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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1287: 123-154, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034030

RESUMO

Since many decades, nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSCs) is the most common malignancy worldwide. Basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) are the major types of NMSCs, representing approximately 70% and 25% of these neoplasias, respectively. Because of their continuously rising incidence rates, NMSCs represent a constantly increasing global challenge for healthcare, although they are in most cases nonlethal and curable (e.g., by surgery). While at present, carcinogenesis of NMSC is still not fully understood, the relevance of genetic and molecular alterations in several pathways, including evolutionary highly conserved Notch signaling, has now been shown convincingly. The Notch pathway, which was first developed during evolution in metazoans and that was first discovered in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), governs cell fate decisions and many other fundamental processes that are of high relevance not only for embryonic development, but also for initiation, promotion, and progression of cancer. Choosing NMSC as a model, we give in this review a brief overview on the interaction of Notch signaling with important oncogenic and tumor suppressor pathways and on its role for several hallmarks of carcinogenesis and cancer progression, including the regulation of cancer stem cells, tumor angiogenesis, and senescence.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Animais , Carcinoma Basocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Basocelular/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/irrigação sanguínea
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(3): e20180985, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175013

RESUMO

The major impact in the clinical field is the harm posed by cancer. One most common type of cancer occurs in the skin. Though the conventionally existing modalities are successful in some cases, there is a need for new sensible methods to detect tumors at their initial stage. In accordance to these reasons and in addition to the incapability of the drugs to cross cellular barriers in skin the conventional administration methods are often compromised. To eradicate these problems the research work aims to develop the electrical analogue of skin involving layers like dermis, subcutaneous tissues, bones and muscular layers. The mathematical model has been developed to determine the electrical network of skin. The response of different skin layers are analyzed through simulation studies. It is observed that the cells present in each layer absorbs some amount of drug and let out the remaining to the neighboring layers. Further to minimize the diffusion rate of the drug a conventional controller has been incorporated and the results are analyzed by the contrast of the absorption and diffusion capacities for different layers of skin.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Administração Cutânea , Difusão , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 56(11): 846-852, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152843

RESUMO

Objective: To report the clinical and pathological features and surgical treatment of the linear nevus sebaceous syndrome. Methods: It was a retrospective case series study. The clinical records of 11 patients (14 eyes) who were diagnosed as linear nevus sebaceous syndrome between April 2009 and February 2018 at Beijing Tongren Hospital were analyzed. Data collected included sex, age, clinical manifestations, disease site, pathological features, surgical treatment and therapeutic effects. Results: There were six males and five females, aged 6 months to 7 years (mean, 2.8 years). The nevus sebaceous was located at the head (9 patients), face (5 patients) and neck (3 patients). The most common ocular manifestations were blepharocoloboma (13 eyes) and external ocular mass (9 eyes). Surgical treatment was performed in 9 patients (11 eyes), including lid reconstruction in all these eyes, corneal and conjunctival mass resection in four patients (4 eyes), eyelid tumor resection in 5 patients (5 eyes), and symblepharon separation and conjunctival sac reconstruction in 3 patients (5 eyes). Pathological examinations of the external ocular, corneal and conjunctival masses (6 eyes) confirmed the diagnosis of complex choristoma. All operated patients had improved appearance. Conclusions: Linear nevus sebaceous syndrome has characteristic cutaneous lesions and ocular manifestations. Histopathologically, all epibulbar lesions prove to be complex choristomas. The appearance of patients with linear nevus sebaceous syndrome can be significantly improved by oculoplastic surgery. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2020, 56: 846-852).


Assuntos
Coristoma , Nevo Pigmentado , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Túnica Conjuntiva , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 8075-8095, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116519

RESUMO

Purpose: Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) is a new therapeutic modality for the noninvasive cancer treatment based on the association of ultrasound and sonosensitizer drugs. Topical SDT requires the development of delivery systems to properly transport the sonosensitizer, such as zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc), to the skin. In addition, the delivery system itself can participate in sonodynamic events and influence the therapeutic response. This study aimed to develop ZnPc-loaded micelle to evaluate its potential as a topical delivery system and as a cavitational agent for low-frequency ultrasound (LFU) application with the dual purpose of promoting ZnPc skin penetration and generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) for SDT. Methods: ZnPc-loaded micelles were developed by the thin-film hydration method and optimized using the Quality by Design approach. Micelles' influence on LFU-induced cavitation activity was measured by potassium iodide dosimeter and aluminum foil pits experiments. In vitro skin penetration of ZnPc was assessed after pretreatment of the skin with LFU and simultaneous LFU treatment using ZnPc-loaded micelles as coupling media followed by 6 h of passive permeation of ZnPc-loaded micelles. The singlet oxygen generation by LFU irradiation of the micelles was evaluated using two different hydrophilic probes. The lipid peroxidation of the skin was estimated using the malondialdehyde assay after skin treatment with simultaneous LFU using ZnPc-loaded micelles. The viability of the B16F10 melanoma cell line was evaluated using resazurin after treatment with different concentrations of ZnPc-loaded micelles irradiated or not with LFU. Results: The micelles increased the solubility of ZnPc and augmented the LFU-induced cavitation activity in two times compared to water. After 6 h ZnPc-loaded micelles skin permeation, simultaneous LFU treatment increased the amount of ZnPc in the dermis by more than 40 times, when compared to non-LFU-mediated treatment, and by almost 5 times, when compared to LFU pretreatment protocol. The LFU irradiation of micelles induced the generation of singlet oxygen, and the lipoperoxidation of the skin treated with the simultaneous LFU was enhanced in three times in comparison to the non-LFU-treated skin. A significant reduction in cell viability following treatment with ZnPc-loaded micelles and LFU was observed compared to blank micelles and non-LFU-treated control groups. Conclusion: LFU-irradiated mice can be a potential approach to skin cancer treatment by combining the functions of increasing drug penetration and ROS generation required for SDT.


Assuntos
Indóis/farmacologia , Micelas , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacologia , Ultrassom , Alumínio/química , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/patologia , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Iodeto de Potássio/química , Oxigênio Singlete/química , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Suínos
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5126, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046701

RESUMO

Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a key component of the tumor microenvironment. Genomic alterations in these cells remain a point of contention. We report that CAFs from skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) display chromosomal alterations, with heterogeneous NOTCH1 gene amplification and overexpression that also occur, to a lesser extent, in dermal fibroblasts of apparently unaffected skin. The fraction of the latter cells harboring NOTCH1 amplification is expanded by chronic UVA exposure, to which CAFs are resistant. The advantage conferred by NOTCH1 amplification and overexpression can be explained by NOTCH1 ability to block the DNA damage response (DDR) and ensuing growth arrest through suppression of ATM-FOXO3a association and downstream signaling cascade. In an orthotopic model of skin SCC, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of NOTCH1 activity suppresses cancer/stromal cells expansion. Here we show that NOTCH1 gene amplification and increased expression in CAFs are an attractive target for stroma-focused anti-cancer intervention.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Amplificação de Genes , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Animais , Dano ao DNA , Feminino , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Receptor Notch1/genética , Pele/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética
6.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 29(10): 1221-1230, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064381

RESUMO

The increasing number of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) procedures and lower transplant-related mortality has led to a growing population of survivors facing long-term increased risk of secondary malignancy, including cutaneous neoplasms. In this review, we aim to discuss the incidence, risk factors and preventive strategies for secondary skin neoplasms after autologous and allogeneic HSCT. Cutaneous neoplasms, such as basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma, are among the most common solid cancers arising in patients after HSCT. Besides risk factors established in the general population, primary disease, chronic graft-versus-host disease (CGvHD), prolonged immunosuppression, especially with the use of cyclosporine and azathioprine, radiation exposure, light skin color, male sex, and young age at transplantation play a role in the development of cutaneous neoplasms in HSCT recipients. Skin cancer development after HSCT may be explained by cumulative effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy-induced DNA damage, prolonged immunosuppressive conditions and chronic mucosal inflammation, particularly after allogeneic HSCT. Delayed immune recovery and persistent immunodeficiency in patients with graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) may also contribute to carcinogenesis. Regular dermatological surveillance and prompt recognition of precancerous and cancerous lesions is crucial for patient's prognosis and management.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Ciclosporina , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Transplante Homólogo
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(42): e22786, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080750

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. It appears as patches, plaques, and tumors depending on the stage of the disease, which presents a chronic progressive course. Compared to CD4/CD8 MF, CD4/CD8 dual-positive MF is an uncommon immune phenotype. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 36-year-old male patient presented with dryness and scales on his whole body. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed with MF based on results of pathological examination, immunohistochemical staining, and T-cell receptor gene rearrangement test. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was advised to take an herbal medicine orally twice daily and apply a topical moisturizer after showering. OUTCOMES: After treatment and follow-up, the patient's symptoms of dryness and scales improved and his condition stabilized. CONCLUSIONS: While reviewing the literature, we found no previous reports on the treatment of dual-positive MF with Chinese medicine. In this report, we presented the first case of dual-positive MF successfully treated with Chinese medicine. The results suggest that oral ingestion of herbal medicine may be a feasible method for alleviating clinical symptoms of early stage MF. Therefore, the therapy should be explored for clinical use in the future.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Micose Fungoide/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Adulto , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Micose Fungoide/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia
8.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 7627-7650, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116492

RESUMO

The skin is the largest organ in the human body, providing a barrier to the external environment. It is composed of three layers: epidermis, dermis and hypodermis. The most external epidermis is exposed to stress factors that may lead to skin conditions such as photo-aging and skin cancer. Some treatments for skin disease utilize the incorporation of drugs or bioactive compounds into nanocarriers known as liposomes. Liposomes are membranes whose sizes range from nano to micrometers and are composed mostly of phospholipids and cholesterol, forming similar structures to cell membranes. Thus, skin treatments with liposomes have lower toxicity in comparison to traditional treatment routes such as parenteral and oral. Furthermore, addition of edge activators to the liposomes decreases the rigidity of the bilayer structure making it deformable, thereby improving skin permeability. Liposomes are composed of an aqueous core and a lipidic bilayer, which confers their amphiphilic property. Thus, they can carry hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds, even simultaneously. Current applications of these nanocarriers are mainly in the cosmetic and pharmaceutic industries. Nevertheless, new research has revealed promising results regarding the effectiveness of liposomes for transporting bioactive compounds through the skin. Liposomes have been well studied; however, additional research is needed on the efficacy of liposomes loaded with bioactive peptides for skin delivery. The objective of this review is to provide an up-to-date description of existing techniques for the development of liposomes and their use as transporters of bioactive compounds in skin conditions such as melanoma and skin inflammation. Furthermore, to gain an understanding of the behavior of liposomes during the process of skin delivery of bioactive compounds into skin cells.


Assuntos
Inflamação/patologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Pele/patologia , Transporte Biológico , Humanos , Lipossomos/ultraestrutura , Absorção Cutânea
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5259, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067454

RESUMO

To increase understanding of the genomic landscape of acral melanoma, a rare form of melanoma occurring on palms, soles or nail beds, whole genome sequencing of 87 tumors with matching transcriptome sequencing for 63 tumors was performed. Here we report that mutational signature analysis reveals a subset of tumors, mostly subungual, with an ultraviolet radiation signature. Significantly mutated genes are BRAF, NRAS, NF1, NOTCH2, PTEN and TYRP1. Mutations and amplification of KIT are also common. Structural rearrangement and copy number signatures show that whole genome duplication, aneuploidy and complex rearrangements are common. Complex rearrangements occur recurrently and are associated with amplification of TERT, CDK4, MDM2, CCND1, PAK1 and GAB2, indicating potential therapeutic options.


Assuntos
Melanoma/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Feminino , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Amplificação de Genes , Dosagem de Genes , Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mutação , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Receptor Notch2/genética , Receptor Notch2/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
10.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(709): 1853-1859, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026727

RESUMO

A quarter of cutaneous melanomas occur on the head and neck. Despite close collaboration between the dermatology, oncology, pathology, nuclear medicine and otorhinolaryngology departments, the survival of patients presenting with this type of melanomas remains inferior to that of other parts of the body. The morbidity of head and neck surgery significantly alters the quality of life. Therefore, specific multidisciplinary expertise is required. We present here the specificities of ENT management.


Assuntos
Orelha , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Melanoma/terapia , Nariz , Faringe , Papel do Médico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida
11.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1524-1527, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018281

RESUMO

Developing a fast and accurate classifier is an important part of a computer-aided diagnosis system for skin cancer. Melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer which has a high mortality rate. Early detection and prognosis of melanoma can improve survival rates. In this paper, we propose a deep convolutional neural network for automated melanoma detection that is scalable to accommodate a variety of hardware and software constraints. Dermoscopic skin images collected from open sources were used for training the network. The trained network was then tested on a dataset of 2150 malignant or benign images. Overall, the classifier achieved high average values for accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 82.95%, 82.99%, and 83.89% respectively. It outperfomed other exisitng networks using the same dataset.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Computador , Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Dermoscopia , Humanos , Melanoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Redes Neurais de Computação , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico por imagem
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22550, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019466

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the associations between the sonographic findings and duration of symptoms in children with pilomatricoma.This study included 86 children with 95 lesions confirmed to be pilomatricoma after pathological examination. The associations between symptom duration and sonographic observations, including the presence or absence of peritumoral hyperechogenicity, calcification, and vascularity were investigated. The internal echogenicity of each pilomatricoma was scored using a 5-point scale based on echogenic spots and calcification with posterior acoustic shadowing. The Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for statistical analysis.We found that the absence of peritumoral hyperechogenicity and severity of calcification were associated with increased symptom duration. Calcification, (present, 19.19 ±â€Š18.99 months vs absent, 4.31 ±â€Š3.24 months; P < .01) and peritumoral hyperechogenicity (present, 5.02 ±â€Š5.80 months vs absent, 16.17 ±â€Š18.24 months; P < .01), and grade of internal echogenicity (grade 0/1/2/3/4 = 3 months [1 patient]/4.33 ±â€Š3.26 months [range, 1-12]/4.57 ±â€Š3.46 months [range, 2-12]/10.89 ±â€Š9.17 months [range, 3-28]/35.27 ±â€Š19.16 months [range, 9-60], respectively; P = .01 and <.01) were associated with significant differences in symptom duration. There were no significant between-group differences in vascularity (6.01 ±â€Š7.24 months; range, 1-48 vs 15.50 ±â€Š19.12 months; range, 1-60; P = .08).Pilomatricomas with a relatively short symptom duration were more likely to exhibit peritumoral hyperechogenicity and calcification with less severe posterior acoustic shadowing compared to lesions with a longer symptom duration. These sonographic findings provided useful information that facilitated the correct and rapid diagnosis of pilomatricoma.


Assuntos
Pilomatrixoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Avaliação de Sintomas/estatística & dados numéricos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Calcificação Fisiológica , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Avaliação de Sintomas/tendências
13.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 136(5): 5-13, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056958

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the use of ultrasound color Doppler imaging and indocyanine green (ICG) angiography for identification of malignant vasculature of choroidal tumors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 46 patients (46 eyes) with tumors of the choroid: 19 men and 26 women aged 22 to 89 years, average age 53.2±17.1 years. All patients underwent indocyanine green angiography and Doppler ultrasound imaging. At the time of examination, thickness of the tumors ranged from 1.1 mm to 3.0 mm, and the base diameter from 4.0 mm to 13.0 mm. Choroidal melanoma was diagnosed in 27 patients, choroidal nevus in 10, choroidal hemangioma in 5, and choroidal metastasis in 4 patients. RESULTS: The results of indocyanine green angiography demonstrate that the pathological malignant vasculature was determined: nevi was diagnosed in 7 out of 10 patients, choroidal melanoma in 16 out of 27, metastasis in 2 out of 4, and hemangioma in none of the 5 patients. Pathological malignant vasculature was determined in most patients with choroidal melanoma (77.8%), in all patients with choroidal hemangioma and in 3 patients with choroidal metastases. Ultrasound imaging revealed malignant vasculature in 15 of 27 (56%) patients with choroidal melanoma, it could be identified in all patients with hemangioma in 2 patients and with choroidal metastases, and in none patients with choroidal nevi. CONCLUSIONS: Indocyanine green angiography helps verify malignant vasculature in 77.8% of patients with small and medium sized choroidal melanomas. Angioarchitecture of choroidal tumors visualized with indocyanine green angiography is characterized by variability of patterns, which should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of various pathological diseases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Coroide , Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Coroide/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Coroide/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Humanos , Verde de Indocianina , Masculino , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Melanoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 34(10): 1294-1297, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063496

RESUMO

Obejective: To investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of the distal curved incision approach of lunula in treating subungual glomus tumor in nail root. Methods: Between March 2017 and October 2019, 16 patients (16 fingers) with subungual glomus tumor in nail root were treated. There were 2 males and 14 females with an average age of 35.3 years (range, 21-67 years). The disease duration ranged from 5 months to 17 years, with a median duration of 15 months. There were 6 cases of thumb, 3 cases of index finger, 2 cases of middle finger, 4 cases of ring finger, and 1 case of little finger. All of them showed typical "triad syndromes", and the cold sensitivity test and Love test were positive before operation. Each patient removed the nail, the tumor was exposed under the nail bed via the distal curved incision approach of lunula. After the tumor was removed completely, the nail bed was reducted in situ without suturing. The self-made nail template was pressurized and fixed on the surface of the nail bed with suture. The conditions of nail bed healing, pain, and growth of nail were observed after operation. Results: All wounds of the nail bed with laceration healed by first intention. Postoperative pathological results confirmed the diagnosis of subungual glomus tumor in all the patients. All cases were followed up 3-26 months with an average of 15 months. The pain symptom disappeared and no obvious pain occurred during dressing change in all cases; and the cold sensitivity test and Love test were negative. The nails recovered smoothly with satisfactory appearance, and no obvious complications such as longitudinal ridge deformities or recurrences was observed. Conclusion: The treatment of subungual glomus tumor in nail root via the distal curved incision approach is an effective method, which can easily operated, resect the tumor completely, protect the nail bed effectively, and also has a significant effect on preventing postoperative nail deformity.


Assuntos
Tumor Glômico , Doenças da Unha , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Tumor Glômico/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças da Unha/cirurgia , Unhas/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(8): 988-993, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053543

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Reflection confocal microscopy (RCM) is commonly used to assist in the diagnosis of skin diseases. RCM has been found to be useful in the diagnosis of genital warts. The characteristics of genital warts under RCM are not specific. This study aimed to face the challenge of diagnosing genital warts with RCM. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 161 patients with clinical diagnosis of genital warts who underwent RCM examination. Histopathological examination was performed for 75 of these patients. The results of histological diagnosis and RCM diagnosis were compared and analyzed. RESULTS: According to the RCM images, 102 of the 161 (63.35%) patients were diagnosed as genital warts. By comparison with histological results, the misdiagnosis rate of the 75 biopsy cases was 35.48% and the missed diagnosis rate was 20.45%.The diseases of misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis mainly included bowenoid papulosis, pseudocondylona of vulvae, squamous cell carcinoma in situ, molluscum contagiosum, and lichen planus. We further found that the RCM characteristics of genital warts conformed by histology were koilocytes, which mainly appeared in the granular layer or the spinous layer, larger than normal skin keratinocytes, and the cytoplasm with low refractive index. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the commonality of the microscopic characteristics of genital warts and related diseases, some cases are easy to be misdiagnosed or missed diagnosed. Diagnostic koilocytes could be an important basis for the diagnosis of genital warts.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Condiloma Acuminado , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Condiloma Acuminado/diagnóstico , Condiloma Acuminado/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Microscopia Confocal , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1600-1603, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018300

RESUMO

In this study we develop a proof of concept of using generative adversarial neural networks in hyperspectral skin cancer imagery production. Generative adversarial neural network is a neural network, where two neural networks compete. The generator tries to produce data that is similar to the measured data, and the discriminator tries to correctly classify the data as fake or real. This is a reinforcement learning model, where both models get reinforcement based on their performance. In the training of the discriminator we use data measured from skin cancer patients. The aim for the study is to develop a generator for augmenting hyperspectral skin cancer imagery.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Humanos , Imagens, Psicoterapia , Aprendizagem , Aprendizado de Máquina
17.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1616-1619, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018304

RESUMO

Semantic segmentation is a fundamental and challenging problem in medical image analysis. At present, deep convolutional neural network plays a dominant role in medical image segmentation. The existing problems of this field are making less use of image information and learning few edge features, which may lead to the ambiguous boundary and inhomogeneous intensity distribution of the result. Since the characteristics of different stages are highly inconsistent, these two cannot be directly combined. In this paper, we proposed the Attention and Edge Constraint Network (AEC-Net) to optimize features by introducing attention mechanisms in the lower-level features, so that it can be better combined with higher-level features. Meanwhile, an edge branch is added to the network which can learn edge and texture features simultaneously. We evaluated this model on three datasets, including skin cancer segmentation, vessel segmentation, and lung segmentation. Results demonstrate that the proposed model has achieved state-of-the-art performance on all datasets.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Atenção , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Redes Neurais de Computação
18.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1824-1827, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018354

RESUMO

Skin cancers are the most common cancers with an increased incidence, and a valid, early diagnosis may significantly reduce its morbidity and mortality. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a relatively new, non-invasive imaging technique that allows screening lesions at a cellular resolution. However, one of the main disadvantages of the RCM is frequently occurring artifacts which makes the diagnostic process more time consuming and hard to automate using e.g. end-to-end deep learning approach. A tool to automatically determine the RCM mosaic quality could be beneficial for both the lesion classification and informing the user (dermatologist) about its quality in real-time, during the examination procedure. In this work, we propose an attention-based deep network to automatically determine if a given RCM mosaic has an acceptable quality. We achieved accuracy above 87% on the test set which may considerably improve further classification results and the RCM-based examination.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cutâneas , Atenção , Humanos , Microscopia Confocal , Redes Neurais de Computação , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1940-1943, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018382

RESUMO

In this paper, we consider the problem of classifying skin lesions into multiple classes using both dermoscopic and clinical images. Different convolutional neural network architectures are considered for this task and a novel ensemble scheme is proposed, which makes use of a progressive transfer learning strategy. The proposed approach is tested over a dataset of 4000 images containing both dermoscopic and clinical examples and it is shown to achieve an average specificity of 93.3% and an average sensitivity of 79.9% in discriminating skin lesions belonging to four different classes.


Assuntos
Dermatopatias , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Dermoscopia , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 136(6): 32-41, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084277

RESUMO

Tumor borders are one of the most significant characteristics of any tumor, including that of the skin. PURPOSE: To compare histological borders of periorbital skin tumors with their autofluorescence borders built from the analysis of non-induced protoporphyrin IX autofluorescence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group included 8 patients with skin tumors of the eyelids, periorbital region, eyebrow and zygomatic regions aged 54-88 years. The tumors varied in size from 2 to 8 mm and all displayed signs of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). At admission, all the patients underwent non-induced autofluorescence diagnosis. The images were processed with the «CancerPlot¼ program. During radio excision, the autofluorescent border of each neoplasm was marked with a surgical incision of about 5 mm long and 2 mm deep. RESULTS: Upon pathomorphological examination, solid BCC was identified in 7 cases. The remaining case was senile keratosis. All reference incisions were located in healthy tissues not farther than 1 mm from the tumor (or keratosis locus, correspondingly). CONCLUSION: By the example of facial BCC, an evident correlation was established between histological borders of the tumor and its native (non-induced) protoporphyrin IX autofluorescence.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Basocelular/diagnóstico por imagem , Pálpebras , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pele , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico por imagem
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