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1.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(1): 132-146, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413809

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the rate of colorectal neoplasms (CRNs) in patients who have Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (EFIE) with available colonoscopies and to assess whether this is associated with the identification of a focus the infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of data from a prospective multicenter study involving 35 centers who are members of the Grupo de Apoyo para el Manejo de la Endocarditis en España [Support Group for the Management of Infective Endocarditis in Spain] cohort. A specific set of queries regarding information on colonoscopy and histopathology of colorectal diseases was sent to each participating center. Four-hundred sixty-seven patients with EFIE were included from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2017, from whom data on colonoscopy performance and results were available in 411 patients. RESULTS: One hundred forty-two (34.5%) patients had a colonoscopy close to the EFIE episode. The overall rate of colorectal diseases was 70.4% (100 of 142), whereas the prevalence of CRN (advanced adenomas and colorectal carcinoma) was 14.8% (21 of 142), with no significant differences between the group of EFIE of unknown focus and that with an identified focus. CONCLUSION: Our study adds to prior evidence suggesting a much higher rate of CRN among patients with EFIE than in the general population of the same age and sex. In addition, our findings suggest that this phenomenon might take place both in EFIE with an unknown and an identified source of infection.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/complicações , Enterococcus faecalis , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2210: 43-50, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815126

RESUMO

Fusobacterium nucleatum is a human periodontal pathogen that causes opportunistic infections. It has been implicated in preterm birth and has as a pathogen of colorectal cancer. However, it is a common member of the oral microbiota and can have a symbiotic relationship with its hosts. To date, studies of F. nucleatum have been hindered by a lack of effective genetic tools, and the transformation of F. nucleatum has not been investigated. In this chapter, protocols for the transformation of F. nucleatum strain 12230 using sonoporation are presented. We also include a genetic complementation protocol for a F. nucleatum knockout mutant.


Assuntos
Fusobacterium nucleatum/genética , Transformação Genética/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Infecções por Fusobacterium/microbiologia , Humanos , Boca/microbiologia
4.
Nature ; 585(7826): 509-517, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968260

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease of the intestinal epithelium that is characterized by the accumulation of mutations and a dysregulated immune response. Up to 90% of disease risk is thought to be due to environmental factors such as diet, which is consistent with a growing body of literature that describes an 'oncogenic' CRC-associated microbiota. Whether this dysbiosis contributes to disease or merely represents a bystander effect remains unclear. To prove causation, it will be necessary to decipher which specific taxa or metabolites drive CRC biology and to fully characterize the underlying mechanisms. Here we discuss the host-microbiota interactions in CRC that have been reported so far, with particular focus on mechanisms that are linked to intestinal barrier disruption, genotoxicity and deleterious inflammation. We further comment on unknowns and on the outstanding challenges in the field, and how cutting-edge technological advances might help to overcome these. More detailed mechanistic insights into the complex CRC-associated microbiota would potentially reveal avenues that can be exploited for clinical benefit.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/fisiopatologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Disbiose/metabolismo , Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/microbiologia , Mutagênese
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e21832, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The existing evidence on the relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and the risk of colorectal cancer is inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review with a meta-analysis to explore this relationship and to determine whether the relationship varies according to the study characteristics. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, OVID, EMBASE database, and the reference lists of pertinent articles published up to October 2019 by 2 researchers independently. Summary odds ratios (OR) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Forty seven studies including 17,416 cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) and 55,811 cases of control were included. Overall, H. pylori infection was associated with an increased risk of CRC (OR = 1.70 95% CI 1.64-1.76, I = 97%), although there was significant heterogeneity among the studies. Subgroup analysis revealed that the positive correlation might vary by the design of study conducted. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis demonstrates a positive association between H. pylori infection and the risk of colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Helicobacter pylori , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
6.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(5): 516-520, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842435

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors of digestive tract. There are a large number of microorganisms in the digestive tract. Under normal physiological conditions, intestinal microorganisms can help with digestion and absorption, resist pathogen invasion and regulate the proliferation of intestinal mucosal cells. However, intestinal microflora imbalance will affect the intestinal microenvironment and intestinal cell function, and is closely related to the incidence and progression of colorectal cancer. Firstly, this paper introduces the changes of intestinal flora in patients with colorectal cancer, and then summarizes the mode of intestinal flora participating in the occurrence of colorectal cancer from the macro level. Then, we elaborate the involvement of intestinal flora in colorectal cancer from the aspects of cytokine-dependent chronic inflammation, DNA damage of intestinal epithelial cells, carcinogenic metabolites of intestinal flora and cellular enzymes, and changes of intestinal immune system. The pathogenesis of colorectal cancer provides a reference for further study of the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. Finally, from the perspective of intestinal flora and colorectal cancer treatment, we analyze the significance of probiotics and bacterial flora transplantation for the treatment of colorectal cancer, and provide some new treatment ideas and methods that may be useful for the treatment of colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/imunologia , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Humanos , Intestinos/patologia , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia
7.
Oncology ; 98(9): 593-602, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In recent years, researchers have focussed on the role of the intestinal microbiota in both the prevention and the treatment of colorectal cancer. SUMMARY: The evidence in the literature supports that there is a fragile balance between different species of bacteria in the human gut. A disturbance of this balance towards increased levels of the bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum and Bacteroides fragilis is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. The mechanisms involved include the release of toxins which activate inflammation and the regulation of specific miRNAs (with an increase in the expression of oncogenic miRNAs and a decrease in the expression of tumour suppressor miRNAs), thereby increasing cell proliferation and leading to tumorigenesis. On the other hand, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium have a protective effect against the development of colorectal cancer through mechanisms that involve an increase in the levels of anticarcinogenic metabolites such as butyrate and a decrease in the activity of proinflammatory pathways. Even though preliminary studies support that the use of probiotics in the prevention and management of colorectal cancer is promising, more research is needed in this field. Key Message: The association between the intestinal microbiota, diet and colorectal cancer remains an active area of research with expected future applications in the use of probiotics for the prevention and management of this significant disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/dietoterapia , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Animais , Bacteroides fragilis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Fusobacterium nucleatum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(Z1): 77-85, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594730

RESUMO

Objective: To establish the mice colorectal cancer (CRC) model induced by AOM/DSS with the intervention of high fat diet and probiotics, and to explore the potential mechanism of probiotics intervention in regulating intestinal flora disturbance and antitumor efficiency. Methods: Forty 8-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 4 groups with 10 mice in each group: HFD group, HDF with probiotics intervention (HFD+P) group, normal diet (ND) group, normal diet with probiotics intervention (ND+P) group. The probiotic groups were administered with probiotics preparation by gavage. During the experiment, AOM/DSS was used to induce mouse colorectal cancer model. The mouse body weight was regularly recorded and the body status was evaluated weekly. High-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing was used to analyze the changes of fecal flora in bacterial structure before and after cancer induction. At the end of the experiment, intestinal tissues of mice were collected and the epididymis adipose mass (EAM) and tumor burden were recorded. The Alpha diversity index was used to analyze the abundance and diversity of the intestinal flora (higher chaol index means higher abundance of bacteria and greater Simpson index means lower diversity in flora structure). The Beta diversity index was used to analyze the significance of the difference in the distribution of intestinal flora among the four groups (When R>0, the difference in the distribution of bacteria among the groups is greater than the difference within the group). Results: After 15 weeks of experiment, the body weight of mice in HFD group, HFD+P group, ND group and ND+P group was (33.70±0.52) g, (28.70±0.32) g, (25.90±0.34) g and (25.60±0.40) g, whose difference was statistically significant (F=700.89, P<0.01). The body weight of HFD group was higher than that of ND group and HFD+P group while the body weight of HFD+P group was still higher than that of ND group, and the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.017). The average EAM of HFD group, HFD+P group, ND group and ND+P group was (1.36±0.15) g, (0.67±0.08) g, (0.58±0.10) g and (0.54±0.05) g, whose difference was statistically significant (F=114.03, P<0.01). Pairwise comparisons showed that EAM in HFD group was higher than that in ND group and HFD+P group respectively, with statistically significant difference (both P<0.01), while average EAM of HFD+P group was similar to ND group (P=0.09). Under the diet intervention, the Chao1 index of HFD group, HFD+P group, ND group and ND+P group was 217.62, 235.32, 301.51 and 305.71 respectively, and the Simpson index was 0.93, 0.89, 0.91 and 0.90. At the same time, the Anosim analysis of Beta diversity analysis showed that the difference in the flora distribution among four groups was greater than the difference with in each group with statistically significant difference (R=0.655, P=0.001). Species abundance analysis revealed that, compared with ND group, at phylum level, HFD group had a higher proportion of Bacteroides phylum and Firmicutes phylum in the intestinal flora and lower proportion of Verrucomicrobia; at genus level, the proportion of Bacteroides and Oscillibacter in HFD group was higher while the proportion of Akkermansia and Alloprevotella was lower. After the intervention of probiotics, the flora mentioned above was improved significantly except for Alloprevotella. The average number of tumor in HFD group, HFD+P group, ND group and ND+P group was 4.63±1.19, 2.33±0.52, 2.56±0.73 and 2.38±0.52 with statistically significant difference (F=14.92, P<0.01). Conclusion: Probiotics therapy can reduce obesity and flora imbalance caused by HFD and reduce the incidence of CRC by regulating intestinal flora disturbance.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
9.
Oncogene ; 39(26): 4925-4943, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514151

RESUMO

Research about the role of gut microbiome in colorectal cancer (CRC) is a newly emerging field of study. Gut microbiota modulation, with the aim to reverse established microbial dysbiosis, is a novel strategy for prevention and treatment of CRC. Different strategies including probiotics, prebiotics, postbiotics, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) have been employed. Although these strategies show promising results, mechanistically by correcting microbiota composition, modulating innate immune system, enhancing gut barrier function, preventing pathogen colonization and exerting selective cytotoxicity against tumor cells, it should be noted that they are accompanied by risks and controversies that can potentially introduce clinical complications. During bench-to-bedside translation, evaluation of risk-and-benefit ratio, as well as patient selection, should be carefully performed. In view of the individualized host response to gut microbiome intervention, developing personalized microbiome therapy may be the key to successful clinical treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Disbiose/imunologia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/métodos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/microbiologia , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Nat Med ; 26(7): 1063-1069, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483361

RESUMO

The mucosal epithelium is a common target of damage by chronic bacterial infections and the accompanying toxins, and most cancers originate from this tissue. We investigated whether colibactin, a potent genotoxin1 associated with certain strains of Escherichia coli2, creates a specific DNA-damage signature in infected human colorectal cells. Notably, the genomic contexts of colibactin-induced DNA double-strand breaks were enriched for an AT-rich hexameric sequence motif, associated with distinct DNA-shape characteristics. A survey of somatic mutations at colibactin target sites of several thousand cancer genomes revealed notable enrichment of this motif in colorectal cancers. Moreover, the exact double-strand-break loci corresponded with mutational hot spots in cancer genomes, reminiscent of a trinucleotide signature previously identified in healthy colorectal epithelial cells3. The present study provides evidence for the etiological role of colibactin in human cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Policetídeos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Humanos , Mutação/efeitos dos fármacos , Motivos de Nucleotídeos/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233170, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests a role for the gut microbiome in the development and progression of many diseases and many studies have been carried out to analyse the microbiome using a variety of methods. In this study, we compare MinION sequencing with meta-transcriptomics and amplicon-based sequencing for microbiome analysis of colorectal tumour tissue samples. METHODS: DNA and RNA were extracted from 11 colorectal tumour samples. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and MinION sequencing was carried out using genomic DNA, and RNA-Sequencing for meta-transcriptomic analysis. Non-human MinION and RNA-Sequencing reads, and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing reads were taxonomically classified using a database built from available RefSeq bacterial and archaeal genomes and a k-mer based algorithm in Kraken2. Concordance between the three platforms at different taxonomic levels was tested on a per-sample basis using Spearman's rank correlation. RESULTS: The average number of reads per sample using RNA-Sequencing was greater than 129 times that generated using MinION sequencing. However, the average read length of MinION sequences was more than 13 times that of RNA or 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Taxonomic assignment using 16S sequencing was less reliable beyond the genus level, and both RNA-Sequencing and MinION sequencing could detect greater numbers of phyla and genera in the same samples, compared to 16S sequencing. Bacterial species associated with colorectal cancer, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Bacteroides fragilis and Porphyromonas gingivalis, were detectable using MinION, RNA-Sequencing and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing data. CONCLUSIONS: Long-read sequences generated using MinION sequencing can compensate for low numbers of reads for bacterial classification. MinION sequencing can discriminate between bacterial strains and plasmids and shows potential as a cost-effective tool for rapid microbiome sequencing in a clinical setting.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metagenoma , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Sequência de RNA
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1238: 11-22, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323177

RESUMO

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is inhabited by a diverse array of microbes, which play crucial roles in health and disease. Dysbiosis of microbiota has been tightly linked to gastrointestinal inflammatory and malignant diseases. Here we highlight the role of Helicobacter pylori alongside gastric microbiota associated with gastric inflammation and cancer. We summarize the taxonomic and functional aspects of intestinal microbiota linked to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and colorectal cancer in clinical investigations. We also discuss microbiome-related animal models. Nevertheless, there are tremendous opportunities to reveal the causality of microbiota in health and disease and detailed microbe-host interaction mechanisms by which how dysbiosis is causally linked to inflammatory disease and cancer, in turn, potentializing clinical interventions with a personalized high efficacy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/patologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Animais , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/microbiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/patologia
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1802, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286276

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease patients have a greatly increased risk of developing colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC); however, the basis for inflammation-induced genetic damage requisite for neoplasia is unclear. Using three models of CAC, we find that sustained inflammation triggers 8-oxoguanine DNA lesions. Strikingly, antioxidants or iNOS inhibitors reduce 8-oxoguanine and polyps in CAC models. Because the mismatch repair (MMR) system repairs 8-oxoguanine and is frequently defective in colorectal cancer (CRC), we test whether 8-oxoguanine mediates oncogenesis in a Lynch syndrome (MMR-deficient) model. We show that microbiota generates an accumulation of 8-oxoguanine lesions in MMR-deficient colons. Accordingly, we find that 8-oxoguanine is elevated in neoplastic tissue of Lynch syndrome patients compared to matched untransformed tissue or non-Lynch syndrome neoplastic tissue. While antioxidants reduce 8-oxoguanine, they do not reduce CRC in Lynch syndrome models. Hence, microbe-induced oxidative/nitrosative DNA damage play causative roles in inflammatory CRC models, but not in Lynch syndrome models.


Assuntos
Colite/complicações , Colite/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Dano ao DNA , Helicobacter pylori/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/complicações , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/patologia , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/microbiologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose/complicações , Disbiose/patologia , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Feminino , Guanosina/análogos & derivados , Guanosina/metabolismo , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-10/deficiência , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(1): 17-24, mar. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100762

RESUMO

Se estima que aproximadamente 100 trillones de microorganismos (incluidos bacterias, virus y hongos) residen en el intestino humano adulto y que el total del material genético del microbioma es 100 veces superior al del genoma humano. Esta comunidad, conocida como microbioma se adquiere al momento del nacimiento a través de la flora comensal de la piel, vagina y heces de la madre y se mantiene relativamente estable a partir de los dos años desempeñando un papel crítico tanto en el estado de salud como en la enfermedad. El desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías, como los secuenciadores de próxima generación (NGS), permiten actualmente realizar un estudio mucho más preciso de ella que en décadas pasadas cuando se limitaba a su cultivo. Si bien esto ha llevado a un crecimiento exponencial en las publicaciones, los datos sobre las poblaciones Latinoamérica son casi inexistentes. La investigación traslacional en microbioma (InTraMic) es una de las líneas que se desarrollan en el Instituto de Medicina Traslacional e Ingeniería Biomédica (IMTIB). Esta se inició en 2018 con la línea de cáncer colorrectal (CCR) en una colaboración con el Colorectal Cancer Research Group del Leeds Institute of Medical Research en el proyecto Large bowel microbiome disease network: Creation of a proof of principle exemplar in colorectal cancer across three continents. A fines de 2019 se cumplió el objetivo de comprobar la factibilidad de la recolección, envío y análisis de muestras de MBF en 5 continentes, incluyendo muestras provenientes de la Argentina, Chile, India y Vietnam. Luego de haber participado de capacitaciones en Inglaterra, se ha cumplido con el objetivo de la etapa piloto, logrando efectivizar la recolección, envío y análisis metagenómico a partir de la secuenciación de la región V4 del ARNr 16S. En 2019, la línea de enfermedad de hígado graso no alcohólico se sumó a la InTraMic iniciando una caracterización piloto en el marco de una colaboración con el laboratorio Novartis. Los resultados de ese estudio, así como el de cáncer colorrectal, están siendo enviados a publicación. En 2020, con la incorporación de la línea de trasplante alogénico de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas, fue presentado un proyecto para un subsidio del CONICET que ha superado la primera etapa de evaluación. En el presente artículo se brinda una actualización sobre la caracterización taxonómica de microbioma y se describen las líneas de investigación en curso. (AU)


It is estimated that approximately 100 trillion microorganisms (including bacteria, viruses, and fungi) reside in the adult human intestine, and that the total genetic material of the microbiome is 100 times greater than that of the human genome. This community, known as the microbiome, is acquired at birth through the commensal flora of the mother's skin, vagina, and feces and remains relatively stable after two years, playing a critical role in both the state of health and in disease. The development of new technologies, such as next-generation sequencers (NGS), currently allow for a much more precise study of it than in past decades when it was limited to cultivation. Although this has led to exponential growth in publications, data on Latin American populations is almost non-existent. Translational research in microbiome (InTraMic) is one of the lines developed at the Instituto de Medicina Traslacional e Ingeniería Biomédica (IMTIB). This started in 2018 with the Colorectal Cancer Line (CRC) in a collaboration with the Colorectal Cancer Research Group of the Leeds Institute of Medical Research in the project "Large bowel microbiome disease network: Creation of a proof of principle exemplar in colorectal cancer across three continents". At the end of 2019, the objective of verifying the feasibility of collecting, sending and analyzing MBF samples on 5 continents, including samples from Argentina, Chile, India and Vietnam, was met. After having participated in training in England, the objective of the pilot stage has been met, achieving the collection, delivery and metagenomic analysis from the sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA. In 2019, the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease line joined InTraMic, initiating a pilot characterization in the framework of a collaboration with the Novartis laboratory. The results of that study, as well as that of colorectal cancer, are being published. In 2020, with the incorporation of the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation line, a project was presented for a grant from the CONICET that has passed the first stage of evaluation. This article provides an update on the taxonomic characterization of the microbiome and describes the lines of ongoing research. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/organização & administração , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Transplante Homólogo , Vietnã , Aztreonam/uso terapêutico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Classificação/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Metagenômica , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/tendências , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/microbiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Índia , América Latina , Sangue Oculto
15.
mBio ; 11(1)2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32071266

RESUMO

Colorectal adenomas are precancerous lesions of colorectal cancer (CRC) that offer a means of viewing the events key to early CRC development. A number of studies have investigated the changes and roles of gut microbiota in adenoma and carcinoma development, highlighting its impact on carcinogenesis. However, there has been less of a focus on the gut metabolome, which mediates interactions between the host and gut microbes. Here, we investigated metabolomic profiles of stool samples from patients with advanced adenoma (n = 102), matched controls (n = 102), and patients with CRC (n = 36). We found that several classes of bioactive lipids, including polyunsaturated fatty acids, secondary bile acids, and sphingolipids, were elevated in the adenoma patients compared to the controls. Most such metabolites showed directionally consistent changes in the CRC patients, suggesting that those changes may represent early events of carcinogenesis. We also examined gut microbiome-metabolome associations using gut microbiota profiles in these patients. We found remarkably strong overall associations between the microbiome and metabolome data and catalogued a list of robustly correlated pairs of bacterial taxa and metabolomic features which included signatures of adenoma. Our findings highlight the importance of gut metabolites, and potentially their interplay with gut microbes, in the early events of CRC pathogenesis.IMPORTANCE Colorectal adenomas are precursors of CRC. Recently, the gut microbiota, i.e., the collection of microbes residing in our gut, has been recognized as a key player in CRC development. There have been a number of gut microbiota profiling studies for colorectal adenoma and CRC; however, fewer studies have considered the gut metabolome, which serves as the chemical interface between the host and gut microbiota. Here, we conducted a gut metabolome profiling study of colorectal adenoma and CRC and analyzed the metabolomic profiles together with paired microbiota composition profiles. We found several chemical signatures of colorectal adenoma that were associated with some gut microbes and potentially indicative of future CRC. This study highlights potential early-driver metabolites in CRC pathogenesis and guides further targeted experiments and thus provides an important stepping stone toward developing better CRC prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Adenoma/microbiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Carcinogênese , Fezes/química , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2860, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32071370

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common type cancers in the world. CRC occurs sporadically in the majority of cases, indicating the predominant cause of the disease are environmental factors. Diet-induced changes in gut-microbiome are recently supposed to contribute on epidemics of CRC. This study was aimed to investigate the association of metagenomics and metabolomics in gut extracellular vesicles (EVs) of CRC and healthy subjects. A total of 40 healthy volunteers and 32 patients with CRC were enrolled in this study. Metagenomic profiling by sequencing 16 S rDNA was performed for assessing microbial codiversity. We explored the small molecule metabolites using gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In total, stool EVs were prepared from 40 healthy volunteers and 32 patients with CRC. Metagenomic profiling demonstrated that bacterial phyla, particularly of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, were significantly altered in patients with colorectal cancer. Through metabolomics profiling, we determined seven amino acids, four carboxylic acids, and four fatty acids; including short-chain to long chain fatty acids that altered in the disease group. Binary logistic regression was further tested to evaluate the diagnostic performance. In summary, the present findings suggest that gut flora dysbiosis may result in alternation of amino acid metabolism, which may be correlated with the pathogenesis of CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Vesículas Extracelulares/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Metabolômica , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Disbiose/genética , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/patologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Metagenoma/genética , Metagenômica
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 7828392, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083132

RESUMO

A lot of previous studies have recently reported that the gut microbiota influences the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Western countries, but the role of the gut microbiota in Chinese population must be investigated fully. The goal of this study was to determine the role of the gut microbiome in the initiation and development of CRC. We collected fecal samples of 206 Chinese individuals: 59 with polyp (group P), 54 with adenoma (group A), 51 with colorectal cancer (group CC), and 42 healthy controls (group HC).16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) was used to compare the microbiota community structures among healthy controls, patients with polyp, and those with adenoma or colorectal cancer. Our study proved that intestinal flora, as a specific indicator, showed significant differences in its diversity and composition. Sobs, Chao, and Ace indexes of group CC were significantly lower than those of the healthy control group (CC group: Sobs, Chao, and Ace indexes were 217.3 ± 69, 4265.1 ± 80.7, and 268.6 ± 78.1, respectively; HC group: Sobs, Chao, and Ace indexes were 228.8 ± 44.4, 272.9 ± 58.6, and 271.9 ± 57.2, respectively). When compared with the healthy individuals, the species richness and diversity of intestinal flora in patients with colorectal cancer were significantly reduced: PCA and PCoA both revealed that a significant separation in bacterial community composition between the CC group and HC group (with PCA using the first two principal component scores of PC1 14.73% and PC2 10.34% of the explained variance, respectively; PCoA : PC1 = 14%, PC2 = 9%, PC3 = 6%). Wilcox tests was used to analyze differences between the two groups, it reveals that Firmicutes (P=0.000356), Fusobacteria (P=0.000001), Proteobacteria (P=0.000796), Spirochaetes (P=0.013421), Synergistetes (P=0.005642) were phyla with significantly different distributions between cases and controls. The proportion of microorganism composition is varying at different stages of colon cancer development: Bacteroidetes (52.14%) and Firmicutes (35.88%) were enriched in the healthy individuals; on the phylum level, the abundance of Bacteroidetes (52.14%-53.92%-52.46%-47.06%) and Firmicutes (35.88%-29.73%-24.27%-25.36%) is decreasing with the development of health-polyp-adenomas-CRC, and the abundance of Proteobacteria (9.33%-12.31%-16.51%-22.37%) is increasing. PCA and PCOA analysis showed there was no significant (P < 0.05) difference in species similarity between precancerous and carcinogenic states. However, the composition of the microflora in patients with precancerous lesions (including patients with adenoma and polyp) was proved to have no significant disparity (P < 0.05). Our study provides insights into new angles to dig out potential biomarkers in diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer and to provide scientific advice for a healthy lifestyle for the sake of gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Adenoma/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Pólipos/microbiologia , Proteobactérias/genética
18.
Int J Med Sci ; 17(2): 145-152, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32038097

RESUMO

The azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) murine model is commonly used to study colitis-associated cancer. The human commensal bacterium, enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) secretes the Bacteroides fragilis toxin (BFT) which is necessary and sufficient to cause colitis. We report that BALB/c mice infected with WT-ETBF and administered three cycles of AOM/DSS developed numerous, large-sized polyps predominantly in the colorectal region. In addition, AOM/DSS-treated BALB/c mice orally inoculated with wild-type nontoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (WT-NTBF) overexpressing bft (rETBF) developed numerous polyps whereas mice infected with WT-NTBF overexpressing a biologically inactive bft (rNTBF) did not promote polyp formation. Unexpectedly, the combination of AOM+ETBF did not induce polyp formation whereas ETBF+DSS did induce polyp development in a subset of BALB/c mice. In conclusion, WT-ETBF promoted polyp development in AOM/DSS murine model with increased colitis in BALB/c mice. The model described herein provides an experimental platform for understanding ETBF-induced colonic tumorigenesis and studying colorectal cancer in wild-type mice.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bacteroides/patologia , Carcinogênese/genética , Colite/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Animais , Azoximetano/toxicidade , Toxinas Bacterianas/toxicidade , Infecções por Bacteroides/induzido quimicamente , Infecções por Bacteroides/complicações , Infecções por Bacteroides/microbiologia , Bacteroides fragilis/patogenicidade , Carcinogênese/induzido quimicamente , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/complicações , Colite/microbiologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Metaloendopeptidases/toxicidade , Camundongos , Pólipos/induzido quimicamente
19.
Dig Dis Sci ; 65(3): 840-851, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006211

RESUMO

Diet is an important risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), and several dietary constituents implicated in CRC are modified by gut microbial metabolism. Microbial fermentation of dietary fiber produces short-chain fatty acids, e.g., acetate, propionate, and butyrate. Dietary fiber has been shown to reduce colon tumors in animal models, and, in vitro, butyrate influences cellular pathways important to cancer risk. Furthermore, work from our group suggests that the combined effects of butyrate and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) may enhance the chemopreventive potential of these dietary constituents. We postulate that the relatively low intakes of n-3 PUFA and fiber in Western populations and the failure to address interactions between these dietary components may explain why chemoprotective effects of n-3 PUFA and fermentable fibers have not been detected consistently in prospective cohort studies. In this review, we summarize the evidence outlining the effects of n-3 long-chain PUFA and highly fermentable fiber with respect to alterations in critical pathways important to CRC prevention, particularly intrinsic mitochondrial-mediated programmed cell death resulting from the accumulation of lipid reactive oxygen species (ferroptosis), and epigenetic programming related to lipid catabolism and beta-oxidation-associated genes.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/dietoterapia , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Dietoterapia/métodos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Animais , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Dieta/métodos , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Humanos
20.
APMIS ; 128(2): 162-176, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017196

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the association between gut microbiota and prognosis after colorectal cancer surgery. The review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, and Scopus. Studies examining the association between gut microbiota and survival after colorectal cancer surgery were identified. Secondary outcomes were association with cancer stage and immune infiltration of tumor. A total of 27 studies were included in the review. Fusobacterium nucleatum was the most frequently examined bacterium, and the meta-analysis showed that high level of F. nucleatum was significantly associated with decreased overall survival, hazard ratio of 1.63 (95% confidence interval 1.23-2.16) for unadjusted data, and hazard ratio of 1.47 (95% confidence interval 1.08-1.98) for adjusted data. Association between higher tumor stage and F. nucleatum was reported in ten studies, and two studies found an association with unfavorable tumor infiltration of immune cells. Three out of five studies examining Bacteroides fragilis found an association with decreased survival, advanced tumor stage, or unfavorable immune infiltration of tumor. High levels of F. nucleatum and possibly B. fragilis were associated with worse prognosis after surgery for colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Animais , Infecções por Bacteroides/patologia , Bacteroides fragilis/patogenicidade , Infecções por Fusobacterium/patologia , Fusobacterium nucleatum/patogenicidade , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Prognóstico
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