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1.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 77(4): 385-386, 2020 12 21.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351390

RESUMO

Mr. Editor, The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) has determined that when a syndrome of predisposition to cancer is suspected, it is necessary to refer the patient for genetic evaluation because of the implications for diagnosis and management, as well as follow-up in the family (1). The genetic evaluation includes the description of the personal/family history and the request for the corresponding genetic study.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/genética , Aconselhamento Genético , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/diagnóstico , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética
2.
J Vis Exp ; (163)2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016948

RESUMO

DNA methylation is an important epigenetic change that is biologically meaningful and a frequent focus of cancer research. Genome-wide DNA methylation is a useful measure to provide an accurate analysis of the methylation status of gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies. Given the multiple potential translational uses of DNA methylation analysis, practicing clinicians and others new to DNA methylation studies need to be able to understand step by step how these genome-wide analyses are performed. The goal of this protocol is to provide a detailed description of how this method is used for the biomarker identification in GI malignancies. Importantly, we describe three critical steps that are needed to obtain accurate results during genome-wide analysis. Clearly and concisely written, these three methods are often lacking and not noticeable to those new to epigenetic studies. We used 48 samples of a GI malignancy (gastric cancer) to highlight practically how genome-wide DNA methylation analysis can be performed for GI malignancies.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Epigênese Genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Humanos
3.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(9): 872-879, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927512

RESUMO

Objective: Platelet-derived growth factor alpha (PDGFRA) mutations are respectively rare in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Most GIST with PDGFRA exon 18 mutations including D842V mutation are highly resistant to imatinib. The treatment of GIST harboring PDGFRA primary drug-resistant mutation is a major challenge. This article aims to investigate clinicopathologic features of GIST with PDGFRA-D842V mutation and the efficacy of comprehensive treatment, providing a reference for clinical practice. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to collect the clinicopathological and follow-up data of patients with GIST harboring PDGFRA mutation who were diagnosed and treated in the GIST Clinic of Renji Hospital from January 2005 to May 2020. According to the mutation site, the enrolled patients were divided into D842V mutation group and non-D842V mutation group. The differences of clinicopathologic characteristics between the two groups were compared. Furthermore, overall survival and prognostic factors were analyzed. Results: A total of 71 patients with PDGFRA-mutant GIST were included in this study, including 47 cases of D842V mutation (66.2%) and 24 cases of non-D842V mutation (33.8%). There were 28 male patients and 19 female patients in D842V mutation group, with a median age of 60 (36-82) years. There were 16 male patients and 8 female patients in non-D842V mutation group, with a median age of 62 (30-81) years. There were no significant differences in age, gender, primary location, surgical procedure, tumor size, mitotic count, expression of CD117 and DOG1, Ki-67 proliferation index and modified NIH grade between the two groups (all P>0.05). The positive rate of CD34 was 89.4% (42/47) and 62.5% (15/24) in the D842V mutation group and the non-D842V mutation group, respectively, with a statistically significant difference (χ(2)=5.644, P=0.018). Among all the cases, 66 cases underwent R0 resection without preoperative treatment; two cases underwent emergency operation with R1 resection because of tumor rupture; 2 cases were not operated after the pathological and mutation types were confirmed by biopsy (one case received avapritinib treatment and obtain partial remission). One case was diagnosed as wild-type GIST per needle biopsy in another institute, and underwent R0 resection after preoperative imatinib treatment for 6 months. After surgery, 5 high-risk GIST patients with D842V mutation and 5 high-risk GIST patients with non-D842V mutation were treated with imatinib for more than one year. The median follow-up time was 37 (1-153) months. As of the last follow-up among the patients who received R0 resection, 4 patients with D842V mutation had relapse, of whom 1 was in the period of imatinib administration, and the 3-year relapse-free survival rate was 94.2%; none of the patients with non-D842V mutation had relapse. There was no statistically significant difference in relapse-free surivval between two groups (P=0.233). Univariate analysis revealed that mitotic count (P=0.002), Ki-67 proliferation index (P<0.001) and modified NIH grade (P=0.025) were the factors associated with relapse-free survival of patients with D842V mutation after R0 resection (all P<0.05). However, the above factros were not testified as independant prognostic facors in multivariate Cox analysis (all P<0.05). Conclusion: Clinicopathologic features and the efficacy of radical resection in patients with PDGFRA-D842V mutation are similar to those in patients with non-D842V mutation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/genética , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/genética , Receptor alfa de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Éxons , Feminino , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/terapia , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/mortalidade , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
APMIS ; 128(11): 563-572, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794589

RESUMO

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are often diagnosed from the metastases of an unknown primary tumor. Specific immunohistochemical (IHC) markers indicating the location of a primary tumor are needed. The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 2 (PCSK2) is found in normal neural and neuroendocrine cells, and known to express in NETs. We investigated the tissue microarray (TMA) of 86 primary tumors from 13 different organs and 9 metastatic NETs, including primary tumor-metastasis pairs, for PCSK2 expression with polymer-based IHC. PCSK2 was strongly positive in all small intestine and appendiceal NETs, the so-called midgut NETs, in most pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas, and in some of the typical and atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumors. NETs showing strong positivity were re-evaluated in larger tumor cohorts confirming the primary observation. In the metastases, the expression of PCSK2 mirrored that of the corresponding primary tumors. We found negative or weak staining in NETs from the thymus, gastric mucosa, pancreas, rectum, thyroid, and parathyroid. PCSK2 expression did not correlate with Ki-67 in well-differentiated NETs. Our data suggest that PCSK2 positivity can indicate the location of the primary tumor. Thus, PCSK2 could function in the IHC panel determined from screening metastatic NET biopsies of unknown primary origins.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/genética , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/genética , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/genética , Paraganglioma/genética , Feocromocitoma/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 2/genética , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/cirurgia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/patologia , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/cirurgia , Cromogranina A/genética , Feminino , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/cirurgia , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Antígeno Ki-67/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/diagnóstico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/cirurgia , Paraganglioma/diagnóstico , Paraganglioma/patologia , Paraganglioma/cirurgia , Feocromocitoma/diagnóstico , Feocromocitoma/patologia , Feocromocitoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia
6.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(7): 935-946, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Targeting of KIT and PDGFRA with imatinib revolutionised treatment in gastrointestinal stromal tumour; however, PDGFRA Asp842Val (D842V)-mutated gastrointestinal stromal tumour is highly resistant to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and antitumour activity of avapritinib, a novel KIT and PDGFRA inhibitor that potently inhibits PDGFRA D842V, in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours, including patients with KIT and PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumours (NAVIGATOR). METHODS: NAVIGATOR is a two-part, open-label, dose-escalation and dose-expansion, phase 1 study done at 17 sites across nine countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Poland, Netherlands, South Korea, Spain, the UK, and the USA). Patients aged 18 years or older, with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or less, and with adequate end-organ function were eligible to participate. The dose-escalation part of the study included patients with unresectable gastrointestinal stromal tumours. The dose-expansion part of the study included patients with an unresectable PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour regardless of previous therapy or gastrointestinal stromal tumour with other mutations that either progressed on imatinib and one or more tyrosine kinase inhibitor, or only received imatinib previously. On the basis of enrolment trends, ongoing review of study data, and evolving knowledge regarding the gastrointestinal stromal tumour treatment paradigm, it was decided by the sponsor's medical director together with the investigators that patients with PDGFRA D842V mutations would be analysed separately; the results from this group of patients is reported in this Article. Oral avapritinib was administered once daily in the dose-escalation part (starting dose of 30 mg, with increasing dose levels once daily in continuous 28-day cycles until the maximum tolerated dose or recommended phase 2 dose was determined; in the dose-expansion part, the starting dose was the maximum tolerated dose from the dose-escalation part). Primary endpoints were maximum tolerated dose, recommended phase 2 dose, and safety in the dose-escalation part, and overall response and safety in the dose-expansion part. Safety was assessed in all patients from the dose-escalation part and all patients with PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour in the dose-expansion part, and activity was assessed in all patients with PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour who received avapritinib and who had at least one target lesion and at least one post-baseline disease assessment by central radiology. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02508532. FINDINGS: Between Oct 26, 2015, and Nov 16, 2018 (data cutoff), 46 patients were enrolled in the dose-escalation part, including 20 patients with a PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour, and 36 patients with a PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour were enrolled in the dose-expansion part. At data cutoff (Nov 16, 2018), 38 (46%) of 82 patients in the safety population (median follow-up of 19·1 months [IQR 9·2-25·5]) and 37 (66%) of the 56 patients in the PDGFRA D842V population (median follow-up of 15·9 months [IQR 9·2-24·9]) remained on treatment. The maximum tolerated dose was 400 mg, and the recommended phase 2 dose was 300 mg. In the safety population (patients with PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour from the dose-escalation and dose-expansion parts, all doses), treatment-related grade 3-4 events occurred in 47 (57%) of 82 patients, the most common being anaemia (14 [17%]); there were no treatment-related deaths. In the PDGFRA D842V-mutant population, 49 (88%; 95% CI 76-95) of 56 patients had an overall response, with five (9%) complete responses and 44 (79%) partial responses. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed at doses of 30-400 mg per day. At 600 mg, two patients had dose-limiting toxicities (grade 2 hypertension, dermatitis acneiform, and memory impairment in patient 1, and grade 2 hyperbilirubinaemia in patient 2). INTERPRETATION: Avapritinib has a manageable safety profile and has preliminary antitumour activity in patients with advanced PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumours. FUNDING: Blueprint Medicines.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Mutação , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Receptor alfa de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/genética , Triazinas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/genética , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/genética , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
8.
Cell Prolif ; 53(7): e12815, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515024

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal tumours are tumours that originate in the digestive tract and have extremely high morbidity and mortality. The main categories include: oesophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancers. Circular RNAs are a new class of non-coding RNAs with a covalent closed-loop structure without a 5' cap or a 3' poly A tail, which can encode a small amount of polypeptide. Recent studies have shown that circRNAs are involved in multiple biological processes during the development of gastrointestinal tumours including proliferation, invasion and metastasis, radio- and chemoresistance, and inflammatory responses. Also, the clinical and pathological characteristics of the patient, such as staging and lymph node metastasis, are closely associated with the expression level of circRNAs. Further investigation of the function and the role of circRNAs in the development of gastrointestinal tumours will provide new directions for its clinical diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/sangue , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/genética , RNA Circular/sangue , RNA Circular/genética , Animais , Proliferação de Células/genética , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/genética , Metástase Linfática/genética
9.
Cancer Res ; 80(13): 2722-2736, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332020

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas (GIAC) of the tubular gastrointestinal (GI) tract including esophagus, stomach, colon, and rectum comprise most GI cancers and share a spectrum of genomic features. However, the unified epigenomic changes specific to GIAC are poorly characterized. Using 907 GIAC samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we applied mathematical algorithms to large-scale DNA methylome and transcriptome profiles to reconstruct transcription factor (TF) networks and identify a list of functionally hyperactive master regulator (MR) TF shared across different GIAC. The top candidate HNF4A exhibited prominent genomic and epigenomic activation in a GIAC-specific manner. A complex interplay between the HNF4A promoter and three distal enhancer elements was coordinated by GIAC-specific MRTF including ELF3, GATA4, GATA6, and KLF5. HNF4A also self-regulated its own promoter and enhancers. Functionally, HNF4A promoted cancer proliferation and survival by transcriptional activation of many downstream targets, including HNF1A and factors of interleukin signaling, in a lineage-specific manner. Overall, our study provides new insights into the GIAC-specific gene regulatory networks and identifies potential therapeutic strategies against these common cancers. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings show that GIAC-specific master regulatory transcription factors control HNF4A via three distal enhancers to promote GIAC cell proliferation and survival. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT: http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/80/13/2722/F1.large.jpg.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Epigenômica , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/genética , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genômica , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Prognóstico , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
10.
Mol Carcinog ; 59(6): 661-669, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339330

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a common mesenchymal tumor in the gastrointestinal tract. Prostate cancer associated transcript 6 (PCAT6) is a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) and plays a pivotal role in tumor formation. Present study was designed to explore the function of PCAT6 in GIST. Ki67 staining, colony formation and trypan blue staining assays revealed that PCAT6 boosted GIST cell proliferation but inhibited cell apoptosis. Also, sphere formation assay and Western blot uncovered the promoting role of PCAT6 in GIST stemness. Then, we identified that PCAT6 could activate Wnt/ß-catenin pathway. And the tumor facilitator role of Wnt/ß-catenin pathway was validated in the rescue assays. Next, miR-143-3p was identified as the downstream microRNA of PCAT6. Moreover, miR-143-3p itself served as a tumor suppressor in GIST. Subsequently, peroxiredoxin 5 (PRDX5) was verified as the target of miR-143-3p. PCAT6 promoted GIST cell proliferation and stemness via sponging miR-143-3p to upregulate PRDX5. In a word, PCAT6 promoted GIST cell proliferation and stemness but inhibited cell apoptosis via competing endogenous RNA pattern and activation of Wnt pathway, which might contribute to GIST treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , Peroxirredoxinas/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/genética , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/metabolismo , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/genética , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Peroxirredoxinas/genética , Prognóstico , Ativação Transcricional , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , beta Catenina/genética , beta Catenina/metabolismo
11.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(6): e28258, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196895

RESUMO

Germline PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) mutations lead to inappropriate cell survival and growth, and a predisposition to multiple cancers. Some patients also have vascular anomalies (VAs), and it is unclear whether these patients have different phenotypes or oncologic risks. We conducted a two-institution retrospective cohort study to better understand the phenotypes of children and young adults with PTEN mutations, and to compare individuals with VA to those without. Almost half of the patients had thyroid tumors and nearly one quarter developed gastrointestinal tumors before 30 years of age. The presence of VA was positively associated with bulky overgrowth but did not appear to modify oncologic risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Mutação , Neovascularização Patológica/complicações , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Malformações Vasculares/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/etiologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/etiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1501, 2020 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198375

RESUMO

Most human cancers are aneuploid, due to a chromosomal instability (CIN) phenotype. Despite being hallmarks of cancer, however, the roles of CIN and aneuploidy in tumor formation have not unequivocally emerged from animal studies and are thus still unclear. Using a conditional mouse model for diverse degrees of CIN, we find that a particular range is sufficient to drive very early onset spontaneous adenoma formation in the intestine. In mice predisposed to intestinal cancer (ApcMin/+), moderate CIN causes a remarkable increase in adenoma burden in the entire intestinal tract and especially in the distal colon, which resembles human disease. Strikingly, a higher level of CIN promotes adenoma formation in the distal colon even more than moderate CIN does, but has no effect in the small intestine. Our results thus show that CIN can be potently oncogenic, but that certain levels of CIN can have contrasting effects in distinct tissues.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Instabilidade Cromossômica , Oncogenes/genética , Adenoma/genética , Aneuploidia , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Segregação de Cromossomos , Colo/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/genética , Neoplasias Intestinais/genética , Intestinos/patologia , Cariótipo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Organoides
13.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 52, 2020 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS) is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterized by benign growth of the hair follicles, the presence of pulmonary cysts, spontaneous pneumothorax, and bilateral renal tumors that are usually hybrid oncocytic or multifocal chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. The diagnosis is confirmed by the presence of a pathogenic variant in the tumor suppressor folliculin (FLCN) gene mapped at 17p11.2. Although the dermatological lesions typical of BHDS are benign and only cause aesthetic concerns, and the pulmonary manifestations are controllable, the greater tendency of patients with this syndrome to present benign or malignant renal tumors, often bilateral and multifocal, makes the diagnosis of this syndrome important for the prognosis of the patients. The objective was to report the case of a patient with BHDS, without pulmonary manifestations and with hyperplastic polyposis of the gastrointestinal tract, and to perform a literature review. CASE PRESENTATION: A 60-year-old man complained of abdominal pain and diarrhoea for 2 months. Physical examination was normal except for the presence of normochromic papules in the frontal region of the face associated with hyperkeratotic and hyperchromic papules in the dorsal region. The excisional biopsies of the skin lesions indicated trichodiscomas. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, enteroscopy, and colonoscopy showed the presence of hyperplastic polyps in the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, colon, and rectum. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen revealed multiple expansive solid lesions in both kidneys, with necrotic and calcified areas. Renal magnetic resonance angiography also showed a solid lesion in the right kidney measuring 5 cm in diameter and another solid lesion in the left kidney measuring 8 cm in diameter, both suggestive of renal angiomyolipoma. CT scans of the skull, chest, and temporal bones were normal. The genetic study revealed the presence of a variant of FLCN in the intron 13. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of BHDS with the simultaneous finding of gastrointestinal hyperplastic polyposis, which may represent a possible phenotypic expression of this syndrome that has not yet been described.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Birt-Hogg-Dubé/complicações , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/complicações , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Pólipos/complicações , Síndrome de Birt-Hogg-Dubé/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Birt-Hogg-Dubé/genética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/genética , Humanos , Hiperplasia/complicações , Hiperplasia/diagnóstico , Hiperplasia/genética , Pólipos Intestinais/complicações , Pólipos Intestinais/diagnóstico , Pólipos Intestinais/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/genética , Pólipos/diagnóstico , Pólipos/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
14.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(6): 969-982, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078695

RESUMO

Esophageal and gastric cancers collectively cause over 1.1 million deaths annually and only 20-30% of patients respond favorably to current therapies. Cellular therapies using invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are showing promise for patients with other cancers; therefore, we investigated if these cells are altered in esophageal and gastric cancer patients. Flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood from 139 patients revealed that iNKT cells are depleted from patients with esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, both before and after treatment. Interrogation of the KMPlot database of transcriptomic data from 876 gastric cancer patients revealed that low CD1d expression is associated with poor prognosis. These observations suggest that therapies that boost CD1d expression and iNKT cell responses may benefit these patients. However, we found that chemotherapies used for esophageal and gastric cancers have adverse effects on iNKT cells in vitro. Cisplatin caused a significant reduction of CD1d expression by esophageal tumor cell lines. Cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and carboplatin induced dose-dependent apoptosis in primary lines of iNKT cells and inhibited CD1d-dependent interferon-γ production and cytolytic degranulation by viable iNKT cells. Interestingly, cisplatin increased granzyme B and perforin production and decreased the production of the granzyme B inhibitor PI9, which protects cytotoxic cells from self-damage by granzyme B. Thus, cisplatin-induced apoptosis of iNKT cells may be mediated in part by altering granzyme B and PI9 expression. Our data suggest that iNKT cell-based immunotherapies may benefit patients with gastrointestinal cancers, but may be negatively affected by chemotherapies used for these cancers.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD1d/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/genética , Células T Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/imunologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Neoplasma ; 67(3): 668-676, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039626

RESUMO

Structural chromosome aberrations are a predictive biomarker of cancer risk. Conventional chromosome analysis widely used for these purposes detects unstable chromosome aberrations that are eliminated during cell division. Stable aberrations that may persist in the body and tend to accumulate during a lifetime can be detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The aim of the study was to investigate the level of chromosome damage in newly diagnosed cancer patients and control subjects by FISH. Both groups of untreated cancer patients had increased frequency of aberrant cells. However, chromosome damage affected different cytogenetic endpoints. Stable translocations and cells with complex rearrangements were elevated in breast cancer patients whereas unstable chromosome aberrations (dicentric chromosomes and acentric fragments) were elevated in gastrointestinal cancer patients. These associations observed in nonsmokers were typically not pronounced in smokers (with the exception of dicentric chromosomes in gastrointestinal patients). Exposure to tobacco smoke increased aberrations in healthy controls but not in the cancer patients. Our study suggests an association between cancer and stable chromosomal rearrangements in breast cancer patients. Unstable aberrations elevated in gastrointestinal cancer patients may be at least partly ascribed to the exposure to diagnostic X-rays.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/genética , Linfócitos , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente
16.
Gut ; 69(4): 748-763, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034004

RESUMO

One of the most unexpected discoveries in molecular oncology, in the last decades, was the identification of a new layer of protein coding gene regulation by transcripts that do not codify for proteins, the non-coding RNAs. These represent a heterogeneous category of transcripts that interact with many types of genetic elements, including regulatory DNAs, coding and other non-coding transcripts and directly to proteins. The final outcome, in the malignant context, is the regulation of any of the cancer hallmarks. Non-coding RNAs represent the most abundant type of hormones that contribute significantly to cell-to cell communication, revealing a complex interplay between tumour cells, tumour microenvironment cells and immune cells. Consequently, profiling their abundance in bodily fluids became a mainstream of biomarker identification. Therapeutic targeting of non-coding RNAs represents a new option for clinicians that is currently under development. This review will present the biology and translational value of three of the most studied categories on non-coding RNAs, the microRNAs, the long non-coding RNAs and the circular RNAs. We will also focus on some aspirational concepts that can help in the development of clinical applications related to non-coding RNAs, including using pyknons to discover new non-coding RNAs, targeting human-specific transcripts which are expressed specifically in the tumour cell and using non-coding RNAs to increase the efficiency of immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/genética , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/fisiologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/terapia , Humanos , MicroRNAs/fisiologia
17.
Cancer Res ; 80(7): 1601-1610, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005715

RESUMO

A genetic variant on aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 rs671, Glu504Lys) contributes to carcinogenesis after alcohol consumption. Somewhat conversely, the ALDH2 Lys allele also confers a protective effect against alcohol-induced carcinogenesis by decreasing alcohol consumption due to acetaldehyde-related adverse effects. Here, we applied a mediation analysis to five case-control studies for head and neck, esophageal, stomach, small intestine, and colorectal cancers, with 4,099 cases and 6,065 controls, and explored the potentially heterogeneous impact of alcohol drinking on digestive tract carcinogenesis by decomposing the total effect of the ALDH2 Lys allele on digestive tract cancer risk into the two opposing effects of the carcinogenic effect (direct effect) and the protective effect (indirect effect mediated by drinking behavior). Alcohol was associated with an increased risk of most digestive tract cancers, but significant direct effects were observed only for upper gastrointestinal tract cancer risk, and varied substantially by site, with ORs (95% confidence interval) of 1.83 (1.43-2.36) for head and neck cancer, 21.15 (9.11-49.12) for esophageal cancer, and 1.65 (1.38-1.96) for stomach cancer. In contrast, a significant protective indirect effect was observed on risk for all cancers, except small intestine cancer. These findings suggest that alcohol is a major risk factor for digestive tract cancers, but its impact as a surrogate for acetaldehyde exposure appears heterogeneous by site. Meanwhile, the behavior-related effect of the ALDH2 Lys allele results in a decreased risk of most digestive tract cancers. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings support that genetic alcohol avoidance is a factor against alcohol-induced cancers.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/epidemiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Acetaldeído/metabolismo , Acetaldeído/toxicidade , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/genética , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Etanol/metabolismo , Feminino , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/genética , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(8): 4262-4272, 2020 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041873

RESUMO

Long thought to be dispensable after establishing X chromosome inactivation (XCI), Xist RNA is now known to also maintain the inactive X (Xi). To what extent somatic X reactivation causes physiological abnormalities is an active area of inquiry. Here, we use multiple mouse models to investigate in vivo consequences. First, when Xist is deleted systemically in post-XCI embryonic cells using the Meox2-Cre driver, female pups exhibit no morbidity or mortality despite partial X reactivation. Second, when Xist is conditionally deleted in epithelial cells using Keratin14-Cre or in B cells using CD19-Cre, female mice have a normal life span without obvious illness. Third, when Xist is deleted in gut using Villin-Cre, female mice remain healthy despite significant X-autosome dosage imbalance. Finally, when the gut is acutely stressed by azoxymethane/dextran sulfate (AOM/DSS) exposure, both Xist-deleted and wild-type mice develop gastrointestinal tumors. Intriguingly, however, under prolonged stress, mutant mice develop larger tumors and have a higher tumor burden. The effect is female specific. Altogether, these observations reveal a surprising systemic tolerance to Xist loss but importantly reveal that Xist and XCI are protective to females during chronic stress.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/fisiopatologia , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/microbiologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Cromossomo X/genética , Animais , Feminino , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/etiologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/genética , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/complicações , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Carga Tumoral , Inativação do Cromossomo X
19.
Bull Cancer ; 107(4): 447-457, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067719

RESUMO

The advent of molecular biology resulted in the discovery of new oncogenes that have led to the development of targeted therapies for the management of cancer patients. The development of these therapies has improved the prognosis of patients in various tumour localizations. The TRK receptor (tropomyosin receptor kinase) is a transmembrane receptor with a tyrosine kinase activity that plays a role in both cell proliferation and the physiology of the nervous system. Fusions involving the NTRK gene, which codes for this receptor, have been found in different types of solid tumours and lead to its constitutional activation. These fusions, however uncommon, are mainly found in rare pediatric tumours but can also be encountered in digestive cancers with high prevalence (such as colorectal cancer, especially in case of microsatellite instability, with a frequency of 2.5 to 38.5 %) or in aggressive cancers (such as pancreatic cancer). Therapies targeting TRK, such as larotrectinib or entrectinib, have shown significant response rates, usually greater than 6 months, for tumours from various primary sites presenting NTRK fusions and refractory to standard therapies. These fusions can be detected by different methods: immunohistochemistry, FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) as well as NGS (next generation sequencing). The intent of this review is to report on current knowledge on NTRK fusions in oncology and to discuss the role of these fusions in digestive cancers and potential therapeutic implications.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/genética , Fusão Gênica , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Proteínas Oncogênicas/genética , Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização In Situ , Indazóis/uso terapêutico , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Receptor trkA/genética , Receptor trkB/genética , Receptor trkC/genética
20.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 43(4): 270-278, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904710

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether there were survival differences associated with KIT mutation testing, type of KIT mutations, and other clinical variables in patients with localized or metastatic gastrointestinal tumor (GIST). METHODS: Adult patients with GIST were extracted from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database from 2010 to 2015 with follow-up through 2016. Overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were the designated endpoints. RESULTS: A total of 3866 patients met inclusion criteria. Metastatic disease was found in 656 patients (17%), whereas localized disease was present in 3210 patients (83%). KIT mutation testing was performed in 1033 patients (26.7%) with equal distribution in localized and metastatic disease (27% and 26.6%, respectively). Multivariate analysis was performed in localized and metastatic GIST. In localized GIST, black race showed worse OS (hazard ratio [HR]=1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.26-1.96), whereas higher mitotic rate (>5/50 HPF) demonstrated poor OS (HR=1.59; 95% CI: 1.24-2.05) and CSS (HR=3.07; 95% CI: 2.07-4.54); tumor size (>10 cm) showed poor CSS (HR=5.73; 95% CI: 2.37-13.8). In metastatic GIST, black race showed poor OS (HR=1.42; 95% CI: 1.04-1.93) and CSS (HR=1.73; 95% CI: 95% CI: 1.18-2.54), while KIT testing was associated with better OS (HR=0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.87) and CSS (HR=0.66; 95% CI: 0.44-0.97); treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors showed better OS (HR=0.67; 95% CI: 0.51-0.88). Surgical resection was associated with better OS (HR=0.56; 0.47-0.67) and CSS (HR=0.55; 95% CI: 0.42-0.72) both in localized and metastatic GIST. CONCLUSIONS: The minority of GIST patients have their tumor tested for any KIT mutation. Yet, KIT testing and therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors were associated with better survival in GIST patients with metastatic disease. Surgery, potentially curative for localized GIST, shows benefit in the metastatic setting.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/genética , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/genética , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
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