tumor location, tumor size, lymph node involvement, distant metastasis, treatment type, marital status, method of health care access (public or private health systems) and overall survival (15 years) were analyzed by the X² test, Mantel-Cox tests and multinomial and Cox logistic regression models (SPSS 20.0, p <0.05). Results: Smoking history was directly associated with male sex (p <0.001), low levels of education (p = 0.001), tumors of the mouth and palate (p = 0.001), stage T3/4 tumors (p = 0.014), lymph node metastasis (N+) (p = 0.024), palliative treatment (p = 0.024) and receiving health care through the public health system (p = 0.006), with education level being the only independently associated factor (p = 0.039). Lower survival was observed in patients who were smokers (p = 0,002), with low levels of education (p = 0.001), who had stage T3/4 tumors (p = 0.004), with N+ (p = 0.021), and had received palliative treatment (p = 0.002). Age (>65 years old, p = 0.015) and T staging (T3/4, p = 0.033) decreased the survival of SCC patients regardless of the other factors. Conclusions: Smoking history had an independent association with low education level and a history of alcoholism, and survival was negatively associated with older age and larger tumor size, which were more prevalent in smokers.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Bucais/mortalidade , Fumar/epidemiologia , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
Dermatol Online J ; 25(5)2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220904

RESUMO

Cowden syndrome (CS) is an infrequent genodermatosis caused by mutations in the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene in the majority of cases. As such, it belongs to the PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome spectrum. This disease has a variable clinical expression characterized by the development of multiple hamartomatous tumors in different organs, usually during the second and third decades of life, and a high cumulative risk of several malignancies. We present a case of Cowden syndrome with late diagnosis presenting with a florid dermatological expression and multiple benign tumors, but no malignancies. A novel PTEN mutation was identified.


Assuntos
Fibroma/genética , Síndrome do Hamartoma Múltiplo/genética , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Feminino , Fibroma/diagnóstico , Fibroma/etiologia , Fibroma/patologia , Folículo Piloso , Síndrome do Hamartoma Múltiplo/complicações , Síndrome do Hamartoma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Hamartoma Múltiplo/patologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Mutação , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
17.
Curr Med Sci ; 39(3): 410-414, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209811

RESUMO

6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2, 6-biphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3), an enzyme producing fructose 2, 6-bisphosphate (F-2, 6-BP), serves as a switch to activate phosphofructokinase-1, and is a critical enzyme for endothelial glycolysis, mediating circadian control of carcinogenesis. Also, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role in the progression and prognosis of numerous cancers. However, the role and clinical significance of PFKFB3 and TAMs in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) have not been elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the correlation between PFKFB3 expression, CD163+ TAMs infiltration and tumor angiogenesis in OSCC by tissue microarray. Tissue microarrays containing 117 OSCC specimens and 56 matched paracarcinoma tissues were studied by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of PFKFB3, CD163 and CD31 were significantly increased in OSCC specimens as compared with normal oral mucosa (P<0.05), and PFKFB was signifcantly correlated with tumor differentiation and tumor size (P<0.05), and CD163 was significantly correlated with areca nut chewing habit among OSCC tissues (P<0.05). Furthermore, Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that PFKFB3 was signifcantly correlated with both CD163 and CD31 (P<0.05), meanwhile CD163 was signifcantly correlated with CD31 (P<0.001), suggesting PFKFB3 may promote angiogenesis in tumor progression and metastases by regulating CD163+ TAMs infiltration in OSCC.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Neovascularização Patológica/genética , Fosfofrutoquinase-2/genética , Molécula-1 de Adesão Celular Endotelial a Plaquetas/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/metabolismo , Areca/química , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Movimento Celular , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Mastigação , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Gradação de Tumores , Neovascularização Patológica/etiologia , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Nozes/efeitos adversos , Nozes/química , Fosfofrutoquinase-2/metabolismo , Molécula-1 de Adesão Celular Endotelial a Plaquetas/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Carga Tumoral
18.
Clin Oral Investig ; 23(7): 2849-2859, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111280

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This systematic review (SR) aimed to summarise and critically appraise available evidence about the association between the synergistic consumption of alcohol and tobacco and the occurrence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observational studies investigating the association between the synergistic consumption of alcohol and tobacco and OSCC occurrence were included. Studies were selected in a two-phase process and searches were conducted on five main electronic databases, complemented by three grey literature databases. RESULTS: From 3260 records identified, 33 articles were included for qualitative analysis, of which 15 were included in the meta-analyses. Overall, the synergistic consumption was positively associated with the occurrence of OSCC (odds ratio [OR] = 5.37; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] = 3.54-8.14). Increased odds for OSCC occurrence were observed regarding the synergistic consumption of alcohol and smoked tobacco (OR = 4.74; 95%CI = 3.51-6.40), alcohol and smokeless tobacco (OR = 7.78; 95%CI = 2.86-21.14), and alcohol, smoked tobacco, and smokeless tobacco (OR = 16.17; 95%CI = 7.97-32.79). CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of this SR, the synergistic consumption of alcohol and tobacco (both smoked and smokeless) significantly increased the odds for the occurrence of OSCC. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The knowledge provided by this SR may be useful for a better understanding of differences in the effect of synergistic consumption of alcohol and tobacco products in OSCC development. These data might aid healthcare authorities to develop measures for tobacco and alcohol control considering the needs of their population.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias Bucais , Fumar , Tabaco sem Fumaça , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Tabaco sem Fumaça/efeitos adversos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133518

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to investigate the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the carcinogenesis of oral leukoplakia (OLK), with the oral cavity as the site of interest. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 76 patients (152 specimens) were enrolled in the study. The patients were divided into 2 groups: the malignant transformation of OLK (OLK-MT) group and the non-malignant transformation of OLK (OLK-non-MT) group. HPV reverse dot blot analysis, HPV DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and p16INK4A immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to determine HPV infection status. RESULTS: Transformation of OLK commonly occurred in the lateral/ventral tongue, buccal mucosa, and gingiva. On the basis of the initial analysis of specimens, only 5.3% (4 of 76) of patients were found to be HPV-16 positive, and these patients' final specimens yielded negative results. Overexpression of p16INK4A in the dysplastic stage was associated with the transformation of OLK (P = .013; odds ratio = 3.544). CONCLUSIONS: Transformation of OLK was common in patients who are elderly, in females, and in nonsmokers/nondrinkers; lesions were located in the lateral/ventral tongue, with dysplasia and overexpressed p16INK4A seen during the initial stage. HPV may be an opportunistic infection in the oral cavity and may not be a cause of malignant transformation of OLK. p16INK4A expression, which initially increases and then diminishes or disappears, may be an early predictor of malignant transformation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Leucoplasia Oral , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Idoso , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etiologia , Humanos , Leucoplasia Oral/complicações , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/etiologia
20.
Indian J Cancer ; 56(1): 15-18, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950437

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to determine the number and types of oromucosal lesions (OMLs) in relation to tobacco habits in patients who attended the outpatient department. METHODOLOGY: A total of 1730 patients visiting the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology were interviewed and screened for tobacco habits (smoking and smokeless). Clinical oral examination was conducted with diagnostic instruments using the Color Atlas of Common Oral Diseases as a guide for diagnosis. When clinical features were not diagnostic, a biopsy was done. RESULTS: Of the 1730 outpatients, 975 (56.3% ) individuals used tobacco in one or other forms and 687 (70.4%) of these had OMLs. CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide important information on the prevalence of OMLs in patients seeking dental care. This provides baseline data for future studies on the prevalence of oral lesions in the general population.


Assuntos
Leucoplasia Oral/epidemiologia , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Leucoplasia Oral/etiologia , Leucoplasia Oral/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
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