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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1287: 69-80, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034027

RESUMO

Interactions between liver cells are closely regulated by Notch signaling. Notch signaling has been reported clinically related to bile duct hypogenesis in Alagille syndrome, which is caused by mutations in the Jagged1 gene. Notch activation and hepatocarcinogenesis are closely associated since cancer signaling is affected by the development of liver cells and cancer stem cells. Gene expression and genomic analysis using a microarray revealed that abnormalities in Notch-related genes were associated with the aggressiveness of liver cancer. This pattern was also accompanied with α-fetoprotein- and EpCAM-expressing phenotypes in vitro, in vivo, and in clinical tissues. Hepatitis B or C virus chronic infection or alcohol- or steatosis-related liver fibrosis induces liver cancer. Previous reports demonstrated that HBx, a hepatitis B virus protein, was associated with Jagged1 expression. We found that the Jagged1 and Notch1 signaling pathways were closely associated with the transcription of covalently closed circular hepatitis B virus DNA, which regulated cAMP response element-binding protein, thereby affecting Notch1 regulation by the E3 ubiquitin ligase ITCH. This viral pathogenesis in hepatocytes induces liver cancer. In conclusion, Notch signaling exerts various actions and is a clinical signature associated with hepatocarcinogenesis and liver context-related developmental function.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hepáticas , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Hepatite/metabolismo , Hepatite/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
2.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5059-5069, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Liver cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related mortality globally, of which hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for 85-90% of total primary liver cancer. A drug shortage for HCC therapy triggered us to screen the small-molecule database with a high-throughput cellular screening system. Herein, we examined whether cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) inhibits cellular mobility and invasiveness of Mahlavu HCC cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of CTAB on cell viability were assessed using WST-1 assay, cell-cycle distribution using flow cytometric analysis, migration/invasion using woundhealing and transwell assays, and associated protein levels using western blotting. RESULTS: Treatment of Mahlavu cells with CTAB transformed its mesenchymal spindle-like morphology. In addition, CTAB exerted inhibitory effects on the migration and invasion of Mahlavu cells dose-dependently. CTAB also reduced the protein levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), MMP9, RAC family small GTPase 1, SNAIL family transcriptional repressor 1 (SNAI1), SNAI2, TWIST family basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor 1 (TWIST1), vimentin, N-cadherin, phospho-fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor, phospho-phosphoinositide 3-kinase, phospho-v-Akt murine thymoma viral oncogene and phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 but increased the protein levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1/2 and E-cadherin. Rescue experiments proved that CTAB induced mesenchymal-epithelial transition in Mahlavu cells and this was significantly dose-dependently mitigated by basic FGF. CONCLUSION: CTAB suppressed the migration and invasion of Mahlavu cells through inhibition of the FGF signaling pathway. CTAB seems to be a potential agent for preventing metastasis of hepatic cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Cetrimônio/farmacologia , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Biomarcadores , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Camundongos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
3.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5071-5079, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Liver cancer has extremely poor prognosis. The cancerous tissues contain hypoxic regions, and the available drugs are poorly effective in hypoxic environments. NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), producing reactive oxygen species (ROS), may contribute to cancer malignancy under hypoxic conditions. However, its role in liver cancer has not been examined in detail. Our aim was to explore the effects of setanaxib, a recently developed selective NOX4 inhibitor, in liver cancer cells under hypoxic conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Liver cancer cell lines (HepG2, HLE and Alexander) were treated with hypoxia-mimetic agent cobalt chloride. Cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis and ROS detection assay were performed to detect the effect of setanaxib under hypoxic conditions. RESULTS: Setanaxib exhibited hypoxia-selective cytotoxicity and triggered apoptosis in cancer cells. Moreover, setanaxib caused mitochondrial ROS accumulation under hypoxic conditions. Treatment with antioxidants markedly attenuated setanaxib-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis under hypoxic conditions. CONCLUSION: Setanaxib caused mitochondrial ROS accumulation in a hypoxia-selective manner and evoked cancer cell cytotoxicity by inducing apoptosis. Thus, setanaxib has a great potential as a novel anticancer compound under hypoxic conditions.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidase 4/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
4.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5211-5219, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: CBP is a transcriptional coactivator in the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway that is related to cell kinetics and differentiation. This study aimed to characterize ß-catenin-activated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and evaluate the direct effects of PRI-724 (a selective inhibitor of Wnt/ß-catenin/CBP signaling) on HCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for ß-catenin was performed in 199 HCC resected samples. Moreover, using cultured HCC cell lines, cell kinetics and its related proteins were analyzed after treatment of cells with C-82 (active form of PRI-724). RESULTS: Nuclear ß-catenin expression was found in 18% of HCC cases and the tumor sizes in these positive samples were larger. In HCC cell lines with a constitutively activated ß-catenin, C-82 inhibited cell proliferation. C-82 led to an increase in the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. The percentage of cells in the sub-G1 phase also increased. Moreover, C-82 treatment significantly decreased the expression of cell proliferating markers and increased the expression of apoptosis-related proteins. CONCLUSION: PRI-724(C-82) may be a novel drug for ß-catenin-activated HCC therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , beta Catenina/antagonistas & inibidores
5.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(9): 1621-1638, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758021

RESUMO

Increasing evidence highlights the clinical significance of stromal cells and immune cells in the liver cancer microenvironment. However, reliable prognostic models have not been well established. This study aimed to develop a gene signature for liver cancer based on stromal and immune scores. Using the estimation of stromal and immune cells in malignant tumor tissues using expression data (ESTIMATE) algorithm, stromal and immune scores were estimated based on the transcriptome profile of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) liver cancer cohort. Stromal-/immune-related differentially expressed genes were identified, followed by functional enrichment analysis. The Cox regression model was used to select prognostic genes and construct a gene signature. Its predictive potential was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC). The correlation between the risk score and immune cell infiltration was analyzed using Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER). Three hundred sixty-four upregulated and 10 downregulated stromal-/immune-related genes were identified, were mainly enriched in immune-related processes and pathways. Through univariate and multivariate cox survival analysis, a five-gene risk score was constructed, composed of FABP3, HTRA3, OLFML2B, PDZD4 and SLAMF6. Patients with high score indicated a poorer prognosis than those with low risk score. The areas under the ROC curves of overall survival (OS), progression-free interval, 3-, 5-year, OS status were 0.68, 0.57, 0.72, 0.74 and 0.728, indicating its well performance on predicting patients' prognoses. Furthermore, the risk score and the five genes were significantly correlated with immune cell infiltration in the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we proposed a prognostic five-gene signature based on stromal/immune scores in the liver cancer microenvironment.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Microambiente Tumoral , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Proteína 3 Ligante de Ácido Graxo/genética , Proteína 3 Ligante de Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Família de Moléculas de Sinalização da Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Família de Moléculas de Sinalização da Ativação Linfocitária/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
6.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 39(2): 179-189, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749126

RESUMO

Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 conveys an anticancer effect, but little is known regarding its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our study aims to determine the anticancer effect of EGb761 on HCC cell lines and clarify the underlying molecular mechanism. We explore biological functions of EGb761 in HCC using morphological observation, the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and cytotoxic analysis. We investigate the effects of EGb761 on proliferation and apoptosis of HCC cells using plate clone formation, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase d-untranslated protein nick end labeling assays. Protein expressions of the NF-κB/p53 signal pathway were detected and identified using immunohistochemistry. The effect of EGb761 on the p53 signaling pathway was further confirmed by adding pifithrin (PFT)-α, an inhibitor of p53. We determine that EGb761 inhibits cell growth, reduces cell viability, and promotes apoptosis of HCC cells. In addition, EGb761 reduces proliferation and increases apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinomas (HepG2) cells in a dose-dependent manner. We also find that EGb761 exerts an anticancer effect on HepG2 cells by activating p53 and inhibiting nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathways. This study confirms that EGb761 inhibits proliferation and triggers apoptosis of HCC cells through the NF-κB/p53 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3978, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770044

RESUMO

Methionine restriction, a dietary regimen that protects against metabolic diseases and aging, represses cancer growth and improves cancer therapy. However, the response of different cancer cells to this nutritional manipulation is highly variable, and the molecular determinants of this heterogeneity remain poorly understood. Here we report that hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) dictates the sensitivity of liver cancer to methionine restriction. We show that hepatic sulfur amino acid (SAA) metabolism is under transcriptional control of HNF4α. Knocking down HNF4α or SAA enzymes in HNF4α-positive epithelial liver cancer lines impairs SAA metabolism, increases resistance to methionine restriction or sorafenib, promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and induces cell migration. Conversely, genetic or metabolic restoration of the transsulfuration pathway in SAA metabolism significantly alleviates the outcomes induced by HNF4α deficiency in liver cancer cells. Our study identifies HNF4α as a regulator of hepatic SAA metabolism that regulates the sensitivity of liver cancer to methionine restriction.


Assuntos
Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Metionina/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Cisteína/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Mesoderma/efeitos dos fármacos , Mesoderma/patologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
J Toxicol Sci ; 45(7): 401-409, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612008

RESUMO

Dihydropyrazines (DHPs), including 3-hydro-2,2,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine (DHP-3), are glycation products that are spontaneously generated in vivo and ingested via food. DHPs generate various radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can induce the expression of several antioxidant genes in HepG2 cells. However, detailed information on DHP-response pathways remains elusive. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of DHP-3 on the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway, a ROS-sensitive signaling pathway. In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated (LPS-stimulated) HepG2 cells, DHP-3 decreased phosphorylation levels of inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) and NF-κB p65, and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. In addition, DHP-3 reduced the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the adaptor protein myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88). Moreover, DHP-3 suppressed the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß). Taken together, these results suggest that DHP-3 acts as a negative regulator of the TLR4-MyD88-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Dicarbetoxi-Di-Hidrocolidina/análogos & derivados , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Dicarbetoxi-Di-Hidrocolidina/efeitos adversos , Dicarbetoxi-Di-Hidrocolidina/toxicidade , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
9.
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer ; 1874(1): 188391, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659252

RESUMO

Lenvatinib, a multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), is an emerging first-line therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Its application has changed the status of sorafenib as the only first-line TKI treatment for HCC for more than a decade. Evidence has shown that lenvatinib possesses antitumor proliferation and immunomodulatory activity in preclinical studies. In comparison, lenvatinib was non-inferior to sorafenib in overall survival (OS), and even shows superiority with regard to all the secondary efficacy endpoints. Immune-checkpoint inhibitors(ICIs)are now being incorporated into HCC treatment. Positive outcomes have been achieved in the combination of lenvatinib plus ICIs, bringing broader prospects for HCC. This review presents an overview on the therapeutic mechanisms and clinical efficacy of lenvatinib in HCC, and we discuss the future perspectives of lenvatinib in HCC management with focus on biomarker-guided precision medicine.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4749-4754, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between the desmoplastic reaction (DR) and clinicopathological features, and the prognosis using cases of resected intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Out of 54 cases that were preoperatively diagnosed with ICC and underwent resection at our department, 47 patients were included in this study. All sections were prepared from resected specimens and were microscopically observed following H&E staining. Stroma were evaluated at the advancing edge of the cancer and stratified into three DR types: mature (DR1), intermediate (DR2), and immature (DR3). RESULTS: DR was correlated to the serum levels of CA19-9, but not to the other tumor factors. In multivariate analysis, only DR and tumor size were determined as independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of DR for ICC may be useful for prognostic assessments.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/metabolismo , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Antígeno CA-19-9/metabolismo , Colangiocarcinoma/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4513-4522, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) arises from hepatocytes, and is the most frequently occurring malignancy of primary liver cancer. In this study, we investigated the anti-metastatic effects of the quaternary ammonium compound, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), on HA22T/VGH HCC cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: According to our preliminary data, the effect of CTAB on cell cycle distribution, migration, invasion and the associated protein levels was examined using flow cytometry, wound-healing migration, Matrigel transwell invasion assay and western blotting under sub-lethal concentrations. RESULTS: CTAB treatment of HA22T/VGH cells casued dose-dependent mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET)-like changes and impaired migration and invasion capabilities. In addition, CTAB reduced the levels of metastasis-related proteins including c-Met, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), Twist, N-cadherin, and Vimentin. Moreover, pretreatment with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) rescued CTAB-mediated effects. CONCLUSION: CTAB exhibited potent anti-EMT and anti-metastatic activities through the inhibition of migration and invasion of HA22T/VGH cells. CTAB interrupted the mesenchymal characteristics of HA22T/VGH cells, which were significantly alleviated by HGF in a dose-dependent manner. CTAB has the potential to evolve as a therapeutic agent for HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Cetrimônio/farmacologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
12.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(10): 2439-2446, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725355

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is considered as a diagnostic and prognostic tumorous marker for HCC, and up to 70% of HCC patients showed elevated serum levels of AFP. In the past two decades, evidences have shown that AFP not only is a tumorous biomarker for diagnosing HCC, but also plays a very complicated role in regulating proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy and inhibiting the immune response of cells. Because AFP is significantly elevated during hepatocarcinogenesis, the role of AFP in the development of HCC is a scientific problem worthy of further exploration. In this review, we reviewed the effects of AFP on hepatocyte malignant transformation and the underlying mechanisms involved in the progression of HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , alfa-Fetoproteínas/metabolismo , Apoptose/fisiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , alfa-Fetoproteínas/biossíntese , alfa-Fetoproteínas/genética
13.
Life Sci ; 257: 118131, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710948

RESUMO

AIMS: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters constitute one of the largest families of membrane proteins in most organisms; however, their functions in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. MAIN METHODS: A set of bioinformatic tools was integrated to analyze the expression of 49 members of the ABC transporter family. The function of members which had prognostic values in HCC was explored by gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis. KEY FINDINGS: ABCA8 and ABCA9 were significantly down-regulated in HCC. Prognostic analysis indicated that HCC patients with low expression of ABCA8 and ABCA9 had significantly shorter survival time. On the contrary, ABCB6 was over-expressed in the disease and high expression of ABCB6 was associated with worse prognosis. Co-expression analysis, and subsequently GO and KEGG analysis indicated that ABCA8 and ABCA9 might participate in the catabolic processes of multiple metabolites, while ABCB6 might regulate ferroptosis. SIGNIFICANCE: This study reveals a previously unrecognized function of ABCB6 in HCC, by regulating ferroptosis. Since ABCB6 is over-expressed in HCC and ferroptosis involves in cancer development, ABCB6 might be a promising therapeutic target in the disease.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Ferroptose , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Análise de Sobrevida
14.
Anticancer Res ; 40(7): 4105-4113, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Assessment of the biological behavior of tumors is important for choosing an appropriate cancer therapy. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the biological behaviour can be assessed by tumor morphology and molecular biology. This study investigated the usefulness of tumor tissue biopsy for predicting the biological behavior of HCC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 43 patients who underwent hepatectomy and preoperative liver tumor biopsy for HCC. We performed clinicopathological and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses. The expression of the following molecules was examined: regulator of G-protein signaling 5 (RGS5), glypican-3 (GPC3), keratin 19 (K19), epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II), ß-Catenin, and p53. RESULTS: There was an overall 83.7% agreement regarding tumor differentiation between the preoperative biopsy specimens and the resected specimens. The accuracy of IHC analysis was more than 70% for all molecules between the preoperative biopsy specimens and the resected specimens. The RGS5-positive biopsy cases had higher serum α-fetoprotein levels (p=0.04), a higher rate of moderately or poorly differentiated tumors (p=0.02) and portal vein invasion (p=0.0003) than the RGS5-negative biopsy cases. The GPC3-positive biopsy cases were younger (p=0.04), had higher serum PIVKA-II levels (p=0.01), and a higher rate of portal vein invasion (p=0.03) than the GPC3-negative biopsy cases. The PIVKA-II-positive biopsy cases had significantly higher serum PIVKA-II levels than the PIVKA-II-negative biopsy cases (p=0.02). The other molecular markers showed no significantly different clinical findings between the positive and negative cases. CONCLUSION: In HCC, there was a high agreement rate of both the histopathological and IHC findings between preoperative biopsy specimens and resected specimens. In the biopsy specimens of HCC, RGS5 and GPC3 expression were useful molecular makers for predicting portal vein invasion. Liver tumor biopsy is useful for predicting the biological behavior of HCC through histopathological and immunohistochemical findings.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Glipicanas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Veia Porta/patologia , Proteínas RGS/metabolismo , Idoso , Biópsia , Feminino , Hepatectomia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Anticancer Res ; 40(7): 3819-3830, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Picrasma quassioides (PQ) is a traditional Asian herbal medicine with anti-tumor properties that can inhibit the viability of HepG2 liver cancer cells. H-Ras is often mutated in liver cancer, however, the effect of PQ treatment on H-Ras mutated liver cancer is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of PQ on ROS accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction in H-ras mutated HepG2 (HepG2G12V) cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PQ ethanol extract-induced HepG2G12V apoptosis was analyzed by the MTT assay, fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and western blotting. RESULTS: PQ treatment affected cell migration and colony formation in HepG2G12V cells. Cleaved-caspase-3, cleaved-caspase-9 and BCL2 associated agonist of cell death (BAD) expression levels were increased, while the levels of B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) were decreased with PQ treatment. PQ treatment led to a reduction of H-Ras expression levels in liver cancer cells, thus reducing their abnormal proliferation. Furthermore, it led to increased expression levels of Peroxiredoxin VI, which regulates the redox signal in cells. CONCLUSION: Taken together these results provide a new functional significance for the role of PQ in treating HepG2G12V liver cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes ras , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Picrasma/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/biossíntese
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235576, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading indication for liver transplantation (LT) worldwide. Early identification of patients at risk for HCC recurrence is of paramount importance since early treatment of recurrent HCC after LT may be associated with increased survival. We evaluated incidence of and predictors for HCC recurrence, with a focus on the course of AFP levels. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, single-center study of 99 HCC patients who underwent LT between January 28th, 1997 and May 11th, 2016. A multi-stage proportional hazards model with three stages was used to evaluate potential predictive markers, both by univariate and multivariable analysis, for influences on 1) recurrence after transplantation, 2) mortality without HCC recurrence, and 3) mortality after recurrence. RESULTS: 19/99 HCC patients showed recurrence after LT. Waiting time was not associated with overall HCC recurrence (HR = 1, p = 0.979). Similarly, waiting time did not affect mortality in LT recipients both with (HR = 0.97, p = 0.282) or without (HR = 0.99, p = 0.685) HCC recurrence. Log10-transformed AFP values at the time of LT (HR 1.75, p = 0.023) as well as after LT (HR 2.07, p = 0.037) were significantly associated with recurrence. Median survival in patients with a ratio (AFP at recurrence divided by AFP 3 months before recurrence) of 0.5 was greater than 70 months, as compared to a median of only 8 months in patients with a ratio of 5. CONCLUSION: A rise in AFP levels rather than an absolute threshold could help to identify patients at short-term risk for HCC recurrence post LT, which may allow intensification of the surveillance strategy on an individualized basis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , alfa-Fetoproteínas/análise , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Transplante de Fígado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(10): 2461-2477, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32685988

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate DNA methylation alterations in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-related hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). METHODS: Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis was performed using the Infinium Human Methylation 450 K BeadChip, and levels of mRNA expression were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. RESULTS: Compared to 36 samples of normal control liver tissue (C), DNA methylation alterations were observed on 19,281 probes in 22 samples of cancerous tissue (T) obtained from patients showing histological features compatible with NASH in their non-cancerous liver tissue (N). Among those probes, 1396 were located within CpG islands or their shores and shelves, designed around the transcription start sites of 726 genes. In representative genes, such as DCAF4L2, CKLF, TRIM4, PRC1, UBE2C and TUBA1B, both DNA hypomethylation and mRNA overexpression were observed in T samples relative to C samples, and the levels of DNA methylation and mRNA expression were inversely correlated with each other. DNA hypomethylation occurred even in N samples at the precancerous NASH stage, and this was inherited by or further strengthened in T samples. DNA hypomethylation of DCAF4L2, CKLF and UBE2C was observed in both NASH-related and viral hepatitis-related HCCs, whereas that of TRIM4, PRC1 and TUBA1B occurred in a NASH-related HCC-specific manner. DNA hypomethylation and/or mRNA overexpression of these genes was frequently associated with the necroinflammatory grade of NASH and was correlated with poorer tumor differentiation. CONCLUSION: DNA methylation alterations may occur under the necroinflammatory conditions characteristic of NASH and participate in NASH-related hepatocarcinogenesis through aberrant expression of tumor-related genes.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Metilação de DNA , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
18.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 31, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are utilized in clinical practice; however, the prognosis is still poor on account of high recurrence rates. DNA methylation levels of CpG islands around promoters (promoter CpGis) inversely regulate gene expression and closely involved in carcinogenesis. As a new strategy, several chemicals globally inhibiting DNA methylation have been developed aiming at reducing DNA methylation levels and maintaining the expression of tumor suppressor genes. On the other hand, since these drugs nonspecifically modify DNA methylation, they can cause serious adverse effects. In order to ameliorate the methods by targeting specific CpGs, information of cancer-related genes that are regulated by DNA methylation is required. METHODS: We searched candidate genes whose expressions were regulated by DNA methylation of promoter CpGi and which are involved in HCC cases. To do so, we first identified genes whose expression were changed in HCC by comparing gene expressions of 371 HCC tissues and 41 non-tumor tissues using the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The genes were further selected for poor prognosis by log-rank test of Kaplan-Meier plot and for cancer relevance by Pubmed search. Expression profiles of upregulated genes in HCC tissues were assessed by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. Finally, using DNA methylation data of TCGA database, we selected genes whose promoter DNA methylation levels were inversely correlated with gene expression. RESULTS: We found 115 genes which were significantly up- or downregulated in HCC tissues and were associated with poor prognosis and cancer relevance. The upregulated genes were significantly enriched in cell division, cell cycle, and cell proliferation. Among the upregulated genes in HCC, we identified hypomethylation of CpGis around promoters of FANCB, KIF15, KIF4A, ERCC6L, and UBE2C. In addition, TCGA data showed that the tumor suppressor gene P16 is unexpectedly overexpressed in many types of cancers. CONCLUSIONS: We identified five candidate genes whose expressions were regulated by DNA methylation of promoter CpGi and associate with cancer cases and poor prognosis in HCC. Modification of site-specific DNA methylation of these genes enables a different approach for HCC treatment with higher selectivity and lower adverse effects.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
19.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(5): 174, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548786

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a foremost type of cancer problem in which asialoglycoprotein receptors are overexpressed. In this study, asialoglycoprotein receptor-targeted nanoformulation (galactose-conjugated TPGS micelles) loaded with docetaxel (DTX) was developed to achieve its site-specific delivery for HCC therapy. The pharmaceutical characteristics like shape morphology, average particle size and zeta potential, drug entrapment efficiency, and in vitro release kinetics of developed system were evaluated. DTX-loaded galactosylated TPGS (DTX-TPGS-Gal) micelles and TPGS micelles (DTX-TPGS) were having 58.76 ± 1.82% and 54.76 ± 1.42% entrapment of the DTX, respectively. In vitro drug release behavior from micelles was controlled release. Cytotoxicitiy (IC50) of DTX-TPGS-Gal formulation on HepG2 cell lines was significantly (p ≤ 0.01) lower (6.3 ± 0.86 µg/ml) than DTX-TPGS (9.06 ± 0.82 µg/ml) and plain DTX (16.06 ± 0.98 µg/ml) indicating higher efficacy of targeted formulation. Further, in vivo biodistribution studies in animal model showed maximum drug accumulation at target site, i.e., the liver in the case of DTX-TPGS-Gal as compared with non-targeted one. It is concluded from the findings that TPGS-Gal micelles can be utilized for targeted drug delivery of cytotoxic drugs towards HCC with minimized side effects. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Docetaxel/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Galactose/química , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Vitamina E/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Docetaxel/farmacocinética , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Galactose/administração & dosagem , Galactose/farmacocinética , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Distribuição Tecidual/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Tecidual/fisiologia , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Vitamina E/farmacocinética
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3214, 2020 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32587247

RESUMO

Long intergenic non-coding RNA-Nucleotide Metabolism Regulator (lincNMR) is a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) which is induced in hepatocellular carcinoma. Its depletion invokes a proliferation defect, triggers senescence and inhibits colony formation in liver, but also breast and lung cancer cells. Triple-label SILAC proteomics profiles reveal a deregulation of key cell cycle regulators in lincNMR-depleted cells like the key dNTP synthesizing enzymes RRM2, TYMS and TK1, implicating lincNMR in regulating nucleotide metabolism. LincNMR silencing decreases dNTP levels, while exogenous dNTPs rescues the proliferation defect induced by lincNMR depletion. In vivo RNA Antisense Purification (RAP-MS) identifies YBX1 as a direct interaction partner of lincNMR which regulates RRM2, TYMS and TK1 expression and binds to their promoter regions. In a Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM) in vivo model, lincNMR-depleted tumors are significantly smaller. In summary, we discover a lincRNA, lincNMR, which regulates tumor cell proliferation through a YBX1-RRM2-TYMS-TK1 axis governing nucleotide metabolism.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Ribonucleosídeo Difosfato Redutase , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Y-Box , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Ribonucleosídeo Difosfato Redutase/genética , Ribonucleosídeo Difosfato Redutase/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Y-Box/genética , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Y-Box/metabolismo
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