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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203727

RESUMO

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and fatal primary brain tumor, is highly resistant to conventional radiation and chemotherapy, and is not amenable to effective surgical resection. The present review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of therapeutic resistance of GBM to already known drugs, the molecular characteristics of glioblastoma cells, and the barriers in the brain that underlie drug resistance. We also discuss the progress that has been made in the development of new targeted drugs for glioblastoma, as well as advances in drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-brain tumor barrier (BBTB).


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/genética , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/imunologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Glioblastoma/imunologia , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206051

RESUMO

Tumors arising in the context of Lynch Syndrome or constitutional mismatch repair deficiency are hypermutated and have a good response towards immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), including α-PD-L1 antibodies. However, in most cases, resistance mechanisms evolve. To improve outcomes and prevent resistance development, combination approaches are warranted. Herein, we applied a combined regimen with an α-PD-L1 antibody and gemcitabine in a preclinical tumor model to activate endogenous antitumor immune responses. Mlh1-/- mice with established gastrointestinal tumors received the α-PD-L1 antibody (clone 6E11; 2.5 mg/kg bw, i.v., q2wx3) and gemcitabine (100 mg/kg bw, i.p., q4wx3) in mono- or combination therapy. Survival and tumor growth were recorded. Immunological changes in the blood were routinely examined via multi-color flow cytometry and complemented by ex vivo frameshift mutation analysis to identify alterations in Mlh1-/--tumor-associated target genes. The combined therapy of α-PD-L1 and gemcitabine prolonged median overall survival of Mlh1-/- mice from four weeks in the untreated control group to 12 weeks, accompanied by therapy-induced tumor growth inhibition, as measured by [18F]-FDG PET/CT. Plasma cytokine levels of IL13, TNFα, and MIP1ß were increased and also higher than in mice receiving either monotherapy. Circulating splenic and intratumoral myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), as well as M2 macrophages, were markedly reduced. Besides, residual tumor specimens from combi-treated mice had increased numbers of infiltrating cytotoxic T-cells. Frameshift mutations in APC, Tmem60, and Casc3 were no longer detectable upon treatment, likely because of the successful eradication of single mutated cell clones. By contrast, novel mutations appeared. Collectively, we herein confirm the safe application of combined chemo-immunotherapy by long-term tumor growth control to prevent the development of resistance mechanisms.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/sangue , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/imunologia , Quimiocina CCL4/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/imunologia , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Interleucina-13/sangue , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Camundongos , Células Supressoras Mieloides , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/sangue , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
3.
Yi Chuan ; 43(7): 665-679, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284982

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary intracranial tumor with extremely high malignancy and poor prognosis. In order to identify the GBM prognostic biomarkers and establish a prognostic model, we analyzed the expression profile data of GBM in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database as the experimental group. First, we identified the differentially expressed genes of different survival periods among the GBM patients. The GISTIC software and Kaplan Meier (KM) survival curve were used to analyze the copy number variation of GBM to identify the survival-associated amplified gene (SAG). We selected the intersection genes of up-regulated ones in short survival group and SAG, performed univariate Cox regression and iterative Lasso regression with them to identify the important candidate genes and establish a prognostic model. Based on the model, the prognostic score was calculated. The patients were divided into high-risk and low-risk groups according to the median prognostic score. Meanwhile ROC curve was used to evaluate the validity of the model, applying the KM survival analysis of the high-risk and low-risk groups. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to determine the independence of the prognostic score. All the data were verified with three external datasets: GEO GSE16011, CGGA, and Rembrandt. The results showed that differential expression analysis of different survival periods of GBM identified 426 up-regulated genes and 65 down-regulated genes in the TCGA GBM dataset. The intersection of up-regulated genes in short survival group and SAG yielded 47 genes. After the screening, the six-gene combination (EN2,PPBP,LRRC61,SEL1L3,CPA4,DDIT4L) prognostic model was finally determined. The area under ROC curve of the model in TCGA experimental group and three external validation group were all greater than 0.6, even reaching 0.912. KM analysis showed that the prognosis of the high-risk and low-risk groups was significant different (P<0.05). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, the six-gene prognostic score was an independent factor influencing the prognosis of GBM patients (P<0.05). In summary, this study established a prognostic model of six-gene (EN2,PPBP,LRRC61,SEL1L3,CPA4,DDIT4L) for GBM. This six-gene model has good predictive ability and could be used as an independent prognostic marker for GBM patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioblastoma , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/genética , Humanos , Prognóstico
4.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(600)2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193614

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM), a lethal primary brain tumor, contains glioma stem cells (GSCs) that promote malignant progression and therapeutic resistance. SOX2 is a core transcription factor that maintains the properties of stem cells, including GSCs, but mechanisms associated with posttranslational SOX2 regulation in GSCs remain elusive. Here, we report that DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) governs SOX2 stability through phosphorylation, resulting in GSC maintenance. Mass spectrometric analyses of SOX2-binding proteins showed that DNA-PK interacted with SOX2 in GSCs. The DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) was preferentially expressed in GSCs compared to matched non-stem cell tumor cells (NSTCs) isolated from patient-derived GBM xenografts. DNA-PKcs phosphorylated human SOX2 at S251, which stabilized SOX2 by preventing WWP2-mediated ubiquitination, thus promoting GSC maintenance. We then demonstrated that when the nuclear DNA of GSCs either in vitro or in GBM xenografts in mice was damaged by irradiation or treatment with etoposide, the DNA-PK complex dissociated from SOX2, which then interacted with WWP2, leading to SOX2 degradation and GSC differentiation. These results suggest that DNA-PKcs-mediated phosphorylation of S251 was critical for SOX2 stabilization and GSC maintenance. Pharmacological inhibition of DNA-PKcs with the DNA-PKcs inhibitor NU7441 reduced GSC tumorsphere formation in vitro and impaired growth of intracranial human GBM xenografts in mice as well as sensitized the GBM xenografts to radiotherapy. Our findings suggest that DNA-PK maintains GSCs in a stem cell state and that DNA damage triggers GSC differentiation through precise regulation of SOX2 stability, highlighting that DNA-PKcs has potential as a therapeutic target in glioblastoma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Proteína Quinase Ativada por DNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Glioblastoma/radioterapia , Glioma/radioterapia , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4228, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244484

RESUMO

Homozygous deletion of methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) in cancers such as glioblastoma represents a potentially targetable vulnerability. Homozygous MTAP-deleted cell lines in culture show elevation of MTAP's substrate metabolite, methylthioadenosine (MTA). High levels of MTA inhibit protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), which sensitizes MTAP-deleted cells to PRMT5 and methionine adenosyltransferase 2A (MAT2A) inhibition. While this concept has been extensively corroborated in vitro, the clinical relevance relies on exhibiting significant MTA accumulation in human glioblastoma. In this work, using comprehensive metabolomic profiling, we show that MTA secreted by MTAP-deleted cells in vitro results in high levels of extracellular MTA. We further demonstrate that homozygous MTAP-deleted primary glioblastoma tumors do not significantly accumulate MTA in vivo due to metabolism of MTA by MTAP-expressing stroma. These findings highlight metabolic discrepancies between in vitro models and primary human tumors that must be considered when developing strategies for precision therapies targeting glioblastoma with homozygous MTAP deletion.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Encéfalo/patologia , Desoxiadenosinas/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/genética , Purina-Núcleosídeo Fosforilase/deficiência , Tionucleosídeos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/metabolismo , Desoxiadenosinas/análise , Feminino , Secções Congeladas , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/patologia , Homozigoto , Humanos , Metabolômica , Metionina Adenosiltransferase/metabolismo , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Purina-Núcleosídeo Fosforilase/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Tionucleosídeos/análise , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209696

RESUMO

Up to 40% of advance lung, melanoma and breast cancer patients suffer from brain metastases (BM) with increasing incidence. Here, we assessed whether circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood can serve as a disease surrogate, focusing on CD44 and CD74 expression as prognostic markers for BM. We show that a size-based microfluidic approach in combination with a semi-automated cell recognition system are well suited for CTC detection in BM patients and allow further characterization of tumor cells potentially derived from BM. CTCs were found in 50% (7/14) of breast cancer, 50% (9/18) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 36% (4/11) of melanoma patients. The next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of nine single CTCs from one breast cancer patient revealed three different CNV profile groups as well as a resistance causing ERS1 mutation. CD44 and CD74 were expressed on most CTCs and their expression was strongly correlated, whereas matched breast cancer BM tissues were much less frequently expressing CD44 and CD74 (negative in 46% and 54%, respectively). Thus, plasticity of CD44 and CD74 expression during trafficking of CTCs in the circulation might be the result of adaptation strategies.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos B/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Receptores de Hialuronatos/genética , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/metabolismo , Humanos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Mutação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(25): e26450, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160440

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The guidelines recommended gefitinib as a first-line targeted treatment for stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with EGFR mutations. However, resistance to gefitinib ensues invariably and there is little evidence as for the effectiveness of subsequent salvage treatment for patients without T790m mutation. The case is to evaluate the efficacy of erlotinib, another EGFR-TKI, after failed first-line use of gefitinib. PATIENT CONCERNS: We described a 55-year-old man with good performance status (PS). DIAGNOSES: He was histopathologically diagnosed stage IV lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR mutations in November 2018. INTERVENTIONS: He was administrated with gefitinib daily (250 mg) for activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations (exon 19 deletions,19del), and combined with platinum-based dual-drug chemotherapy. During the target treatments, the optimal efficacy evaluation was partial remission (PR) with a 12-month progression-free survival (PFS) time. Later, the intracranial progression of the patient rendered the treatment change to erlotinib. OUTCOMES: It is surprising that the tumor lesion in brain as well as lung relieved obviously. His progression-free survival (PFS)was nearly 11 months, and the overall survival (OS)was>36 months up to now. The adverse events were tolerable. LESSIONS: This case manifests that re-biopsy of advanced or recurrent NSCLC is beneficial to make a better therapeutic regimen, and erlotinib can be used as a salvage treatment after gefitinib failure.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Biópsia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/secundário , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Substituição de Medicamentos , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/genética , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/farmacologia , Gefitinibe/farmacologia , Gefitinibe/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Critérios de Avaliação de Resposta em Tumores Sólidos
8.
Biomed Khim ; 67(3): 201-212, 2021 May.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142527

RESUMO

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant brain tumor with average survival time of 15 months. Less than 2% of the patients survive beyond 36 months. To understand the molecular mechanism responsible for poor prognosis, we analyzed GBM samples of TCGA microarray (n=560) data. We have identified 720 genes that have a significant impact upon survival based on univariate cox regression. We applied the Genome Enhancer pipeline to analyze potential mechanisms of regulation of activity of these genes and to build gene regulatory networks. We identified 12 transcription factors enriched in the promoters of these genes including the key molecule of GBM - STAT3. We found that STAT3 had significant differential expression across extreme survivor groups (short-term survivors- survival 36 months) and also had a significant impact on survival. In the next step, we identified master regulators in the signal transduction network that regulate the activity of these transcription factors. Master regulators are filtered based on their differential expression across extreme survivors groups and impact on survival. This work validates our earlier report on master regulators IGFBP2, PDGFA, OSMR, and AEBP1 driving short survival. Additionally, we propose CD14, CD44, DUSP6, GRB10, IL1RAP, FGFR3, and POSTN as master regulators driving poor survival. These master regulators are proposed as promising therapeutic targets to counter poor prognosis in GBM. Finally, the algorithm has prioritized several drugs for the further study as potential remedies to conquer the aggressive forms of GBM and to extend survival of the patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioblastoma , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/genética , Humanos , Prognóstico
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3621, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131149

RESUMO

Chromatin structure and accessibility, and combinatorial binding of transcription factors to regulatory elements in genomic DNA control transcription. Genetic variations in genes encoding histones, epigenetics-related enzymes or modifiers affect chromatin structure/dynamics and result in alterations in gene expression contributing to cancer development or progression. Gliomas are brain tumors frequently associated with epigenetics-related gene deregulation. We perform whole-genome mapping of chromatin accessibility, histone modifications, DNA methylation patterns and transcriptome analysis simultaneously in multiple tumor samples to unravel epigenetic dysfunctions driving gliomagenesis. Based on the results of the integrative analysis of the acquired profiles, we create an atlas of active enhancers and promoters in benign and malignant gliomas. We explore these elements and intersect with Hi-C data to uncover molecular mechanisms instructing gene expression in gliomas.


Assuntos
Cromatina , Glioma/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Sítios de Ligação , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , DNA/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Proteína Forkhead Box M1 , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma , Código das Histonas , Histonas , Humanos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3720, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140524

RESUMO

Low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are crucial for maintaining cancer stem cells (CSCs) and their ability to resist therapy, but the ROS regulatory mechanisms in CSCs remains to be explored. Here, we discover that prohibitin (PHB) specifically regulates mitochondrial ROS production in glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) and facilitates GSC radiotherapeutic resistance. We find that PHB is upregulated in GSCs and is associated with malignant gliomas progression and poor prognosis. PHB binds to peroxiredoxin3 (PRDX3), a mitochondrion-specific peroxidase, and stabilizes PRDX3 protein through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Knockout of PHB dramatically elevates ROS levels, thereby inhibiting GSC self-renewal. Importantly, deletion or pharmacological inhibition of PHB potently slows tumor growth and sensitizes tumors to radiotherapy, thus providing significant survival benefits in GSC-derived orthotopic tumors and glioblastoma patient-derived xenografts. These results reveal a selective role of PHB in mitochondrial ROS regulation in GSCs and suggest that targeting PHB improves radiotherapeutic efficacy in glioblastoma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Astrocitoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Progressão da Doença , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/patologia , Glioblastoma/radioterapia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Gradação de Tumores , Peroxirredoxinas/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
11.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 458, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain cancer is one of the eight most common cancers occurring in people aged 40+ and is the fifth-leading cause of cancer-related deaths for males aged 40-59. Accurate subtype identification is crucial for precise therapeutic treatment, which largely depends on understanding the biological pathways and regulatory mechanisms associated with different brain cancer subtypes. Unfortunately, the subtype-implicated genes that have been identified are scattered in thousands of published studies. So, systematic literature curation and cross-validation could provide a solid base for comparative genetic studies about major subtypes. RESULTS: Here, we constructed a literature-based brain cancer gene database (BCGene). In the current release, we have a collection of 1421 unique human genes gathered through an extensive manual examination of over 6000 PubMed abstracts. We comprehensively annotated those curated genes to facilitate biological pathway identification, cancer genomic comparison, and differential expression analysis in various anatomical brain regions. By curating cancer subtypes from the literature, our database provides a basis for exploring the common and unique genetic mechanisms among 40 brain cancer subtypes. By further prioritizing the relative importance of those curated genes in the development of brain cancer, we identified 33 top-ranked genes with evidence mentioned only once in the literature, which were significantly associated with survival rates in a combined dataset of 2997 brain cancer cases. CONCLUSION: BCGene provides a useful tool for exploring the genetic mechanisms of and gene priorities in brain cancer. BCGene is freely available to academic users at http://soft.bioinfo-minzhao.org/bcgene/ .


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Encéfalo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Oncogenes
12.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(12): 16198-16218, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114970

RESUMO

An accumulation of studies has indicated aging to be a significant hazard factor for the development of tumors. Cellular senescence is positively associated with aging progress and aging-related genes (AGs) can regulate cellular senescence and tumor malignancy. While the association between AGs and the prognosis of patients with glioma is still unclear. In our study, we initially selected four survival-associated AGs and performed consensus clustering for these AGs based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. We then explored the potential biological effects of four selected AGs. A prognostic risk model was constructed according to four selected AGs (LEP, TERT, PON1, and SSTR3) in the TCGA dataset and Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) database. Then we indicated the risk score was an independent prognostic index, and was also positively correlated with immune scores, estimate score, immune cell infiltration level, programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, and expression of proinflammatory factors in patients with glioma. Finally, we performed the RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry assay to validate our bioinformatics results. Thus, this study indicated the risk model was concluded to possibly have potential function as an immune checkpoint inhibitor and to provide promising targets for developing individualized immunotherapies for patients with glioma.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioma/genética , Glioma/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Análise por Conglomerados , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Prognóstico , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
13.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(11): 15164-15192, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081618

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) comprise an integral part of the eukaryotic transcriptome. Alongside proteins, lncRNAs modulate lncRNA-based gene signatures of unstable transcripts, play a crucial role as antisense lncRNAs to control intracellular homeostasis and are implicated in tumorigenesis. However, the role of genomic instability-associated lncRNAs in low-grade gliomas (LGG) has not been fully explored. In this study, lncRNAs expression and somatic mutation profiles in low-grade glioma genome were used to identify eight novel mutant-derived genomic instability-associated lncRNAs including H19, FLG-AS1, AC091932.1, AC064875.1, AL138767.3, AC010273.2, AC131097.4 and ISX-AS1. Patients from the LGG gene mutagenome atlas were grouped into training and validation sets to test the performance of the signature. The genomic instability-associated lncRNAs signature (GILncSig) was then validated using multiple external cohorts. A total of 59 novel genomic instability-associated lncRNAs in LGG were used for least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso), single and multifactor Cox regression analysis using the training set. Furthermore, the independent predictive role of risk features in the training and validation sets were evaluated through survival analysis, receiver operating feature analysis and construction of a nomogram. Patients with IDH1 mutation status were grouped into two different risk groups based on the GILncSig score. The low-risk group showed a relatively higher rate of IDH1 mutations compared with patients in the high-risk group. Furthermore, patients in the low-risk group had better prognosis compared with patients in the high-risk group. In summary, this study reports a reliable prognostic prediction signature and provides a basis for further investigation of the role of lncRNAs on genomic instability. In addition, lncRNAs in the signature can be used as new targets for treatment of LGG.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Instabilidade Genômica , Glioma/genética , Glioma/patologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Mutação/genética , Gradação de Tumores , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3895, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162860

RESUMO

Brain tumors are typically immunosuppressive and refractory to immunotherapies for reasons that remain poorly understood. The unbiased profiling of immune cell types in the tumor microenvironment may reveal immunologic networks affecting therapy and course of disease. Here we identify and validate the presence of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) within glioblastoma tissues. Furthermore, we demonstrate a positive link of tumor-associated HSPCs with malignant and immunosuppressive phenotypes. Compared to the medullary hematopoietic compartment, tumor-associated HSPCs contain a higher fraction of immunophenotypically and transcriptomically immature, CD38- cells, such as hematopoietic stem cells and multipotent progenitors, express genes related to glioblastoma progression and display signatures of active cell cycle phases. When cultured ex vivo, tumor-associated HSPCs form myeloid colonies, suggesting potential in situ myelopoiesis. In experimental models, HSPCs promote tumor cell proliferation, expression of the immune checkpoint PD-L1 and secretion of tumor promoting cytokines such as IL-6, IL-8 and CCL2, indicating concomitant support of both malignancy and immunosuppression. In patients, the amount of tumor-associated HSPCs in tumor tissues is prognostic for patient survival and correlates with immunosuppressive phenotypes. These findings identify an important element in the complex landscape of glioblastoma that may serve as a target for brain tumor immunotherapies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Glioblastoma/genética , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Células Cultivadas , Progressão da Doença , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , RNA-Seq/métodos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067658

RESUMO

Epithelial membrane protein 3 (EMP3) is a tetraspan membrane protein overexpressed in isocitrate dehydrogenase-wild-type (IDH-wt) glioblastoma (GBM). Several studies reported high EMP3 levels as a poor prognostic factor in GBM patients. Experimental findings based on glioma and non-glioma models have demonstrated the role of EMP3 in the regulation of several membrane proteins known to drive IDH-wt GBM. In this review, we summarize what is currently known about EMP3 biology. We discuss the regulatory effects that EMP3 exerts on a variety of oncogenic receptors and discuss how these mechanisms may relate to IDH-wt GBM. Lastly, we enumerate the open questions towards EMP3 function in IDH-wt GBM.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioma/genética , Glioma/metabolismo , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Prognóstico
16.
J Int Med Res ; 49(6): 3000605211019258, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162262

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Most diffuse gliomas are reported to harbor isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations. However, when these mutations are tested in clinical practice, the results are often negative. METHODS: This study examined the frequency of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in gliomas classified according to the revised 2016 World Health Organization classification, and investigated their prognostic relevance. We tested 87 gliomas for IDH1 and IDH2 mutations using the peptide nucleic acid clamp method. RESULTS: IDH1 mutations were observed in 42% of diffuse astrocytomas, 23% of anaplastic astrocytomas, all oligodendrogliomas and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, and 17% of glioblastomas. An IDH2 mutation was identified in one case of diffuse astrocytoma. In the survival analysis of diffuse astrocytic tumors, patients with IDH1/2-wildtype anaplastic astrocytomas tended to have a poor prognosis, similar to that of glioblastomas. CONCLUSIONS: IDH2 mutations were infrequent in gliomas. In anaplastic astrocytomas, the frequency of IDH1/2-wildtype was relatively high, and the prognosis of patients with this type of tumor was very similar to that of those with glioblastomas. It may therefore be necessary to reconsider the classification and treatment strategies for IDH1/2-wildtype anaplastic astrocytomas.


Assuntos
Astrocitoma , Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioma , Isocitrato Desidrogenase , Astrocitoma/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Glioma/genética , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Mutação , Prognóstico
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066996

RESUMO

Glioblastomas (GBM)-the most common, therapy-resistant, and lethal tumors driven by populations of glioma stem cells (GSCs) are still on the list of the most complicated pathologies. Thus, deeper understanding and characterization of GSCs is indispensable to find suitable targets and develop more effective therapies. In the present study, we applied native glioblastoma cells and GSCs sequencing, screened for GSC-specific targets and checked if the signature is related to GBM patient pathological, clinical data as well as molecular subtypes applying TCGA cohort. Data analysis revealed that tumors of proneural and mesenchymal subtypes are branching in separate clusters based on screened gene expression. Samples of the same subtype revealed significantly different patient survival prognosis as well as recurrence chance between the clusters. Recently, different subpopulations of mesenchymal GSC demonstrating different properties were shown, which indicates possible internal heterogeneity of GBM subtypes as well. Current findings also revealed branching of molecular GBM subtypes that were significantly linked to patient outcome and that might be decided by distinct GSC subpopulations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/patologia , Mesoderma/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Análise de Componente Principal , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
18.
Pol J Pathol ; 72(1): 1-10, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060283

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive primary tumor of the central nervous system. Current GBM treatments have low effectiveness. This is mainly due to the high degree of heterogeneity of GBM tumors. Despite similarities in the classic microscopic image, these tumors differ significantly in molecular terms. The aim of the study was to classify GBM tumors into one of four molecular types based on the immunohistochemical expression of EGFR, PDGFRA, NF1, IDH1, p53 and PTEN proteins and find the association between individual glioma molecular types and prognostic clinical and morphological parameters. From the group of 162 patients the classical molecular type of tumor was observed in 17 (10%) patients, in 23 (14%) the tumor was mesenchymal, in 32 (20%) proneural, and in 90 (56%) neural. No significant relationship was observed between the molecular type of GBM tumors and the studied clinical and morphological parameters of prognostic significance. There were also no statistically significant correlations between the GBM tumor molecular type and survival, both in terms of overall survival and relapse-free survival. Analyzing the impact of all prognostic variables and molecular type of GBM on the probability of overall survival, statistically significant relationships were found.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioblastoma , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/genética , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
19.
No Shinkei Geka ; 49(3): 485-489, 2021 May.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092553

RESUMO

Finding novel treatment approaches for brain tumors is challenging, especially for malignant gliomas. A wealth of genetic and expression data on malignant glioma has accumulated in recent years; however, therapies targeting the underlying oncogenic pathways have not succeeded in substantially improving therapeutic responses or survival, owning to tumor resistance mechanisms to these therapies. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches are necessary to reduce the mortality rates in patients with glioma. This study examined current trends in preclinical research for malignant glioma to predict future therapies. This analysis revealed that current preclinical research mainly focused on the immune response and tumor microenvironment. Knowledge from these researches may lead to the development of new therapeutics for the management of malignant glioma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioma , Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Glioma/epidemiologia , Glioma/genética , Glioma/terapia , Humanos , Microambiente Tumoral
20.
No Shinkei Geka ; 49(3): 520-526, 2021 May.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092557

RESUMO

In Japan, two types of cancer gene panel tests have been covered by insurance since 2019, marking the start of the "first year of cancer genomic medicine". Cancer genomic medicine is a medical treatment in which a large number of genes are analyzed at once by next generation sequencing(NGS), mainly using cancer tissues, to reveal the genetic alterations in the patient's cancer so that the best treatment can be applied for each patient. In order to present actual treatment based on the results of the cancer gene panel test, it is necessary to prepare a report by an "expert panel", which is a group of multidisciplinary experts. Although the current percentage of patients who actually receive treatment is approximately 13% in total, it is expected to improv in the future. The number of clinical trials where brain tumor patients can participate is still small, but a certain number of patients are actually benefiting from these new drugs. We hoped that cancer genomic medicine for brain tumor patients will be actively promoted in the future.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Genômica , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Japão , Mutação
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