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1.
Clin Plast Surg ; 48(4): 543-550, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503715

RESUMO

In the Western population, 1 out of every 50 individuals will develop melanoma. The incidence of melanoma is increasing faster than any other malignancy. The development of melanoma is multifactorial arising from an interaction between genetic susceptibility and environmental exposures. Sixty to seventy percent of melanomas are thought to be caused by ultraviolet radiation. Most cutaneous melanomas are of increased risk. Prevention strategies involve mitigating the environmental risk factors and identifying individuals with phenotypic risk factors for increased surveillance.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Humanos , Incidência , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Melanoma/etiologia , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
2.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 349, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496962

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore current attitudes towards sun protection, and sun-seeking behaviour among young Australian adolescents. It was done as part of a larger project aiming to develop a digital resource to support young people in making informed sun-health decisions. RESULTS: Ten (4 male, 6 female) adolescents (12-13 years of age) living in Perth (Western Australia) were recruited through a social media-based strategy. Each participant engaged in a semi-structured telephone interview which explored their sun-health decision-making, with interview transcripts assessed qualitatively using NVivo. Three major themes (and eight sub-themes) were identified: (1) 'personal sun health considerations'; (2) 'attitudes towards sun protection'; and (3) 'recommendations'. The importance of sun protection was appreciated by participants. However, females were more diligent in the use of sun protection while males were indifferent. Behaviours were influenced by parental input, the school environment and engagement in sport. Adolescents had limited knowledge of the UV Index and its implications for sun protection, and the health importance of sun-derived vitamin D. Overall, the importance of sun protection was acknowledged but did not consistently translate into sun protective behaviours.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cutâneas , Queimadura Solar , Adolescente , Austrália , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Queimadura Solar/tratamento farmacológico , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico
3.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199802

RESUMO

Patients with newly resected stage II melanoma (n = 104) were randomized to receive adjuvant vitamin D3 (100,000 IU every 50 days) or placebo for 3 years to investigate vitamin D3 protective effects on developing a recurrent disease. Median age at diagnosis was 50 years, and 43% of the patients were female. Median serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) level at baseline was 18 ng/mL, interquartile range (IQ) was 13-24 ng/mL, and 80% of the patients had insufficient vitamin D levels. We observed pronounced increases in 25OHD levels after 4 months in the active arm (median 32.9 ng/mL; IQ range 25.9-38.4) against placebo (median 19.05 ng/mL; IQ range 13.0-25.9), constantly rising during treatment. Remarkably, patients with low Breslow score (<3 mm) had a double increase in 25OHD levels from baseline, whereas patients with Breslow score ≥3 mm had a significantly lower increase over time. After 12 months, subjects with low 25OHD levels and Breslow score ≥3 mm had shorter disease-free survival (p = 0.02) compared to those with Breslow score <3 mm and/or high levels of 25OHD. Adjusting for age and treatment arm, the hazard ratio for relapse was 4.81 (95% CI: 1.44-16.09, p = 0.011). Despite the evidence of a role of 25OHD in melanoma prognosis, larger trials with vitamin D supplementation involving subjects with melanoma are needed.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Melanoma/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
4.
Life Sci ; 283: 119759, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171381

RESUMO

AIMS: Skin cancer is the most widespread cancer worldwide, mainly caused by exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UV) in sunlight. Utilizing topical preventive agents in routinely daily used cosmetics may prevent UV-related skin damages and skin cancers. γ-Oryzanol (GO) is a natural component derived from rice bran oil, with potential antioxidant and skin anti-aging properties. MAIN METHODS: We biologically thorough studied the antioxidant and anticancer effects of GO in vitro to found the effective signaling pathways, then evaluated the sun protection factor of prepared formulation, and finally investigated the long-term preventive effects of GO-loaded nanoethosomes (GO-NEs) against UVB-induced skin cancer in mice. KEY FINDINGS: GO-NEs could effectively prevent UVB-induced skin cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that GO-NEs could be utilized as an innovative ingredient in cosmetics.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas , Fenilpropionatos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/uso terapêutico , Fenilpropionatos/química , Fenilpropionatos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Protetores Solares/química , Protetores Solares/farmacologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065061

RESUMO

Despite the increasing prevalence of social media usage in health care contexts, its impact on skin cancer prevention and awareness has not been largely investigated. We conducted a review of literature on this topic with the objective of summarizing and analyzing the role of social media in skin cancer and sun damage awareness and to identify the uses, benefits, and limitations of different social media platforms on skin cancer prevention. In today's technological society, it is critical to understand and study the best form of communication. Specific platforms like Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and TikTok vary in originators of material, target demographics, messaging strategies, and reliability of information with regards to skin cancer, sun, and indoor tanning damage. Our results demonstrate that social media interventions have shown promise in skin cancer prevention and continue to escalate by the day. Dermatologists should keep pace with the latest dermatological content on social media and examine its evolution to target the right audience with the proper messages. Further research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness and true impact of social media on meaningful and lasting behavior change for skin cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cutâneas , Mídias Sociais , Banho de Sol , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle
6.
Dermatol Ther ; 34(4): e14992, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009659

RESUMO

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most common non-melanoma skin cancer among Caucasians. We analyzed our data on tumors been treated between 2006 and 2016 at the Skin Cancer Center of an academic teaching hospital. Thousand hundred and ninety-four patients with 1296 SCC have been identified including 804 males (67.3%) and 390 females (32.7%). The mean age among females was significantly higher with (83.9 ± 7.9) years compared with males ([79.3 ± 8.1] years; P < .001). The most common tumor localizations were outer ears (n = 227, 17.5%), scalp (216, 16.7%), and forehead (215, 16.6%). The majority of tumors was stage I. 31.9% of patients had previous SCC or Bowen's cancer, 29.1% had actinic keratoses. Major non-dermatological comorbidities were cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. SCC were treated by delayed Mohs surgery. First Mohs procedure resulted in R0 status in 83.9%. Most cases with R1 resection were located on nose and eyelids. For a subpopulation of patients (n = 105), a structured questionnaire study evaluated changes in sun protection behavior after skin cancer. After the confirmed diagnosis of a cutaneous SCC concerns about harm to the skin by intense sunlight was reported by 78.4% (76) of participants, with 92.0% among females versus 73.6% among males. Eighty percent of females and 76.8% of males wanted to care more about sun-protection in the future, spend less time 84.0% (females) and 72.5% (males) in the sun, and adapt their leisure activities for a better sun protection in 92.0% (females) and 81.9% (males). Secondary prevention in males needs improvement.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos
9.
Health Educ Res ; 36(3): 374-383, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037768

RESUMO

Excessive and unsafe sun exposure represents a concerning hazard to the health of individuals. Of particular interest are those who are most susceptible to sun exposure, such as outdoor workers. The current study used a 3 × 2 between-subjects design to investigate the effectiveness of messages that varied the extent of personalization (i.e. generic message; occupation targeted message; individual tailored message) and the inclusion of content regarding financial consequences of skin cancer. Participants (N = 304) were recruited from the USA through Amazon's Mechanical Turk and randomly assigned to view a generic message, occupation targeted message, or individual tailored message. Additionally, participants were randomly assigned to view messages in which financial information was either present or not. Participants responded to questions assessing pre- and post-test sun protection behaviors. Individual tailored messaging was as effective as occupation targeted messaging, with both being more effective than generic messaging. This finding indicates that some degree of personalization is necessary when promoting safe-sun practices to outdoor workers, but that tailoring to individuals may not always be necessary. Inclusion of financial content in messaging resulted in greater intentions to practice sun protection behaviors. Results provide insight into effective methods for promoting sun protection.


Assuntos
Intenção , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Humanos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico
10.
Prev Med ; 149: 106601, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971211

RESUMO

Children are a priority population for skin cancer prevention as excessive sun exposure in childhood increases the risk of melanoma in adulthood. The complexity of sun protective behaviors has posed measurement challenges for trials testing intervention efficacy. The current study evaluated a sun safety intervention for schoolchildren using latent transition analysis (LTA) to examine patterns of sun protection behaviors over time. A three-armed randomized controlled trial was conducted between 2012 and 2016 with two intervention groups (N = 3368) and an observation-only control group (N = 342) among 4th and 5th graders from 24 public schools in Los Angeles County. Both interventions conditions were grouped and compared to controls. Five self-reported sun protective behaviors were measured at baseline and three-month follow-up: use of sunscreen, long sleeves, long pants, hats, and shade seeking. Participants comprised 3710 schoolchildren, mean age 9 years, 47% female and 69% Latino. At baseline, four patterns of sun protection behaviors were found: children who engaged in 1) all sun protective behaviors; 2) few protective behaviors; 3) protective clothing and shade only; and 4) hats only. Children in the control group were likely to remain in their baseline status or transition to a less protective status at three-month follow-up. By contrast, 30% of children in the intervention group transitioned to a more protective status at follow-up. In this RCT of a sun safety intervention, children in the intervention transitioned to more protective behaviors compared to controls. Using LTA enriches understanding of intervention efficacy by modeling the complexity of sun protection behaviors over time. TRIAL REGISTRATION: School-based Randomized Trial of SunSmart Interventions, ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04176237 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04176237?cond=School-based+Randomized+Trial+of+SunSmart+Interventions&draw=2&rank=1.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Queimadura Solar , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Roupa de Proteção , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico
11.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 882, 2021 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study objective was to assess potential correlates of sun protection behaviors among melanoma survivors. METHODS: Participants were 441 melanoma survivors recruited from three health centers and a state cancer registry in the United States. Sun protection behaviors (sunscreen, shade, protective shirts, and hats) were assessed through an online survey, as were potential correlates (demographic, melanoma risk, knowledge and beliefs, psychological and social influence factors). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Correlates of sun protection behaviors included education, skin cancer risk factors, melanoma knowledge and beliefs, melanoma worry and distress, physician recommendation for sun protection, injunctive norms, and pro-protection beliefs (e.g., perceived barriers, self-efficacy). CONCLUSIONS: Future efforts to improve sun safety among melanoma survivors may benefit from targeting individuals with lower education levels, and addressing sun protection social influence, barriers, and self-efficacy.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Queimadura Solar , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Sobreviventes , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Transl Behav Med ; 11(7): 1461-1472, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33904921

RESUMO

Adherence to regular, thorough skin self-examination (SSE) and consistent sun protection behaviors among melanoma survivors is relatively low. This study reports on the impact of an online intervention, called mySmartSkin (MSS), on engagement in SSE and sun protection behaviors among melanoma survivors, as well as the mediators of the intervention effects. The intervention was compared with usual care (UC), and primary outcomes were assessed at 24 and 48 weeks. Short-term outcomes were also evaluated at 8 weeks postbaseline. Results demonstrate a significant effect on SSE and sun protection. At all three follow-up assessments, the proportion of participants reporting conducting a thorough SSE in the time since the previous assessment was significantly greater in MSS than in UC. In addition, both multivariate and univariate analyses indicated that engagement in sun protection behaviors was significantly higher in MSS than UC at 24 weeks, but the effect on sun protection at 48 weeks was significant only in multivariate analyses. Beneficial effects of MSS were significantly mediated by knowledge about melanoma and characteristics of suspicious lesions, as well as self-efficacy. Participant engagement in MSS was satisfactory, with approximately two-thirds of participants completing at least two of the three core components. Content was rated as highly trusted, easy to understand, easy to navigate, and helpful. In conclusion, MSS illustrated significant and durable effects on SSE and mixed results on sun protection. Future studies should consider ways to further enhance treatment effects and engagement in MSS.


Assuntos
Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Humanos , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Autoexame , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Sobreviventes
13.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 20(7): 801-814, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834933

RESUMO

Introduction: Actinic keratosis (AK) are proliferations of atypical keratinocytes that may eventually progress to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, AK requires consequent and early treatment. Areas covered: A variety of effective approaches is currently available for the clearance of AK. These interventions may be applied either in a lesion-directed or field-directed mode as AK can occur as single or multiple lesions. Field-directed approaches typically comprise topical drug-mediated interventions which aim at eliminating all visible lesions and also at clearing subclinical changes of the actinically damaged field. However, most treatment options are associated with local adverse events such as erythema, scaling, pain, and rarely with systemic symptoms. This expert review provides a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the safety considerations of the commonly prescribed topical treatment agents cyclooxygenase inhibitors, 5-fluorouracil, imiquimod, ingenol mebutate, and photodynamic therapy. All these therapies have been proven efficient, yet they differ considerably regarding their safety profile. Expert opinion: In the future, safety concerns will relate to long-term and irreversible adverse drug events instead of application site reactions. In particular, the rate of treatment-associated non-melanoma skin cancers will increasingly come into focus and warrant investigation in postmarketing surveillance trials with a long-term follow-up.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Ceratose Actínica/tratamento farmacológico , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Administração Cutânea , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Ceratose Actínica/complicações , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle
14.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803643

RESUMO

Unprotected exposure of skin to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) may damage the DNA of skin cells and can lead to skin cancer. Sunscreens are topical formulations used to protect skin against UVR. The active ingredients of sunscreens are UV filters that absorb, scatter, and/or reflect UVR. Preventing the formation of free radicals and repairing DNA damages, natural antioxidants are also added to sunscreens as a second fold of protection against UVR. Antioxidants can help stabilise these formulations during the manufacturing process and upon application on skin. However, UV filters and antioxidants are both susceptible to degradation upon exposure to sunlight and oxygen. Additionally, due to their poor water solubility, natural antioxidants are challenging to formulate and exhibit limited penetration and bioavailability in the site of action (i.e., deeper skin layers). Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic oligosaccharides that are capable of forming inclusion complexes with poorly soluble drugs, such as antioxidants. In this review, we discuss the use of CDs inclusion complexes to enhance the aqueous solubility of antioxidants and chemical UV filters and provide a protective shield against degradative factors. The role of CDs in providing a controlled drug release profile from sunscreens is also discussed. Finally, incorporating CDs inclusion complexes into sunscreens has the potential to increase their efficiency and hence improve their skin cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Ciclodextrinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ciclodextrinas/administração & dosagem , Ciclodextrinas/química , Dano ao DNA , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Composição de Medicamentos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/administração & dosagem , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Solubilidade , Protetores Solares/administração & dosagem , Protetores Solares/química , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
15.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 731, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rates of skin cancer in Australia are amongst the highest in the world, with Western New South Wales (NSW) exhibiting very high prevalence. There is a large proportion of outdoor workers, including farmers, in Western NSW who have high levels of sun exposure and hence are at greater risk of developing skin cancer. AIMS: To characterise the current sun safety practices of farmers in Western NSW and explore their knowledge, attitudes and perceived barriers towards sun safety and its implementation. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted using a self-directed questionnaire. Participants were recruited at field days held in Western NSW and through surveys distributed at general practices, local stores and online. Eligibility criteria were aged 18 years and over and currently working on a farm in the study region. RESULTS: Of the 144 participants, 89 (61.8%) were male with a mean age of 49 years. Knowledge of sun safety was relatively high with most questions answered correctly by greater than 80% of participants. Risk of developing skin cancer was underestimated in 58 (40.3%) participants. Of all participants, 89 (62.2%) identified one or more barriers to practicing sun safety. The most common barrier was forgetfulness in 62 (43.4%) participants. The identification of barriers was significantly associated with reduced engagement of sun safety practices (p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of sun safety among farmers was high. There was, however, underestimation of risk of developing skin cancer. Addressing perceived barriers to implementing sun safety could improve sun safety practices in this cohort.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 692, 2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals from melanoma-prone families have similar or reduced sun-protective behaviors compared to the general population. Studies on trends in sun-related behaviors have been temporally and geographically limited. METHODS: Individuals from an international consortium of melanoma-prone families (GenoMEL) were retrospectively asked about sunscreen use, sun exposure (time spent outside), sunburns, and sunbed use at several timepoints over their lifetime. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine the association between these outcomes and birth cohort defined by decade spans, after adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: A total of 2407 participants from 547 families across 17 centers were analyzed. Sunscreen use increased across subsequent birth cohorts, and although the likelihood of sunburns increased until the 1950s birth cohort, it decreased thereafter. Average sun exposure did not change across the birth cohorts, and the likelihood of sunbed use increased in more recent birth cohorts. We generally did not find any differences in sun-related behavior when comparing melanoma cases to non-cases. Melanoma cases had increased sunscreen use, decreased sun exposure, and decreased odds of sunburn and sunbed use after melanoma diagnosis compared to before diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Although sunscreen use has increased and the likelihood of sunburns has decreased in more recent birth cohorts, individuals in melanoma-prone families have not reduced their overall sun exposure and had an increased likelihood of sunbed use in more recent birth cohorts. These observations demonstrate partial improvements in melanoma prevention and suggest that additional intervention strategies may be needed to achieve optimal sun-protective behavior in melanoma-prone families.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Queimadura Solar , Humanos , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Queimadura Solar/epidemiologia , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico
17.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 151: 112095, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689855

RESUMO

Skin cancer is a public health problem due to its high incidence. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the main etiological agent of this disease. Photochemoprotection involves the use of substances to avoid damage caused by UV exposure. The aim of this work was to determine the phytochemical fingerprint and photochemoprotective effect against UVB radiation-induced skin damage such as erythema and carcinogenesis of H. mociniana methanolic extract (MEHm). The chemical composition of the MEHm was analysed by LC/ESI-MS/MS. Three quercetin derivatives, two pectinolides, and two caffeic acid derivatives were identified in the methanolic extract. MEHm has antioxidant effect and it is not cytotoxic in HaCaT cells. Phytochemicals from H. mociniana have a photochemopreventive effect because they absorb UV light and protect HaCaT cells from UVR-induced cell death. Also, in SKH-1 mice -acute exposure-, it decreased erythema formation, modulating the inflammatory response, reduced the skin damage according to histological analysis and diminished p53 expression. Finally, MEHm protects from photocarcinogenesis by reducing the incidence and multiplicity of skin carcinomas in SKH-1 mice exposed chronically to UVB radiation.


Assuntos
Eritema/prevenção & controle , Hyptis/química , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Raios Ultravioleta , Animais , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Eritema/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Pelados , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
18.
JAMA Dermatol ; 157(5): 573-576, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33760056

RESUMO

Importance: In February 2019, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a proposed rule (84 FR 6204), an amendment to the Sunscreen Innovation Act of 2014, that would require listing active ingredients on the principal display panel of sunscreens to allow consumers to "more readily compare products and either select or avoid a given product accordingly." Objective: To understand consumers' perceived importance of active ingredients in sunscreen and their ability to recall these ingredients when comparing, avoiding, or selecting sunscreen products. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this qualitative study, participants were recruited from Fors Marsh Group and User Works, Inc consumer panels and interviewed in person in November and December 2019. Eligible participants were 18 years or older, reported sunscreen use in the past 12 months, and were residents of the Washington, DC, area. After viewing 2 mock sunscreen labels (1 that meets current US Food and Drug Administration requirements and 1 designed to meet proposed requirements), participants were asked questions to assess their perceived importance of active ingredients in sunscreen products, whether they could recall any of the active ingredients on the labels, and whether they typically looked for active ingredients on a sunscreen label. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were the sunscreen label information used by participants to select a sunscreen and their ability to recall the active ingredients after viewing 2 mock sunscreen labels. Results: The mean (SD) age of the 47 participants was 42.8 (13.6) years, 32 (68%) were women, and 40 (85%) had a bachelor's or graduate degree. Of the total, 13 (28%) participants stated that sunscreen ingredients influenced their sunscreen selection, but only 5 (11%) said it was the most important information. Instead, 34 (72%) participants stated that the sun protection factor rating was the most important information. After viewing the mock sunscreen labels, only 5 (11%) participants recalled any of the active ingredients, although 10 (21%) reported typically looking at active ingredients when choosing a sunscreen. Conclusions and Relevance: This qualitative study investigated the US Food and Drug Administration's proposed new rule requiring that active ingredients be listed on the front of sunscreen labels to facilitate product comparison for consumers. However, active ingredients were not reported to be a primary reason for consumers' sunscreen selection. Recall of active ingredients was low, and few consumers reported typically looking at the active ingredients, which were more commonly used to avoid ingredients rather than to select a sunscreen. Therefore, listing active ingredients on the front label alone may not have the intended usefulness for consumers.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Rememoração Mental , Rotulagem de Produtos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoimagem , Fator de Proteção Solar
19.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 20(2): 189-244, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721254

RESUMO

Sunscreens have now been around for decades to mitigate the Sun's damaging ultraviolet (UV) radiation which, although essential for the existence of life, is a recognized prime carcinogen. Accordingly, have suncreams achieved their intended purposes towards protection against sunburns, skin photo-ageing and the like? Most importantly, however, have they provided the expected protection against skin cancers that current sunscreen products claim to do? In the last two decades, there have been tens, if not hundreds of studies on sunscreens with respect to skin protection against UVB (280‒320 nm)-traditionally sunscreens with rather low sun protection factors (SPF) were intended to protect against this type of radiation-and UVA (320‒400 nm) radiation; a distinction between SPF and UVA protection factor (UVA-PF) is made. Many of the studies of the last two decades have focused on protection against the more skin-penetrating UVA radiation. This non-exhaustive article reviews some of the important facets of what is currently known about sunscreens with regard (i) to the physical UV filters titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) and the mostly photo-unstable chemical UVB/UVA filters (e.g., octinoxate (OMC) and avobenzone (AVO), among others), (ii) to novel chemical sunscreen agents, (iii) to means that minimize the breakdown of chemical filters and improve their stability when exposed to UV sunlight, (iv) to SPF factors, and (v) to a short discussion on non-melanoma skin cancers and melanoma. Importantly, throughout the article we allude to the safety aspects of sunscreens and at the end ask the question: do active ingredients in sunscreen products pose a risk to human health, and what else can be done to enhance protection? Significant loss of skin protection from two well-known commercial suncreams when exposed to simulated UV sunlight. Cream I: titanium dioxide, ethylhexyl triazone, avobenzone, and octinoxate; Cream II: octyl salicylate, oxybenzone, avobenzone, and octinoxate.


Assuntos
Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Protetores Solares/farmacologia , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos , Propiofenonas/química , Propiofenonas/farmacologia , Propiofenonas/uso terapêutico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos da radiação , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Fator de Proteção Solar , Protetores Solares/química , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Titânio/química , Titânio/farmacologia , Titânio/uso terapêutico , Raios Ultravioleta , Óxido de Zinco/química , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia , Óxido de Zinco/uso terapêutico
20.
Biomolecules ; 11(2)2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic photoprotection (i.e., administration of substances such as nicotinamide, carotenoids, and vitamin D) may be important to reduce photocarcinogenesis or to support long-term protection against UV irradiation. Clinical trials showed that oral nicotinamide is effective in reducing the onset of new nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), while other oral photoprotectors failed to achieve the reduction of new melanoma or NMSC formation in humans. The aim of this study was to summarize the current state of knowledge of systemic photoprotection and to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of dermatologists regarding these treatments. METHODS: The survey was conducted on a sample of dermatologists recruited according to a snowball sampling procedure. The questionnaire consisted of a first part asking for characteristics of the participant and a second part with 12 specific questions on their knowledge about systemic photoprotection, particularly their knowledge of astaxanthin, ß-carotene, nicotinamide, and vitamin D3. RESULTS: One hundred eight dermatologists answered the survey. Most of them (85.2%) stated that oral photoprotectors have a role in the prevention of skin cancer, and responses mainly mentioned nicotinamide. More than half of them (54.6%) had prescribed all the considered oral photoprotectors, but the majority of them had prescribed nicotinamide, mainly for 2 to 3 months during summer, almost invariably (n = 106) associated with topical photoprotectors. Most dermatologists (>80%) were aware of scientific publications demonstrating an effect of systemic photoprotectors on NMSC. CONCLUSIONS: Most Italian dermatologists have positive views on oral photoprotection in skin cancer and are aware of the demonstrated potential of nicotinamide in the prevention of NMSCs.


Assuntos
Dermatologistas/tendências , Dermatologia/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Quimioprevenção/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Raios Ultravioleta
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