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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(15): 4016-4022, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472279

RESUMO

The tumor prescriptions contained in Dictionary of Tumor Formulas, Compendium of Good Tumor Formulas, Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Ministry of Health Drug Standards for Chinese Medicine Formulas and National Compilation of Standards for Proprietary Chinese Medicines were selected and organized to construct a database for tumor prescriptions, and the data mining techniques were applied to investigate the prescription regularity of colorectal cancer prescriptions. The formula data were extracted after screening in strict accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and were then analyzed with Microsoft Excel 2010 for frequency statistics, Apriori block provided by SPSS Clementine 12.0 software for correlation rule analysis, and arules and arulesViz packages in R 4.0.2 software for correlation rule visualization. In addition, SPSS 18.0 software was used for cluster analysis and factor analysis, in which cluster analysis was performed by Ochiai algorithm with bicategorical variables in systematic clustering method and factor analysis was performed mainly with principal component analysis. A total of 285 prescriptions were included in the statistical analysis, and the frequency statistics showed that 43 herbs had been used more than 16 times. The association rules analysis showed that 26 high-frequency me-dicine pair rules were obtained, and the association rules for those dispelling evil spirits, strengthening the body, resolving stasis, dispelling dampness, etc. were visualized. In the cluster analysis, we generated a dendrogram from which 7 groups of traditional Chinese medicines with homogeneity were extracted. 10 common factors were obtained in the factor analysis. The types of herbal medicines involved in the colorectal cancer prescription included anti-cancer antidotes, strengthening and tonifying medicines, blood-regulating medicines, and expectorant medicines, corresponding to the treatment for eliminating evil spirits, strengthening, resolving stasis, and expectorating dampness. The prescriptions for anti-cancer detoxification were normally based on the pairs composed of Scutellaria barbata-Hedyotis diffusa and Sophora flavescens, Sargentodoxa cuneata, S. barbata, often combined with stasis relieving drug and dampness eliminating drug, reflecting the characteristics of treatment for both toxicity and stasis, dampness and toxicity simultaneously. The prescriptions for strengthening the righteousness and tonifying the deficiency were composed of Astragalus membranaceus and Atractylodes macrocephala mainly, exerting the effect of benefiting Qi, strengthening the spleen and drying dampness, tonifying kidney and essence, tonifying blood and invigorating blood. Meanwhile, anti-cancer detoxification medicines shall be reduced as much as possible. The compatibility of the medicines for the intestinal tract reflected the principle of using the right medicine for the right condition and eliminating evil spirits or strengthening the body, as appropriate.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Mineração de Dados , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
2.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4505-4513, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tumor vascular microenvironment has an important role in tumor progression and metastasis. The objective of this study was to assess the significance of metastatic hepatic tumor vascular microenvironment in relation to the response to systemic fluorouracil-based chemotherapy [folinic acid/fluorouracil/oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or folinic acid/fluorouracil/irinotecan (FOLFIRI)]. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 48 consecutive patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) with hepatic metastasis were retrospectively reviewed, and factors such as metastatic tumor vascular microenvironment, chemotherapy response and hepatic resection, were analyzed. Tumor angiogenesis was microscopically evaluated by microvessel density (MVD) in sections stained immunochemically with antibody to CD34 in patients with hepatic resection. Angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment in association with ring enhancement (RE) on computed tomography (CT) was also examined. RESULTS: Microscopic examination revealed that peripheral RE on CT of the metastatic tumor was associated with tumor angiogenesis by MVD. The overall response rate after six courses of first-line chemotherapy for liver metastasis with RE on CT was 64% (23/36), whereas the response rate for those without RE was 25% (3/12), which was significantly lower, although the survival of patients with RE-positive and RE-negative tumors did not differ significantly. CONCLUSION: Peripheral RE of metastatic hepatic tumor on CT was associated with angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment and higher chemotherapy response.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Camptotecina/farmacologia , Camptotecina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Feminino , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucovorina/farmacologia , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Organoplatínicos/farmacologia , Compostos Organoplatínicos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4637-4644, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate frailty as a prognostic factor in patients with colorectal liver metastasis undergoing hepatectomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-seven patients who underwent hepatectomy at our institution were enrolled. Frailty was defined as a score of ≥4 on a clinical frailty scale. Patients were divided into frailty (n=29) and non-frailty (n=58) groups. RESULTS: Overall and cancer-specific survival rates were significantly worse in the frailty group compared with the non-frailty group, and multivariate analysis revealed frailty as an independent prognostic factor. Disease-free survival tended to be worse in the frailty group. Fifty-eight patients relapsed after the first hepatectomy. Twenty-one of 58 recurrent patients were allocated to the frailty group. After recurrence, chemotherapy was significantly more frequently performed in the non-frailty group compared with the frailty group. CONCLUSION: Frailty can predict the prognosis of patients with colorectal liver metastasis undergoing hepatectomy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Hepatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Tratamento Farmacológico , Feminino , Fragilidade/complicações , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4645-4650, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Previous reports have indicated that increased expression of Jagged-1 (JAG1) may predict chemotherapy response and poor prognosis for patients with recurrent or metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to investigate the clinical impact of JAG1 expression level in patients with CRC, including recurrence, especially in those diagnosed with lymph node-positive stage III CRC who underwent complete resection and appropriate adjuvant chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients were enrolled through a retrospective chart review, and only those for whom the clinical course and all clinical information were adequately determined according to the inclusion criteria were selected for retrospective review through medical records. Immunohistochemical staining of JAG1 was performed using paraffin-embedded tissue. JAG1 expression was determined by scoring for staining intensity and percentage of positively stained cells; the final JAG1 score was determined as the sum of both scores. RESULTS: Sixteen patients who experienced relapse and 15 without (for over 3 years) were selected. The protein expression level of JAG1 showed a tendency for being lower in the group without recurrence, although not statistically significantly (p=0.083); however, the mean JAG1 expression score was significantly lower in the group without recurrence (1.53 vs. 3.19; p=0.004). The patients were divided into two groups with low and high JAG1 expression. The results showed that high JAG1 expression was significantly associated with recurrence of stage III CRC (p=0.029). CONCLUSION: The expression of JAG1 may be a potential novel biomarker for predicting CRC recurrence.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Jagged-1/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Regulação para Cima , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/metabolismo , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248746, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495165

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers leading to comorbidities and mortalities globally. The rational of current study was to evaluate the combined epigallocatechin gallate and quercetin as a potent antitumor agent as commentary agent for therapeutic protocol. The present study investigated the effect of epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) (150mg) and quercetin (200mg) at different proportions on proliferation and induction of apoptosis in human colon cancer cells (HCT-116). Cell growth, colonogenic, Annexin V in addition cell cycle were detected in response to phytomolecules. Data obtained showed that, the colony formation was inhibited significantly in CRC starting from the lowest concentration tested of 10 µg/mL resulting in no colonies as visualized by a phase-contrast microscope. Data showed a significant elevation in the annexin V at 100 µg/mL EGCG(25.85%) and 150 µg/mL quercetin (48.35%). Moreover, cell cycle analysis showed that this combination caused cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase at concentration of 100 µg/mL (72.7%) and 150 µg/mL (75.25%). The combined effect of epigallocatechin Gallate and quercetin exert antiproliferative activity against CRC, it is promising in alternative conventional chemotherapeutic agent.


Assuntos
Catequina , Neoplasias Colorretais , Anexina A5 , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/farmacologia , Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Quercetina/farmacologia
6.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4353-4364, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a potential anti-tumor agent. However, resistance to TRAIL has been reported in a number of clinical trials. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which a novel histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, CBUD-1001, sensitizes colorectal cancer (CRC) cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Apoptotic cell death induced by CBUD-1001 and/or TRAIL was assessed on human CRC cells using the MTT assay, FACS analysis and nuclei staining. The involved molecular mechanisms were explored through western blotting analysis. RESULTS: We demonstrated that combined with CBUD-1001, TRAIL significantly enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis in CRC cells via mitochondria-mediated pathways. We also found that hyper-acetylation of histone by CBUD-1001 treatment leads to up-regulation of death receptor (DR) 5 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, we identified that enhanced sensitivity to TRAIL by combination with CBUD-1001 depends on the MAPK/CHOP axis, being a key mediator of DR5. CONCLUSION: A novel HDAC inhibitor CBUD-1001 sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis via up-regulation of DR5, and that CBUD-1001 and TRAIL combination treatment offers an effective strategy to overcome TRAIL resistance in CRC cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação para Baixo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HCT116 , Humanos
7.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(16): 5310-5317, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected the treatment of cancer patients, with particular regard to the management of both chemotherapy and side effects. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) are amongst the most troublesome side effects that impair patients' adherence to treatments and their quality of life (QoL). NEPA (Akynzeo®), is an oral fixed-dose combination of netupitant [a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist (NK1RA), 300 mg] and palonosetron [(5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin or 5HT) type3 receptor antagonist (5HT3RA), 0.5 mg] which has been shown to be effective in preventing CINV. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective study started before the outbreak of COVID-19 and was carried out during the pandemic period. The aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a single oral dose NEPA plus 12 mg of dexamethasone (DEX) in patients treated with Folfoxiri plus Bevacizumab and Folfirinox. The patients were diagnosed with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) or advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). They were divided into two groups: naïve patients and patients previously treated with serotonin receptor antagonists (5HT3-RA) and neurokin-1 receptor antagonists (NK1-RA). RESULTS: During the overall phase, the complete response (CR) rate was 96.8% in naïve patients treated with Folfoxiri plus Bevacizumab, and 94.6% in patients treated with Folfirinox. During the acute and delayed phases, the CR rate was 92.8% and 94.2%, with Folfoxiri and Bevacizumab, as well as 96.2% and 94.6%, with Folfirinox. There was no adequate control of CINV events in patients on antiemetic prophylaxis with 5HT3-RA or NK1-RA associated with cortisone. During the overall phase, the CR rate was 74.6% with Folfoxiri plus Bevacizumab and 75.8% with Folfirinox. During the acute and delayed phases, the CR rate was 72.5% and 74.8% with Folfoxiri plus Bevacizumab, as well as 75.2% and 74.6% with Folfirinox. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown the therapeutic benefits of NEPA in the management and prophylaxis of CINV events, both in naive patients and patients previously treated with 5HT3-RA and NK1-RA. In addition, NEPA has been shown to be safe, both before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Palonossetrom/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antieméticos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , COVID-19 , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Irinotecano/administração & dosagem , Irinotecano/uso terapêutico , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/prevenção & controle , Oxaliplatina/administração & dosagem , Oxaliplatina/uso terapêutico , Palonossetrom/administração & dosagem , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Vômito/prevenção & controle
8.
Nanoscale ; 13(35): 14879-14899, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533177

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a poor prognosis and urgently needs better therapeutic approaches. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) based photodynamic therapy (PDT) is already used in the clinic for several cancers but not yet well investigated for CRC. Currently, systemic administration of ALA offers a limited degree of tumour selectivity, except for intracranial tumours, limiting its wider use in the clinic. The combination of effective ALA-PDT and chemotherapy may provide a promising alternative approach for CRC treatment. Herein, theranostic Ag2S quantum dots (AS-2MPA) optically trackable in near-infrared (NIR), conjugated with endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting Cetuximab (Cet) and loaded with ALA for PDT monotherapy or ALA/5-fluorouracil (5FU) for the combination therapy are proposed for enhanced treatment of EGFR(+) CRC. AS-2MPA-Cet exhibited excellent targeting of the high EGFR expressing cells and showed a strong intracellular signal for NIR optical detection in a comparative study performed on SW480, HCT116, and HT29 cells, which exhibit high, medium and low EGFR expression, respectively. Targeting provided enhanced uptake of the ALA loaded nanoparticles by strong EGFR expressing cells and formation of higher levels of PpIX. Cells also differ in their efficiency to convert ALA to PpIX, and SW480 was the best, followed by HT29, while HCT116 was determined as unsuitable for ALA-PDT. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated in 2D cell cultures and 3D spheroids of SW480 and HT29 cells using AS-2MPA with either electrostatically loaded, hydrazone or amide linked ALA to achieve different levels of pH or enzyme sensitive release. Most effective phototoxicity was observed in SW480 cells using AS-2MPA-ALA-electrostatic-Cet due to enhanced uptake of the particles, fast ALA release and effective ALA-to-PpIX conversion. Targeted delivery reduced the effective ALA concentration significantly which was further reduced with codelivery of 5FU. Delivery of ALA via covalent linkages was also effective for PDT, but required a longer incubation time for the release of ALA in therapeutic doses. Phototoxicity was correlated with high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic/necrotic cell death. Hence, both AS-2MPA-ALA-Cet based PDT and AS-2MPA-ALA-Cet-5FU based chemo/PDT combination therapy coupled with strong NIR tracking of the nanoparticles demonstrate an exceptional therapeutic effect on CRC cells and excellent potential for synergistic multistage tumour targeting therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Fotoquimioterapia , Pontos Quânticos , Ácido Aminolevulínico/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cetuximab/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imagem Óptica , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Protoporfirinas
9.
World J Surg Oncol ; 19(1): 253, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of primary tumour location on the prognosis of patients with peritoneal metastasis (PM) arising from colorectal cancer (CRC) after cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is rarely discussed, and the evidence is still limited. METHODS: Patients with PM arising from CRC treated with CRS and HIPEC at the China National Cancer Center and Huanxing Cancer Hospital between June 2017 and June 2019 were systematically reviewed. Clinical characteristics, pathological features, perioperative parameters, and prognostic data were collected and analysed. RESULTS: A total of 70 patients were divided into two groups according to either colonic or rectal origin (18 patients in the rectum group and 52 patients in the colon group). Patients with PM of a colonic origin were more likely to develop grade 3-4 postoperative complications after CRS+HIPEC (38.9% vs 19.2%, P = 0.094), but this difference was not statistically significant. Patients with colon cancer had a longer median overall survival (OS) than patients with rectal cancer (27.0 vs 15.0 months, P = 0.011). In the multivariate analysis, the independent prognostic factors of reduced OS were a rectal origin (HR 2.15, 95% CI 1.15-4.93, P = 0.035) and incomplete cytoreduction (HR 1.99, 95% CI 1.06-4.17, P = 0.047). CONCLUSION: CRS is a complex and potentially life-threatening procedure, and we suggest that the indications for CRS+HIPEC in patients with PM of rectal origin be more restrictive and that clinicians approach these cases with caution.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Hipertermia Induzida , Neoplasias Peritoneais , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Combinada , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução , Humanos , Quimioterapia Intraperitoneal Hipertérmica , Neoplasias Peritoneais/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360996

RESUMO

ß-Casomorphin-7 (BCM) is a degradation product of ß-casein, a milk component, and has been suggested to affect the immune system. However, its effect on mucosal immunity, especially anti-tumor immunity, in cancer-bearing individuals is not clear. We investigated the effects of BCM on lymphocytes using an in vitro system comprising mouse splenocytes, a mouse colorectal carcinogenesis model, and a mouse orthotopic colorectal cancer model. Treatment of mouse splenocytes with BCM in vitro reduced numbers of cluster of differentiation (CD) 20+ B cells, CD4+ T cells, and regulatory T cells (Tregs), and increased CD8+ T cells. Administration of BCM and the CD10 inhibitor thiorphan (TOP) to mice resulted in similar alterations in the lymphocyte subsets in the spleen and intestinal mucosa. BCM was degraded in a concentration- and time-dependent manner by the neutral endopeptidase CD10, and the formed BCM degradation product did not affect the lymphocyte counts. Furthermore, degradation was completely suppressed by TOP. In the azoxymethane mouse colorectal carcinogenesis model, the incidence of aberrant crypt foci, adenoma, and adenocarcinoma was reduced by co-treatment with BCM and TOP. Furthermore, when CT26 mouse colon cancer cells were inoculated into the cecum of syngeneic BALB/c mice and concurrently treated with BCM and TOP, infiltration of CD8+ T cells was promoted, and tumor growth and liver metastasis were suppressed. These results suggest that by suppressing the BCM degradation system, the anti-tumor effect of BCM is enhanced and it can suppress the development and progression of colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Endorfinas/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos/imunologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Adenocarcinoma/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Cultivadas , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Endorfinas/farmacologia , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Metástase Neoplásica , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Baço/citologia , Baço/imunologia , Tiorfano/farmacologia
11.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361836

RESUMO

Zotarolimus is a semi-synthetic derivative of rapamycin and an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Currently, zotarolimus is used to prolong the survival time of organ grafts, but it is also a novel immunosuppressive agent with potent anti-proliferative activity. Here, we examine the anti-tumor effect of zotarolimus, alone and in combination with 5-fluorouracil, on HCT-116 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells implanted in BALB/c nude mice. Compared with the control mice, mice treated with zotarolimus or zotarolimus combined with 5-FU showed retarded tumor growth; increased tumor apoptosis through the enhanced expression of cleaved caspase 3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation; reduced inflammation-related factors such as IL-1ß, TNF-α, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein; and inhibited metastasis-related factors such as CD44, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Notably, mice treated with a combination of zotarolimus and 5-FU showed significantly retarded tumor growth, reduced tumor size, and increased tumor inhibition compared with mice treated with 5-FU or zotarolimus alone, indicating a strong synergistic effect. This in vivo study confirms that zotarolimus or zotarolimus combined with 5-FU can be used to retard colorectal adenocarcinoma growth and inhibit tumorigenesis. Our results suggest that zotarolimus may increase the chemo-sensitization of tumor cells. Therefore, zotarolimus alone and zotarolimus combined with 5-FU may be potential anti-tumor agents in the treatment of human colon adenocarcinoma. Future research on zotarolimus may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Sirolimo/administração & dosagem , Sirolimo/análogos & derivados , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
12.
Eur J Radiol ; 142: 109863, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343846

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the capability of a radiomics model, which was designed to identify histopathologic growth pattern (HGP) of colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs) based on contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (ceMDCT), to predict early response and 1-year progression free survival (PFS) in patients treated with bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy. METHODS: Patients with unresectable CRLMs who were treated with bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy were included in this multicenter retrospective study. For each target lesion, the radiomics-diagnosed HGP (RAD_HGP) of desmoplastic (D) pattern or replacement (R) pattern was determined. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to assess lesion- and patient-based responses according to morphologic response criteria. One-year PFS was calculated using Kaplan-Meier curves. Hazard ratios for 1-year PFS were obtained through Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. RESULTS: Among 119 study patients, 206 D pattern and 140 R pattern lesions were identified. In patients with multiple lesions, 52 had D pattern, 31 had R pattern, and 36 had mixed (D + R) pattern. The area under the curve value for RAD_HGP in predicting early response was 0.707 for lesion-based analysis and 0.720 for patient-based analysis. Patients with D pattern had a significantly longer PFS than patients with R pattern or mixed pattern (P < 0.001). RAD_HGP was the only independent predictor of 1-year PFS. CONCLUSIONS: HGP diagnosed using a radiomics model could be used as an effective predictor of PFS for patients with CRLMs treated with bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(30): e26714, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is necessary to systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of bevacizumab (BEV) combined with 5-fluorouracil + leucovorin + oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) regimen in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer. METHODS: We searched the PubMed et al databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the BEV combined with the FOLFOX regimen in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer up to January 20, 2021. The Cochrane Collaborations' risk of bias tool was used for the quality assessment of included RCTs. Revman5.3 software was used for meta-analysis. RESULTS: Eleven RCTs with a total of 3178 patients with advanced colorectal cancer were included, meta-analysis results showed that the objective response rate (odds ratio [OR] = 3.15, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 2.25-4.40, P < .001) and cancer control rate (OR = 2.73, 95% CI: 1.91-3.90, P < .001) of BEV + FOLFOX were higher than that of FOLFOX group. And the incidence of gastrointestinal adverse reactions (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.07-1.55, P = .008) in the BEV + FOLFOX group was higher than that of the FOLFOX group, there were no significant differences in the incidence of leukopenia (OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.72-1.50, P = .83), hypertension (OR = 3.92, 95% CI: 0.81-18.88, P = .09) and neurotoxicity (OR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.8-1.27, P = .98) between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: BEV combined with the FOLFOX regimen is more effective than the FOLFOX regimen alone in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer, but it may also increase the risk of gastrointestinal adverse reactions.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Compostos Organoplatínicos/uso terapêutico
14.
Cancer Treat Res Commun ; 28: 100445, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425469

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Over half of the 1.5 million individuals globally who are diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) present with stage II-III disease. Understanding clinician attitudes towards treatment for this group is paramount to contextualise real-world outcomes and plan future trials. The aim of this study was to assess clinician awareness of trials assessing the optimal duration of CRC adjuvant therapy, their attitudes towards shorter treatment and their self-reported practice. METHODS: A survey was developed using OnlineSurveys® and distributed to clinicians in April 2019, with a follow-up survey disseminated to a subset of respondents in August 2020. Microsoft Excel® and Stata® were used for analysis. RESULTS: 265 clinicians replied to the first survey, with the majority aware of findings from the International Duration Evaluation of Adjuvant Therapy collaboration and contributory trials. Practice change was greatest for patients under 70 with low-risk stage III CRC, with most uncertainty around using 3-months of doublet chemotherapy for high-risk stage II disease. In August 2020, clinicians (n = 106) were more likely to use 3-months of FOLFOX for low-risk stage III disease and 3-months of CAPOX for stage II disease compared to April 2019. There was no indication that the COVID-19 pandemic had enduring changes on treatment decisions beyond those made in response to trial evidence. DISCUSSION: Clinicians use a risk-stratified approach to treat CRC the adjuvant setting. Lower utilisation of doublet chemotherapy for older and stage II patients has affected the extent of trial implementation. Active dialogue regarding how trial results apply to these groups may improve consensus.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , COVID-19 , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Longitudinais , Oncologistas , Compostos Organoplatínicos/uso terapêutico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 174: 157-170, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403740

RESUMO

Tumor hypoxia is a major biological factor that drives resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We previously demonstrated that the pro-oxidative drug dihydroartemisinin (DHA) efficiently targeted normoxic and hypoxic cancer cells. Although well studied in normoxia, the mechanism behind DHA-mediated cytotoxicity in hypoxia is insufficiently explored. Here, we analyzed the effect of DHA in HCT116 wild type (wt) cells and in HCT116 Bax-/-Baksh cells with a defective intrinsic apoptosis pathway. Normoxic HCT116 wt cells underwent apoptosis shortly after treatment with DHA. Autophagy-associated cell death contributes to short-term cytotoxicity of DHA in normoxia. These cells switched to an apoptosis- and autophagy-independent cell death after treatment with DHA in hypoxia and displayed similar long-term survival in response to DHA in normoxia and hypoxia. In HCT116 Bax-/-Baksh cells, DHA induced cell cycle arrest shortly after treatment irrespective of oxygen levels. Later, HCT116 Bax-/-Baksh cells induced a delayed cell death after treatment with DHA in hypoxia followed by return to normoxia, while treatment with DHA in normoxia was hardly toxic. We identified lower glutathione levels in hypoxic HCT116 cells which correlated with higher lipid peroxidation after treatment with DHA. Moreover, insufficient expression of Bax/Bak counteracted hypoxia-mediated downregulation of mitochondrial function, thereby adding to DHA-induced ROS production and lipid peroxidation in hypoxia. In summary, DHA-mediated cytotoxicity in normoxia depended on Bax/Bak expression, while cytotoxicity after treatment with DHA in hypoxia was regulated independently of Bax/Bak in HCT116 colorectal cancer cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Neoplasias Colorretais , Artemisininas , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Hipóxia , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética
16.
In Vivo ; 35(5): 2809-2814, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The monoclonal antibody bevacizumab is a standard drug used in combination with oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or irinotecan (FOLFIRI) based chemotherapy in the first or second-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Our previous study identified and subsequently validated 4 microRNAs in a small group of patients as predictors of the therapeutic response to bevacizumab combined with chemotherapy. The aim of this follow-up study is to confirm the predictive ability of these tissue miRNAs in a larger independent cohort of mCRC patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The retrospective study included 92 patients with generalized-radically inoperable tumors treated with the combined therapy of bevacizumab/FOLFOX in a standard regimen. RESULTS: Expression levels of candidate miRNA biomarkers (miR-92b-3p, miR-3156-5p, miR-10a-5p and miR-125a-5p) were determined in tumor tissue specimens and statistically evaluated. MiR-92b-3p and miR-125a-5p were confirmed to be associated with radiological response according to RECIST criteria (p=0.005 and 0.05, respectively) and to be up-regulated in responders to bevacizumab/FOLFOX therapy. Higher levels of miR-92b-3p were also significantly associated with extended progression-free survival (p=0.024). CONCLUSION: We have successfully confirmed miR-92b-3p to be up-regulated in tumor tissue of mCRC patients with good response to bevacizumab/FOLFOX therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , MicroRNAs , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Fluoruracila , Seguimentos , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
In Vivo ; 35(5): 2841-2844, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410976

RESUMO

AIM: To determinate molecular changes in the downstream epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway using serial liquid biopsies in patients with metastatic colorectal tumors (mCRC) under anti-angiogenic treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Determination of RAS mutation in primary tissue samples from colorectal tumors was performed in the 23 patients included in the study at diagnosis using quantitative-polymerase chain reaction. Sequential mutations were studied in circulating tumor (ct) DNA obtained from plasma samples. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients with RAS-mutated primary tumors were included. In the first ctDNA determination, 17 of these patients were found to have wild-type RAS status. Remarkably, three out of these 17 wild-type cases changed to RAS-mutated in subsequent ctDNA assays. CONCLUSION: Serial liquid biopsies in patients with mCRC might be a useful tool for identifying changes in the RAS mutation status in patients who had undergone previous anti-angiogenic therapy. The understanding of these changes might help to better define the landscape of mCRC and be the path to future randomized studies.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , DNA Tumoral Circulante , Neoplasias Colorretais , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/genética , DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida , Mutação
18.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(8)2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34441007

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Seasonal climatic changes may affect the development of the rash that is characteristic of treatment with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies. We evaluated the association between seasons and rash incidence among patients with cancer. Materials and Methods: Data from patients with colorectal or head and neck cancer treated with cetuximab or panitumumab during summer (S group; n = 34) or winter (W group; n = 37) between June 2014 and February 2019 were collected to retrospectively examine patient characteristics and rash incidence ≤ 8 weeks after treatment initiation. Results: Rashes were observed in 73.5% (n = 25) and 78.4% (n = 29) and grade 3 rashes were observed in 17.6% (n = 6) and 2.7% (n = 1) of the patients in the S and W groups, respectively. The incidence of grade ≥ 2 rashes in males in the S group was higher than that in the rest of the patient groups (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The higher incidence of skin rashes in males during summer might be attributed to the effects of ultraviolet light, lack of skincare, male hormones, and secretion of anti-EGFR antibodies in sweat. These findings highlight the need for research on preventive measures for such rashes.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Colorretais , Exantema , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Cetuximab/efeitos adversos , Mudança Climática , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores ErbB , Exantema/induzido quimicamente , Exantema/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano
19.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(8)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34441055

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Colorectal cancer (CRC) can be classified as mismatch-repair-deficient (dMMR) with high levels of microsatellite instability (MSI-H), or mismatch-repair-proficient (pMMR) and microsatellite stable (MSS). Approximately 15% of patients have microsatellite instability (MSI). MSI-H tumors are associated with a high mutation burden. Monoclonal antibodies that block immune checkpoints can induce long-term durable responses in some patients. Pembrolizumab is the first checkpoint inhibitor approved in the EU to treat dMMR-MSI-H metastatic CRC. Materials and Methods: Our study assesses the regional variability of MSI-H colorectal cancer tumors in Romania. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue blocks containing tumor samples from 90 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer were collected from two tertiary referral Oncology Centers from Romania. Tissues were examined for the expression loss of MMR proteins (MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, MSH6) using immunohistochemistry or MSI status using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Results: MSI-H was detected in 19 (21.1%) patients. MSI-H was located more in ascending colon (36.8% vs. 9.9%, p-value = 0.0039) and less in sigmoid (5.3% vs. 33.8%, p-value = 0.0136) than MSS patients. Most patients were stage II for MSI-H (42.1%) as well as for MSS (56.3%), with significant more G1 (40.9% vs. 15.8%, p-value = 0.0427) for MSS patients. Gender, N stage, and M stage were identified as significant prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. MSI status was not a statistically significant predictor neither in univariate analysis nor multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Considering the efficacy of PD-1 inhibitor in metastatic CRC with MSI-H or dMMR, and its recent approval in EU, it is increasingly important to understand the prevalence across tumor stage, histology, and demographics, since our study displayed higher regional MSI-H prevalence (21%) compared to the literature.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Romênia
20.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443626

RESUMO

Even though an increasing number of anticancer treatments have been discovered, the mortality rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) have still been high in the past few years. It has been discovered that melatonin has pro-apoptotic properties and counteracts inflammation, proliferation, angiogenesis, cell invasion, and cell migration. In previous studies, melatonin has been shown to have an anticancer effect in multiple tumors, including CRC, but the underlying mechanisms of melatonin action on CRC have not been fully explored. Thus, in this study, we investigated the role of autophagy pathways in CRC cells treated with melatonin. In vitro CRC cell models, HT-29, SW48, and Caco-2, were treated with melatonin. CRC cell death, oxidative stress, and autophagic vacuoles formation were induced by melatonin in a dose-dependent manner. Several autophagy pathways were examined, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), serine/threonine-specific protein kinase (Akt), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. Our results showed that melatonin significantly induced autophagy via the ER stress pathway in CRC cells. In conclusion, melatonin demonstrated a potential as an anticancer drug for CRC.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Células HT29 , Humanos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
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