Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 12.060
Filtrar
1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1226: 123-142, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030681

RESUMO

Tumour microenvironment is a complex system comprising cells and molecules that will provide the necessary conditions for tumour development and progression. Cells residing in the tumour microenvironment gain specific phenotypes and specific functions that are pro-tumorigenic. Tumour progression is in fact a combination between tumour cell characteristics and its interplay with tumour microenvironment. This dynamic network will allow tumour cells to grow, migrate and invade tissues. In the present chapter, we are highlighting some traits that characterise tumour microenvironment in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma. In skin cancers, there are some common tumour microenvironment characteristics such as the presence of tumour-associated macrophages and regulatory T lymphocytes that are non-tumour cells promoting tumorigenesis. There are also skin cancer type differences in terms of tumour microenvironment characteristics. Thus, markers such as macrophage migration inhibitory factor in melanoma or the extraordinary diverse genetic make-up in the cancer-associated fibroblasts associated to squamous cell carcinoma are just a few of specific traits in skin cancer types. New technological advances for evaluation of tumour environment are presented. Thus, non-invasive skin imaging techniques such as reflectance confocal microscopy can evaluate skin tumour inflammatory infiltrates for density and cellular populations. Analysing tumour micromedium in depth may offer new insights into cancer therapy and identify new therapy targets.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Basocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Basocelular/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Humanos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
HNO ; 68(2): 100-105, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006045

RESUMO

This manuscript describes the functional properties of the exosomes released from melanoma cells. It details the characteristics of the tumor antigen chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), which is used as a marker to separate exosomes released by melanoma cells from exosomes released by nonmalignant cells. The results are discussed in view of the potential role of melanoma cell-derived exosomes in the escape of malignant cells from the host's immune system.


Assuntos
Proteoglicanas de Sulfatos de Condroitina , Exossomos , Melanoma , Proteínas de Membrana , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Antígenos , Biomarcadores/análise , Líquidos Corporais , Proteoglicanas de Sulfatos de Condroitina/análise , Humanos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/análise , Proteoglicanas , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia
4.
J Clin Pathol ; 73(1): 17-22, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the second most common malignancy, most frequently affecting the head and neck. Treatment often requires surgery and can have significant functional morbidity. Research into disease pathogenesis and second line medical management of cSCC is limited. We assess genetic mutations in high-risk, primary head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (HNcSCC) that may hinder or be beneficial for use of targeted therapy in disease management. METHODS: Genetic alterations and variant allele frequencies (VAFs) were analysed using a clinically relevant 48 gene panel in 10 primary high-risk non-metastatic treatment-naïve HNcSCC to evaluate applicability of targeted therapeutics. Variants present at all VAFs were evaluated for pathogenicity. Somatic mutation patterns of individual tumours were analysed. RESULTS: High-risk HNcSCC showed a high proportion (82%) of C to T transitions in keeping with ultraviolet-mediated damage. There was significant intratumour genetic heterogeneity in this cohort (MATH scores 20-89) with the two patients <45 years of age showing highest intratumour heterogeneity. TP53 was altered at VAF >22% in all cases, and mutations with highest VAF were observed in tumour suppressor genes in 80%. 70% of cases demonstrated at least one mutation associated with treatment resistance (KIT S821F, KIT T670I, RAS mutations at codons 12 and 13). CONCLUSION: We demonstrate high proportion tumour suppressor loss of function mutations, high intratumour genetic heterogeneity, and presence of well recognised resistance mutations in treatment naïve primary HNcSCC. These factors pose challenges for successful utilisation of targeted therapies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Heterogeneidade Genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Seleção de Pacientes , Fenótipo , Medicina de Precisão , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Transcriptoma
5.
Surg Clin North Am ; 100(1): 91-107, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753118

RESUMO

In this article we provide a critical review of the evidence available for surgical management of the nodal basin in melanoma, with an aim to ensure an understanding of risks and benefits for all lymph node surgery offered to patients, and alternatives to surgical management where appropriate.


Assuntos
Linfonodos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanoma/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Humanos , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Metástase Linfática , Melanoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia
7.
An Bras Dermatol ; 94(6): 717-720, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789249

RESUMO

Confluent and reticulated papillomatosis of Gougerot and Carteaud is a rare dermatosis with onset during puberty, more prevalent in females than in males. The pathogenesis is unknown, but some theories suggest either a keratinization or endocrine disorder. The lesions are verrucous, brownish, hyperkeratotic papules or spots that coalesce in a confluent and/or reticulated pattern. This report presents a case with extensive cutaneous involvement associated with acanthosis nigricans and good response to treatment with methotrexate.


Assuntos
Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Papiloma/tratamento farmacológico , Papiloma/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Adolescente , Biópsia , Eritema/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
An Bras Dermatol ; 94(6): 721-723, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789252

RESUMO

Primary male genital melanomas are very rare; they are associated with high mortality and late detection. Scrotal melanoma is the least common presentation and only 23 cases have been reported. Herein, the authors present a 30-year-old patient with stage IIIC (T4b, N2a, M0) scrotal melanoma in order to report the characteristics, treatment, and outcome, as well as to emphasize the importance of examination of the genitals, education of patients about self-examination and destigmatizing genital lesions to increase the likelihood of earlier detection.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Genitais Masculinos/patologia , Melanoma/patologia , Escroto/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Adulto , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Biópsia , Neoplasias dos Genitais Masculinos/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Interferon alfa-2/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Anticancer Res ; 39(12): 6693-6699, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Melanoma represents a big challenge for clinical treatment. Besides being the most aggressive and the deadliest form of skin cancer, it is often refractory to commonly used anticancer drugs. Hence, developing new anti-cancer agents is crucial to improve refractory melanoma treatment. Studies using palladium(II) complexes have reported antitumor effects on cancer cells. In this study, we aimed to determine the cytotoxic effect of three novel synthesized Pd(II) complexes with Schiff bases derived from 4-aminoacetophenone on the MDA-MB-435 melanoma cell line. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cells were treated with ligand and Pd(II) complexes. Cell viability, morphology and death induction upon treatment were examined. RESULTS: Novel synthesized Pd(II) complexes led to decreased viability of cells. They also induced morphological alterations and cell death, mainly in the C3 complex. CONCLUSION: The novel synthesized complexes have a significant cytotoxic effect on cell line MDA-MB-435, especially C3 and can be considered as an antitumor agent for further studies.


Assuntos
Acetofenonas/química , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Organometálicos/uso terapêutico , Paládio/uso terapêutico , Bases de Schiff/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Morte Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Ligantes , Compostos Organometálicos/síntese química , Paládio/química , Rodaminas , Bases de Schiff/química
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17769, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689840

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The treatment of metastatic melanoma has been revolutionized in the past decade because of the development of immunotherapies and targeted therapies. Despite these developments, there is still an unmet clinical need for more advanced combination therapies for the subset of patients who remain resistant to immunotherapy or targeted therapy alone. To our knowledge, no reports have been published on combinations of PD-1 blockades and c-KIT inhibitors in melanoma patients. Furthermore, data are limited regarding the safety and efficacy of this combination in patients harboring KIT mutations. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSIS: We report a case of an 82-year-old female with metastatic melanoma who was found to have double KIT mutations at V559 and N822I. INTERVENTIONS: She was treated with a combination of c-KIT inhibitor and PD-1 blockade after being resistant to anti-PD-1 monotherapy. OUTCOMES: Patient developed two episodes of grade 2 liver toxicity requiring treatment breaks followed by a dose reduction. Her transaminitis eventually resolved and patient remained on combination treatment for almost two years with good control of her disease prior to progression. LESSONS: Treatment options for patients who progress after PD-1 inhibitors are very limited; therefore, there is a high unmet clinical need for this patient population. Combining Imatinib with checkpoint inhibitors may be efficacious in patients with metastatic melanoma and KIT mutations. This novel combination can cause additional toxicities which seem to be overall manageable.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Mesilato de Imatinib/administração & dosagem , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 7561-7581, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571864

RESUMO

Introduction: This study was conducted to elucidate the chemopreventive potential, cytotoxic, and suppression of cellular metastatic activity of etodolac (ETD)-loaded nanocarriers. Methods: To esteem the effect of charge and composition of the nanovectors on their performance, four types of vectors namely, negative lipid nanovesicles; phosalosomes (N-Phsoms), positive phosalosomes (P-Phsoms), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) and polymeric alginate polymer (AlgNPs) were prepared and compared. ETD was used as a model cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor to evaluate the potency of these nanovectors to increase ETD permeation and retention through human skin and cytotoxicity against squamous cell carcinoma cell line (SCC). Moreover, the chemopreventive activity of ETD nanovector on mice skin cancer model was evaluated. Results: Among the utilized nanovectors, ETD-loaded N-Phsoms depicted spherical vesicles with the smallest particle size (202.96±2.37 nm) and a high zeta potential of -24.8±4.16 mV. N-Phsoms exhibited 1.5, and 3.6 folds increase in the ETD amount deposited in stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis. Moreover, cytotoxicity studies revealed a significant cytotoxic potential of such nanovector with IC50=181.76 compared to free ETD (IC50=982.75), correlated to enhanced cellular internalization. Its efficacy extended to a reduction in the relative tumor weight with 1.70 and 1.51-fold compared to positive control and free ETD, that manifested by a 1.72-fold reduction in both COX-2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen mRNA (PCNA-mRNA) levels and 2.63-fold elevation in caspase-3 level in skin tumors relative to the positive control group with no hepato-and nephrotoxicity. Conclusion: Encapsulation of ETD in nanovector enhances its in-vitro and in-vivo anti-tumor activity and opens the door for encapsulation of more relevant drugs.


Assuntos
Quimioprevenção , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/uso terapêutico , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Nanoestruturas/química , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/enzimologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/toxicidade , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Etodolac/farmacologia , Etodolac/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Lipídeos/química , Camundongos , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Estudos Prospectivos , Absorção Cutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Eletricidade Estática , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Transplant Proc ; 51(9): 3072-3073, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611123

RESUMO

Cutaneous metastases of urological malignancies are a rare phenomenon. We present a case of a renal transplant recipient who presented with skin nodule 12 years posttransplant. Pathohistologic evaluation revealed metastasis from the renal adenocarcinoma. The patient was treated with temsirolimus and later with sorafenib; however, he died 13 months after the initial presentation with a functional renal allograft.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/secundário , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Transplante de Rim , Neoplasias Cutâneas/secundário , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sirolimo/análogos & derivados , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Transplantados , Transplante Homólogo
14.
N Engl J Med ; 381(16): 1535-1546, 2019 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nivolumab plus ipilimumab or nivolumab alone resulted in longer progression-free and overall survival than ipilimumab alone in a trial involving patients with advanced melanoma. We now report 5-year outcomes in the trial. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with previously untreated advanced melanoma to receive one of the following regimens: nivolumab (at a dose of 1 mg per kilogram of body weight) plus ipilimumab (3 mg per kilogram) every 3 weeks for four doses, followed by nivolumab (3 mg per kilogram every 2 weeks); nivolumab (3 mg per kilogram every 2 weeks) plus ipilimumab-matched placebo; or ipilimumab (3 mg per kilogram every 3 weeks for four doses) plus nivolumab-matched placebo. The two primary end points were progression-free survival and overall survival in the nivolumab-plus-ipilimumab group and in the nivolumab group, as compared with the ipilimumab group. RESULTS: At a minimum follow-up of 60 months, the median overall survival was more than 60.0 months (median not reached) in the nivolumab-plus-ipilimumab group and 36.9 months in the nivolumab group, as compared with 19.9 months in the ipilimumab group (hazard ratio for death with nivolumab plus ipilimumab vs. ipilimumab, 0.52; hazard ratio for death with nivolumab vs. ipilimumab, 0.63). Overall survival at 5 years was 52% in the nivolumab-plus-ipilimumab group and 44% in the nivolumab group, as compared with 26% in the ipilimumab group. No sustained deterioration of health-related quality of life was observed during or after treatment with nivolumab plus ipilimumab or with nivolumab alone. No new late toxic effects were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with advanced melanoma, sustained long-term overall survival at 5 years was observed in a greater percentage of patients who received nivolumab plus ipilimumab or nivolumab alone than in those who received ipilimumab alone, with no apparent loss of quality of life in the patients who received regimens containing nivolumab. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb and others; CheckMate 067 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01844505.).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Ipilimumab/administração & dosagem , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Ipilimumab/efeitos adversos , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida
15.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 12(10): 947-951, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524530

RESUMO

Introduction: In September of 2018, the United States Federal Drug Administration (FDA) approved cemiplimab-rwlc (Libtayo) for advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Cemiplimab is an intravenous human monoclonal antibody directed against programmed cell death-1 receptor (PD-1). Cemiplimab blocks T-cell inactivation and enhances the immune system's anti-tumor response. Areas Covered: We review CSCC and the studies leading to cemiplimab's approval, including common side effects and safety issues experienced during the clinical trials. Expert Opinion: Immunotherapy, specifically checkpoint inhibitors, represents an increasingly utilized class of medications that is proving to be an effective treatment option for those with certain cancers. Over time, immunotherapy is likely to be the standard of care for immune-sensitive tumors. There are many challenges that the field faces, including the identification of reliable biomarkers to better predict response, decreasing toxicity, and the potential treatment of organ transplant patients.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470637

RESUMO

Metastatic melanoma (MM) has a poor prognosis and is attributed to late diagnoses only when metastases has already occurred. Thus, early diagnosis is crucial to improve its overall treatment efficacy. The standard diagnostic tools for MM are incisional biopsies and/or fine needle aspiration biopsies, while standard treatments involve surgery, chemotherapy, or irradiation therapy. The combination of photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) and therapy (PDT) utilizes a photosensitizer (PS) that, when excited by light of a low wavelength, can be used for fluorescent non-destructive diagnosis. However, when the same PS is activated at a higher wavelength of light, it can be cytotoxic and induce tumor destruction. This paper focuses on PS drugs that have been used for PDD as well as PDT treatment of MM. Furthermore, it emphasizes the need for continued investigation into enhanced PS delivery via active biomarkers and passive nanoparticle systems. This should improve PS drug absorption in MM cells and increase effectiveness of combinative photodynamic methods for the enhanced diagnosis and treatment of MM can become a reality.


Assuntos
Melanoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Aminolevulínico/química , Ácido Aminolevulínico/farmacocinética , Ácido Aminolevulínico/uso terapêutico , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Portadores de Fármacos/síntese química , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Indóis/química , Indóis/farmacocinética , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Luz , Metástase Linfática , Melanoma/patologia , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/química , Perileno/análogos & derivados , Perileno/química , Perileno/farmacocinética , Perileno/uso terapêutico , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacocinética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
17.
Cancer Invest ; 37(8): 339-354, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412717

RESUMO

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of skin has no standard treatment regimen, resulting in recurrences/metastasis. Although, doxorubicin (Dox), an anthracycline antibiotic has demonstrated some degree of efficacy. Molecular imaging can help in assessment of treatment response and prognosis of SCCs. MRI data showed that spin-spin relaxation (T2) time was longer (138 ± 2 msec) in Dox treated Test-II and there is no significant difference in spin-lattice relaxation (T1) time with respective controls. These findings further corroborated with the histology, proliferation index, apoptotic index, and HMGA1 protein expression. Thus, MRI may be a useful tool for monitoring treatment response noninvasively for skin tumor prognosis.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Proteínas HMGA/genética , Proteínas HMGA/metabolismo , Camundongos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16771, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415377

RESUMO

The cell wall skeleton of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG-CWS) is a bioactive component that is a strong immune adjuvant for cancer immunotherapy. BCG-CWS activates the innate immune system through various pattern recognition receptors and is expected to elicit antigen-specific cellular immune responses when co-administered with tumor antigens. To determine the recommended dose (RD) of BCG-CWS based on its safety profile, we conducted a phase I dose-escalation study of BCG-CWS in combination with WT1 peptide for patients with advanced cancer.The primary endpoint was the proportion of treatment-related adverse events (AEs) at each BCG-CWS dose. The secondary endpoints were immune responses and clinical effects. A BCG-CWS dose of 50, 100, or 200 µg/body was administered intradermally on days 0, 7, 21, and 42, followed by 2 mg of WT1 peptide on the next day. For the escalation of a dose level, 3 + 3 design was used.Study subjects were 18 patients with advanced WT1-expressing cancers refractory to standard anti-cancer therapies (7 melanoma, 5 colorectal, 4 hepatobiliary, 1 ovarian, and 1 lung). Dose-limiting toxicity occurred in the form of local skin reactions in 2 patients at a dose of 200 µg although no serious treatment-related systemic AEs were observed. Neutrophils and monocytes transiently increased in response to BCG-CWS. Some patients demonstrated the induction of the CD4 T cell subset and its differentiation from the naïve to memory phenotype, resulting in a tumor response.The RD of BCG-CWS was determined to be 100 µg/body. This dose was well tolerated and showed promising clinical effects with the induction of an appropriate immune response.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Vacina BCG/uso terapêutico , Esqueleto da Parede Celular/uso terapêutico , Mycobacterium bovis , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Esqueleto da Parede Celular/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Mol Biol (Mosk) ; 53(4): 663-673, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397440

RESUMO

Malignant cutaneous melanoma (CM) is an extremely aggressive cancer characterized by a high level of metastatic activity and unfavorable prognosis due to a high incidence of relapses, as well as resistance to standard chemotherapy. Cutaneous melanoma accounts for 80% of deaths from malignant skin tumors. Nucleolin/C23 and nucleophosmin/B23, which constitute altogether ~70% of the nucleolus volume, are promising targets for molecular therapy of melanoma. These proteins perform many important functions in the cell, so disruption of the NCL and/or NPM gene structure and abnormal expression of the C23 and B23 proteins they encode, can lead to unlimited cell proliferation and progression of a tumor. Therefore, investigation of the structure and expression of these genes is a topical problem, which is important for understanding the mechanisms of CM carcinogenesis and for the development of new therapeutic approaches. This paper describes new NCL and NPM polymorphisms, as well as the levels of C23 and B23 expression in normal tissues, CM and mucosal melanoma.


Assuntos
Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Nucléolo Celular/química , Nucléolo Celular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Proteínas Nucleares/biossíntese , Proteínas Nucleares/química , Fosfoproteínas/biossíntese , Fosfoproteínas/química , Polimorfismo Genético , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/biossíntese , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/química , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; 28(9): 799-809, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398295

RESUMO

Introduction: Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a heterogeneous group of skin-homing T-cell neoplasms, which represent approximately 75% of all primary cutaneous lymphomas. Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome are the most common CTCL. Early stage disease follows a protracted course, carries a 5-year disease specific survival of 97% and can be treated with skin-directed therapies. Widespread, advanced disease has a 5-year OS of less than 25% and necessitates systemic treatment. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is a potentially curative treatment option for advanced CTCL, however, transplant-related morbidity and mortality must be considered and a risk-benefit assessment performed on individual basis. Areas covered: Herein, we provide a review of investigative drugs in early-stage trials for the treatment of cutaneous CTCL, including topically applied immunomodulators such as replicating herpes virus or toll-like receptor 7/8 agonist resiquimod and systemic therapies with monoclonal antibodies, such as anti-CD47, recombinant cytotoxic interleukin 2 fusion protein anti-KIR3DL2 antibody and anti-miR-155 antibody. Expert Opinion: Among the reviewed drugs, resiquimod shows promising clinical efficacy with good tolerability in early CTCL. In refractory or relapsed disease, intratumoral anti-CD47-, anti-CCR4- and anti-KIR3DL2-antibodies show high response rates, however, latter two also show considerable toxicity. Larger trials are needed to better evaluate the discussed therapies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Linfoma Cutâneo de Células T/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Drogas em Investigação/efeitos adversos , Drogas em Investigação/farmacologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Linfoma Cutâneo de Células T/patologia , Micose Fungoide/tratamento farmacológico , Micose Fungoide/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Síndrome de Sézary/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Sézary/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA