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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 365, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367444

RESUMO

Dermatofibrosarcoma is a rare skin tumor. Morphological characteristics can be misleading and unknown to most of physicians. Diagnostic delay may affect patient´s management and prognosis. We here report the case of a young patient with lesions protruding from the abdominal wall mistaken for benign cysts. X-ray examination revealed subcutaneous adipose tissue mass. This was suspected of being a fibrosarcoma. The mass was resected with a macroscopic safety margin. The anatomo-pathological study confirmed the diagnosis of dermatofibrosarcoma. Clinical and radiological follow-up examinations didn´t show any recurrence. This study highlights the importance of suspecting this rare tumor requiring specialist treatment.


Assuntos
Abdome/patologia , Dermatofibrossarcoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Adulto , Dermatofibrossarcoma/patologia , Dermatofibrossarcoma/cirurgia , Fibrossarcoma/diagnóstico , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia
2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1611-1630, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343493

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a melanoma-associated locus on chromosome band 7p21.1 with rs117132860 as the lead SNP and a secondary independent signal marked by rs73069846. rs117132860 is also associated with tanning ability and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). Because ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a key environmental exposure for all three traits, we investigated the mechanisms by which this locus contributes to melanoma risk, focusing on cellular response to UVR. Fine-mapping of melanoma GWASs identified four independent sets of candidate causal variants. A GWAS region-focused Capture-C study of primary melanocytes identified physical interactions between two causal sets and the promoter of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Subsequent chromatin state annotation, eQTL, and luciferase assays identified rs117132860 as a functional variant and reinforced AHR as a likely causal gene. Because AHR plays critical roles in cellular response to dioxin and UVR, we explored links between this SNP and AHR expression after both 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure. Allele-specific AHR binding to rs117132860-G was enhanced following both, consistent with predicted weakened AHR binding to the risk/poor-tanning rs117132860-A allele, and allele-preferential AHR expression driven from the protective rs117132860-G allele was observed following UVB exposure. Small deletions surrounding rs117132860 introduced via CRISPR abrogates AHR binding, reduces melanocyte cell growth, and prolongs growth arrest following UVB exposure. These data suggest AHR is a melanoma susceptibility gene at the 7p21.1 risk locus and rs117132860 is a functional variant within a UVB-responsive element, leading to allelic AHR expression and altering melanocyte growth phenotypes upon exposure.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7 , Loci Gênicos , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanoma/genética , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Alelos , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Melanócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanócitos/patologia , Melanócitos/efeitos da radiação , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Cultura Primária de Células , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Banho de Sol , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5056, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417458

RESUMO

Melanoma cells rely on developmental programs during tumor initiation and progression. Here we show that the embryonic stem cell (ESC) factor Sall4 is re-expressed in the Tyr::NrasQ61K; Cdkn2a-/- melanoma model and that its expression is necessary for primary melanoma formation. Surprisingly, while Sall4 loss prevents tumor formation, it promotes micrometastases to distant organs in this melanoma-prone mouse model. Transcriptional profiling and in vitro assays using human melanoma cells demonstrate that SALL4 loss induces a phenotype switch and the acquisition of an invasive phenotype. We show that SALL4 negatively regulates invasiveness through interaction with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) 2 and direct co-binding to a set of invasiveness genes. Consequently, SALL4 knock down, as well as HDAC inhibition, promote the expression of an invasive signature, while inhibition of histone acetylation partially reverts the invasiveness program induced by SALL4 loss. Thus, SALL4 appears to regulate phenotype switching in melanoma through an HDAC2-mediated mechanism.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Fator de Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Acetilação , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/patologia , Adesão Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Linhagem da Célula , Proliferação de Células , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Histona Desacetilase 2/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanócitos/patologia , Camundongos Nus , Camundongos Transgênicos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Micrometástase de Neoplasia , Ligação Proteica , Carga Tumoral
4.
Radiol Clin North Am ; 59(5): 755-772, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392917

RESUMO

The clinical management of melanoma patients has been rapidly evolving with the introduction of new targeted immuno-oncology (IO) therapeutics. The current diagnostic paradigms for melanoma patients begins with the histopathologic confirmation of melanoma, initial staging of disease burden with imaging and surgical approaches, treatment monitoring during systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy or IO therapeutics, restaging after completion of adjuvant systemic, surgical, and/or external radiation therapy, and the detection of recurrent malignancy/metastatic disease following therapy. New and evolving imaging approaches with positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging technologies, imaging methodologies, image reconstruction, and image analytics will likely continue to improve tumor detection, tumor characterization, and diagnostic confidence, enabling novel precision nuclear medicine practices for managing melanoma patients. This review will examine current concepts and challenges with existing PET imaging diagnostics for melanoma patients and introduce exciting new opportunities for PET in the current era of IO therapeutics.


Assuntos
Melanoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/tendências , Medicina de Precisão/tendências , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
5.
Ann Clin Lab Sci ; 51(4): 470-486, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452885

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Epithelium-specific ETS protein 3 (Ese-3) is a member of the ETS family that is associated with tumor progression. However, there is little knowledge about Ese-3 in skin cancer. This study was conducted to explore the effects of Ese-3 on clinical prognosis in skin cancer and the functions of HaCaT cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gene expression and clinical data were collected from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), The Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx), and three GSE datasets (GSE15605, GSE46517, and GSE114445). Comparison of data between groups was performed by Student's t-test and chi square test. Survival analysis was performed using log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models. Enrichment analysis was used to predict Ese-3 related functions. Cell proliferation assays, colony formation assays, and flow cytometry were used to assess cell proliferation, while Transwell assays analyzed cell migration and invasion. RESULTS: Compared with normal tissues, the Ese-3 mRNA in cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) patients was downregulated (P<0.0001). Ese-3 mRNA was associated with the T stage (χ 2=10.015, P=0.018), clinical stage (χ 2=4.122, P=0.042), and prognosis in CMM patients (P=0.0219) and was an independent prognostic predictor in CMM (HR=1.878, P=0.048). Enrichment analysis showed that differentially expressed proteins were associated with "protein kinase B (AKT) binding." CONCLUSION: Ese-3 inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of HaCaT cells by downregulating PSIP1 and NUCKS1 expression levels to inactivate the phosphorylation of AKT.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/antagonistas & inibidores , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Nucleares/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfoproteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Idoso , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Células HaCaT , Humanos , Masculino , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360915

RESUMO

Patients diagnosed with melanoma have a poor prognosis due to regional invasion and metastases. The receptor tyrosine kinase epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is found in a subtype of melanoma with a poor prognosis and contributes to drug resistance. Aloysia citrodora essential oil (ALOC-EO) possesses an antitumor effect. Understanding signaling pathways that contribute to the antitumor of ALOC-EO is important to identify novel tumor types that can be targeted by ALOC-EO. Here, we investigated the effects of ALOC-EO on melanoma growth and tumor cell migration. ALOC-EO blocked melanoma growth in vitro and impaired primary tumor cell growth in vivo. Mechanistically, ALOC-EO blocked heparin-binding-epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF)-induced EGFR signaling and suppressed ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Myelosuppressive drugs upregulated HB-EGF and EGFR expression in melanoma cells. Cotreatment of myelosuppressive drugs with ALOC-EO improved the antitumor activity and inhibited the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-7 and -9 and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein9. In summary, our study demonstrates that ALOC-EO blocks EGFR and ERK1/2 signaling, with preclinical efficacy as a monotherapy or in combination with myelosuppressive drugs in melanoma.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Semelhante a EGF de Ligação à Heparina/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanoma/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Verbenaceae/química , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Bortezomib/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360654

RESUMO

CD147, a transmembrane glycoprotein that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily, and cyclophilin A (CypA), one of the binding partners of CD147, are overexpressed in tumor cells and associated with the progression of several malignancies, including both solid and hematological malignancies. However, CD147 and CypA involvement in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) has not been reported. In this study, we examined CD147 and CypA expression and function using clinical samples of mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS) and CTCL cell lines. CD147 and CypA were overexpressed by tumor cells of MF/SS, and CypA was also expressed by epidermal keratinocytes in MF/SS lesional skin. Serum CypA levels were increased and correlated with disease severity markers in MF/SS patients. Anti-CD147 antibody and/or anti-CypA antibody suppressed the proliferation of CTCL cell lines, both in vitro and in vivo, via downregulation of phosphorylated extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 and Akt. These results suggest that CD147-CypA interactions can contribute to the proliferation of MF/SS tumor cells in both a autocrine and paracrine manner, and that the disruption of CD147-CypA interactions could be a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of MF/SS.


Assuntos
Basigina/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Ciclofilina A/metabolismo , Linfoma Cutâneo de Células T/patologia , Micose Fungoide/patologia , Síndrome de Sézary/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Basigina/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ciclofilina A/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Linfoma Cutâneo de Células T/genética , Linfoma Cutâneo de Células T/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micose Fungoide/genética , Micose Fungoide/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Síndrome de Sézary/genética , Síndrome de Sézary/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo
8.
Anticancer Res ; 41(8): 3871-3874, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We aimed to report our experience obtained by treating AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) with radiotherapy before the era of antiretroviral therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This investigation was performed as a quality control of KS patients treated with low-dose radiotherapy at our department. KS patients referred to our section from 1983 up until 1990, were treated three times with radiotherapy (29-50 kV, 2-4 Gy), once every second week. RESULTS: Initially, 74 skin KSs were treated three times with 2 Gy, of which 70% were treated successfully. Hereafter, other 2,066 KSs on the skin were treated three times with 4 Gy with a very high success rate of 93%. Additional 165 mucous KSs were treated three times with 4 Gy, of which 91% were treated successfully. CONCLUSION: Low-dose radiotherapy is effective for the treatment of many AIDS-related KS patients.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/radioterapia , Sarcoma de Kaposi/radioterapia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Sarcoma de Kaposi/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/virologia
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299325

RESUMO

Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare skin cancer arising in the apocrine gland-rich areas. Most EMPD tumors are dormant, but metastatic lesions are associated with poor outcomes owing to the lack of effective systemic therapies. Trophoblast cell surface antigen 2 (Trop2), a surface glycoprotein, has drawn attention as a potential therapeutic target for solid tumors. Sacituzumab govitecan, an antibody-drug conjugate of Trop2, has recently entered clinical use for the treatment of various solid cancers. However, little is known about the role of Trop2 in EMPD. In this study, we immunohistochemically examined Trop2 expression in 116 EMPD tissue samples and 10 normal skin tissues. In normal skin, Trop2 was expressed in the epidermal keratinocytes, inner root sheaths, and infundibulum/isthmus epithelium of hair follicles, eccrine/apocrine glands, and sebaceous glands. Most EMPD tissues exhibited homogeneous and strong Trop2 expression, and high Trop2 expression was significantly associated with worse disease-free survival (p = 0.0343). These results suggest the potential use of Trop2-targeted therapy for EMPD and improve our understanding of the skin-related adverse effects of current Trop2-targeted therapies such as sacituzumab govitecan.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/biossíntese , Doença de Paget Extramamária/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Glândulas Apócrinas/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Camptotecina/farmacologia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Folículo Piloso/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/farmacologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Paget Extramamária/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Paget Extramamária/genética , Doença de Paget Extramamária/patologia , Glândulas Sebáceas/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
10.
Neurology ; 97(7 Suppl 1): S32-S41, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230197

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability and variability of digital calipers, 3D photography, and high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) for measurement of cutaneous neurofibromas (cNF) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). BACKGROUND: cNF affect virtually all patients with NF1 and are a major source of morbidity. Reliable techniques for measuring cNF are needed to develop therapies for these tumors. METHODS: Adults with NF1 were recruited. For each participant, 6 cNF were assessed independently by 3 different examiners at 5 different time points using digital calipers, 3D photography, and HFUS. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess intrarater and interrater reliability of linear and volumetric measurements for each technique, with ICC values >0.90 defined as excellent reliability. The coefficient of variation (CV) was used to estimate the minimal detectable difference (MDD) for each technique. RESULTS: Fifty-seven cNF across 10 participants were evaluated. The ICC for image acquisition and measurement was >0.97 within and across examiners for HFUS and 3D photography. ICC for digital calipers was 0.62-0.88. CV varied by measurement tool, linear vs volumetric measurement, and tumor size. CONCLUSIONS: HFUS and 3D photography demonstrate excellent reliability whereas digital calipers have good to excellent reliability in measuring cNF. The MDD for each technique was used to create tables of proposed thresholds for investigators to use as guides for clinical trials focused on cNF size. These criteria should be updated as the performance of these end points is evaluated.


Assuntos
Neurofibroma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurofibroma/cirurgia , Neurofibromatose 1/cirurgia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Adulto , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Masculino , Neurofibromatose 1/diagnóstico por imagem , Fotografação/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia
11.
Neurology ; 97(7 Suppl 1): S111-S119, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess imaging utilization practices across clinical specialists in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) for the evaluation of symptomatic and asymptomatic children and adults with or without plexiform neurofibromas (PN). METHODS: An institutional review board-exempt survey was administered to medical practitioners caring for individuals with NF1 at the Response Evaluation in Neurofibromatosis and Schwannomatosis (REiNS) meeting in September 2019. The survey included questions on respondent demographic data (9 questions), type of imaging obtained for asymptomatic (4 questions) and symptomatic (4 questions) people with and without PN, and utilization of diffusion-weighted imaging (2 questions). RESULTS: Thirty practitioners participated in the survey. Most were academic neuro-oncologists at high-volume (>10 patients/week) NF1 centers. Of 30 respondents, 26 had access to whole-body MRI (WB-MRI). The most common approach to an asymptomatic person without PN was no imaging (adults: 57% [17/30]; children: 50% [15/30]), followed by a screening WB-MRI (adults: 20% [6/30]; children: 26.7% [8/30]). The most common approach to a person with symptoms or known PN was regional MRI (adults: 90% [27/30]; children: 93% [28/30]), followed by WB-MRI (adults: 20% [6/30]; children: 36.7% [11/30]). WB-MRI was most often obtained to evaluate a symptomatic child with PN (37% [11/30]). CONCLUSIONS: More than 90% of practitioners indicated they would obtain a regional MRI in a symptomatic patient without known or visible PN. Otherwise, there was little consensus on imaging practices. Given the high prevalence of PN and risk of malignant conversion in this patient population, there is a need to define imaging-based guidelines for optimal clinical care and the design of future clinical trials.


Assuntos
Neurilemoma/patologia , Neurofibroma Plexiforme/patologia , Neurofibromatoses/patologia , Neurofibromatose 1/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurofibroma Plexiforme/diagnóstico , Neurofibromatose 1/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1631-1646, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293285

RESUMO

Although expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) have been powerful in identifying susceptibility genes from genome-wide association study (GWAS) findings, most trait-associated loci are not explained by eQTLs alone. Alternative QTLs, including DNA methylation QTLs (meQTLs), are emerging, but cell-type-specific meQTLs using cells of disease origin have been lacking. Here, we established an meQTL dataset by using primary melanocytes from 106 individuals and identified 1,497,502 significant cis-meQTLs. Multi-QTL colocalization with meQTLs, eQTLs, and mRNA splice-junction QTLs from the same individuals together with imputed methylome-wide and transcriptome-wide association studies identified candidate susceptibility genes at 63% of melanoma GWAS loci. Among the three molecular QTLs, meQTLs were the single largest contributor. To compare melanocyte meQTLs with those from malignant melanomas, we performed meQTL analysis on skin cutaneous melanomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 444). A substantial proportion of meQTL probes (45.9%) in primary melanocytes is preserved in melanomas, while a smaller fraction of eQTL genes is preserved (12.7%). Integration of melanocyte multi-QTLs and melanoma meQTLs identified candidate susceptibility genes at 72% of melanoma GWAS loci. Beyond GWAS annotation, meQTL-eQTL colocalization in melanocytes suggested that 841 unique genes potentially share a causal variant with a nearby methylation probe in melanocytes. Finally, melanocyte trans-meQTLs identified a hotspot for rs12203592, a cis-eQTL of a transcription factor, IRF4, with 131 candidate target CpGs. Motif enrichment and IRF4 ChIP-seq analysis demonstrated that these target CpGs are enriched in IRF4 binding sites, suggesting an IRF4-mediated regulatory network. Our study highlights the utility of cell-type-specific meQTLs.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanoma/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Alelos , Atlas como Assunto , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Metilação de DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/metabolismo , Masculino , Melanócitos/patologia , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Transcriptoma
13.
Anticancer Res ; 41(7): 3439-3448, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The role of immune cells and PD-L1 in cutaneous squamous carcinogenesis is unclear. This study examines T-cell populations, Langerhans cells (LCs) and PD-L1 in invasive squamous cell carcinoma (inSCC), adjacent precursors and normal skin (NS) to investigate their participation in tumorigenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cases of cutaneous inSCC with adjacent precursors (n=125) were selected. In situ SCC (isSCC) and actinic keratosis (AK) were observed in 53 and 123 cases, respectively, whereas NS was present in 123 lesions. Immunohistochemistry was performed for CD3, CD8, Foxp3, CD1a and PD-L1. RESULTS: T-cells, LCs and PD-L1 gradually increase during the evolution from AK to isSCC and inSCC, with statistical significance between all lesions, except for CD3+ and CD8+ cells between isSCC and inSCC. Epithelial PD-L1 expression correlates with tumor diameter and thickness. CONCLUSION: The progressive increase of T-cells, LCs and PD-L1 in cutaneous squamous carcinogenesis provides rationale for immunotherapy and identification of predictive biomarkers.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Células de Langerhans/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Complexo CD3/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Células de Langerhans/imunologia , Células de Langerhans/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
14.
Anticancer Res ; 41(7): 3519-3522, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is a predominately palliative treatment for cutaneous metastases where an electric field is used to increase the intracellular accumulation of a chemotherapeutic drug (bleomycin or cisplatin). ECT induces a strong anti-vascular effect and endothelial cells seem especially vulnerable. To date, almost no neurological and/or cerebrovascular complications after ECT treatment have been published. In this paper two such cases are reported. CASE REPORT: A seizure in a man treated with ECT for a basal cell carcinoma in the temporal region and a fatal ischemic stroke in a woman treated for cutaneous metastases in the neck are reported. In both cases a causal relationship to ECT treatment was strongly suspected. CONCLUSION: ECT in the head and neck can potentially cause severe neurological complications. Ultrasound is recommended for ECT treatment in the neck.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Eletroquimioterapia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Cabeça/patologia , Pescoço/patologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Basocelular/patologia , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
15.
Eur J Cancer ; 154: 167-174, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280870

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed the lives of people around the world. Fortunately, sufficient vaccines are now available. Local reactions with ipsilateral lymphadenopathy are among the most common side effects. We investigated the impact of lymphadenopathy after COVID-19 vaccination on the value of ultrasound in tumour patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with melanoma or Merkel cell carcinoma were included who underwent lymph node excision and received COVID-19 vaccination within 6 weeks before surgery. The consistency of the preoperative ultrasound findings with the histopathologic findings was investigated. RESULTS: Eight patients were included (two Merkel cell carcinoma and six melanoma patients) who underwent lymph node excision between 16th April 2021 and 19th May 2021 and had previously received COVID-19 vaccination. In three of the eight patients (one Merkel cell carcinoma and two melanoma patients), lymph node metastases were erroneously diagnosed preoperatively during tumour follow-up with physical examination, ultrasound, and or fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). In these three patients, the suspected lymph node metastases were located in the left axilla after COVID-19 vaccination in the left upper arm, which resulted in selective lymph node removal in two patients and complete lymphadenectomy in one patient. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccine-associated lymphadenopathy is expected to be observed much more frequently in the near future because of increasing vaccination rates. This cause of lymphadenopathy, which may in ultrasound as well as in FDG PET/CT resemble lymph node metastases, must be considered, especially in oncologic patients undergoing tumour follow-up. In addition, COVID-19 vaccination should be given as far away as possible from an underlying primary on the contralateral side to avoid oncologic misdiagnosis followed by malpractice.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/secundário , Linfonodos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfadenopatia/induzido quimicamente , Melanoma/secundário , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Erros de Diagnóstico , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfadenopatia/diagnóstico por imagem , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia
16.
ANZ J Surg ; 91 Suppl 2: 3-13, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288329

RESUMO

Australia and New Zealand have the highest incidence and mortality rates for melanoma in the world. Local surgery is still the standard treatment of primary cutaneous melanoma, and it is therefore important that surgeons understand the optimal care pathways for patients with melanoma. Accurate staging is critical to ensure a reliable assessment of prognosis and to guide treatment selection. Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) plays an important role in staging and the provision of reliable prognostic estimates for patients with cutaneous melanoma. Patients with stage III melanoma have a substantial risk of disease recurrence following surgery, leading to poor long-term outcomes. Systemic immunotherapies and targeted therapies, known to be effective for stage IV melanoma, have now also been shown to be effective as adjuvant post-surgical treatments for resected stage III melanoma. These patients should be made aware of this and preferably managed in an integrated multidisciplinary model of care, involving the surgeon, medical oncologists and radiation oncologists. This review considers the impact of a recent update to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system, the role of SNB for patients with high-risk primary melanoma and recent advances in adjuvant systemic therapies for high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Austrália/epidemiologia , Humanos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203771

RESUMO

Melanoma develops from malignant transformations of the pigment-producing melanocytes. If located in the basal layer of the skin epidermis, melanoma is referred to as cutaneous, which is more frequent. However, as melanocytes are be found in the eyes, ears, gastrointestinal tract, genitalia, urinary system, and meninges, cases of mucosal melanoma or other types (e.g., ocular) may occur. The incidence and morbidity of cutaneous melanoma (cM) are constantly increasing worldwide. Australia and New Zealand are world leaders in this regard with a morbidity rate of 54/100,000 and a mortality rate of 5.6/100,000 for 2015. The aim of this review is to consolidate and present the data related to the aetiology and pathogenesis of cutaneous melanoma, thus rendering them easier to understand. In this article we will discuss these problems and the possible impacts on treatment for this disease.


Assuntos
Melanoma/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Animais , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos da radiação , Pele/patologia , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199609

RESUMO

The acid-sensing ion channels ASIC1 and ASIC2, as well as the transient receptor potential vanilloid channels TRPV1 and TRPV4, are proton-gated cation channels that can be activated by low extracellular pH (pHe), which is a hallmark of the tumor microenvironment in solid tumors. However, the role of these channels in the development of skin tumors is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression profiles of ASIC1, ASIC2, TRPV1 and TRPV4 in malignant melanoma (MM), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and in nevus cell nevi (NCN). We conducted immunohistochemistry using paraffin-embedded tissue samples from patients and found that most skin tumors express ASIC1/2 and TRPV1/4. Striking results were that BCCs are often negative for ASIC2, while nearly all SCCs express this marker. Epidermal MM sometimes seem to lack ASIC1 in contrast to NCN. Dermal portions of MM show strong expression of TRPV1 more frequently than dermal NCN portions. Some NCN show a decreasing ASIC1/2 expression in deeper dermal tumor tissue, while MM seem to not lose ASIC1/2 in deeper dermal portions. ASIC1, ASIC2, TRPV1 and TRPV4 in skin tumors might be involved in tumor progression, thus being potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Canais Iônicos Sensíveis a Ácido/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Basocelular/classificação , Carcinoma Basocelular/genética , Carcinoma Basocelular/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/classificação , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/classificação , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nevo/classificação , Nevo/genética , Nevo/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/classificação , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208339

RESUMO

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an uncommon and highly aggressive skin cancer. It develops mostly within chronically sun-exposed areas of the skin. MCPyV is detected in 60-80% of MCC cases as integrated within the genome and is considered a major risk factor for MCC. Viral negative MCCs have a high mutation burden with a UV damage signature. Aberrations occur in RB1, TP53, and NOTCH genes as well as in the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway. MCC is highly immunogenic, but MCC cells are known to evade the host's immune response. Despite the characteristic immunohistological profile of MCC, the diagnosis is challenging, and it should be confirmed by an experienced pathologist. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is considered the most reliable staging tool to identify subclinical nodal disease. Subclinical node metastases are present in about 30-50% of patients with primary MCC. The basis of MCC treatment is surgical excision. MCC is highly radiosensitive. It becomes chemoresistant within a few months. MCC is prone to recurrence. The outcomes in patients with metastatic disease are poor, with a historical 5-year survival of 13.5%. The median progression-free survival is 3-5 months, and the median overall survival is ten months. Currently, immunotherapy has become a standard of care first-line therapy for advanced MCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/patologia , Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/terapia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia , Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/imunologia , Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/virologia , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Poliomavírus das Células de Merkel/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/virologia , Carga Tumoral
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