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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1268: 335-353, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918227

RESUMO

Although great progress has been achieved during the last decades, the clinical management of organ transplant recipients (OTRs) remains a challenge. OTRs need in general lifelong immunosuppressive therapy that is associated with an increased risk to develop skin cancer and with an unfavorable clinical outcome of these malignancies. Skin cancer prevention measures, including regular full-body examinations, are therefore necessary in OTRs to detect and treat suspicious lesions at an early stage. The frequency of aftercare depends on the individual risk factors of the patient. Patients should apply consistent sun protection with sunscreens and clothing, as well as a monthly self-examination. On the other hand, the need of UVR avoidance increases the risk of vitamin D deficiency, which itself is associated with an increased risk for many diseases, including malignancies. OTRs should therefore be monitored for 25(OH)D status and/or should take vitamin D supplements. It has to be emphasized that an interdisciplinary approach, coordinated by the transplant center, that includes regular skin examinations by a dermatologist, is needed to ensure the best care for the OTRs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Transplantados , Raios Ultravioleta , Vitamina D , Humanos , Imunossupressão/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Transplantados/estatística & dados numéricos , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/sangue
4.
Int J Radiat Biol ; 96(3): 297-323, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852363

RESUMO

Purpose: Humans are increasingly exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). Both low (<100 mGy) and high doses can cause stochastic effects, including cancer; whereas doses above 100 mGy are needed to promote tissue or cell damage. 10-15% of radiotherapy (RT) patients suffer adverse reactions, described as displaying radiosensitivity (RS). Sensitivity to IR's stochastic effects is termed radiosusceptibility (RSu). To optimize radiation protection we need to understand the range of individual variability and underlying mechanisms. We review the potential mechanisms contributing to RS/RSu focusing on RS following RT, the most tractable RS group.Conclusions: The IR-induced DNA damage response (DDR) has been well characterized. Patients with mutations in the DDR have been identified and display marked RS but they represent only a small percentage of the RT patients with adverse reactions. We review the impacting mechanisms and additional factors influencing RS/RSu. We discuss whether RS/RSu might be genetically determined. As a recommendation, we propose that a prospective study be established to assess RS following RT. The study should detail tumor site and encompass a well-defined grading system. Predictive assays should be independently validated. Detailed analysis of the inflammatory, stress and immune responses, mitochondrial function and life style factors should be included. Existing cohorts should also be optimally exploited.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/diagnóstico , Radiação Ionizante , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Animais , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular , Dano ao DNA , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Humanos , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Estresse Oxidativo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Lesões por Radiação , Proteção Radiológica , Tolerância a Radiação , Radioterapia , Processos Estocásticos
5.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(11): 3211-3219, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Microwave radiation is one of the most growing environmental workplace factors that exposes too many workers in the various workplaces. Regard to concerns about cancer incidence in these workers and lack of systematic or meta-analytic studies about this object, so, we conducted a meta-analysis to acquire an understanding of the association between cancer risk and occupational exposure to radar radiation. METHODS: A systematic search was carried out on case-control, cohort and clinical control trial studies that published in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus and Google scholar databases that accomplished from March 2017 to March 2018 and updated on 30 September, 2018 in English and Persian articles without time limit in publication date. Keywords were selected based on PICO principle and collected from MeSH database. After removal of duplicated studied, taking into inclusion and exclusion criteria, the process of screening was carried out and data were extracted after preparation of the full text of included articles. Article collection was completed by manually searching for a reference list of eligible studies. For quality assessment of included studies, Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used. RESULTS: a total of 533 studies was found in the first step of literature search, only 6 were included with 53,008 sample size according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Estimated pooled random effects size analysis showed no significant increasing effect of occupational exposure to radar radiation on mortality rate (MR=0.81, 95%CI: 0.78, 0.83) and relative risk (RR=0.87, 95%CI: 0.75, 0.99, P <0.0001) of cancer with a significant heterogeneity between the selected studies. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the results of this meta-analysis study have shown no significant increase in overall mortality ratio and cancer risk ratio from occupational exposure to the radar frequency of workers. But, these results are not conclusive. As regards to some limitation such as fewer numbers of included studies, lack of data about exposure characterizations and demographic characterizations in this meta-analysis, this result is not certain and conclusive. It is recommended to conduct future studies.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Radar/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
6.
Bull Cancer ; 106(10): 903-914, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495441

RESUMO

Germ-cell tumors are the most common solid tumors in young men. The follow-up of these patients is very important in their management. In stage I testicular cancer, surveillance is the standard for low-risk disease. In addition to the early detection of relapse, follow-up should be directed towards prevention, detection and treatment of late toxicity, and secondary malignancies. Follow up consists in physical examination, laboratory analysis and radiological imaging. Recently, guidelines recommend risk-adapted surveillance strategy, with a reduction of CT scans numbers, due to the recognition of the risk of ionizing radiation exposure. However, efforts to maintain adequate compliance with follow up are required.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/prevenção & controle , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Testiculares/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/patologia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Cooperação do Paciente , Exposição à Radiação/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Secundária , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
7.
Am J Case Rep ; 20: 1063-1070, 2019 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Radiation, specifically ionizing radiation, causes broad-spectrum gene damage, including double-strand DNA breaks, single DNA strand breaks, cross links, and individual base lesions, thus causing chromosomal translocations, deletions, point mutations, and, consequently, various types of cancer. Radiation also causes genomic instability in cells, which enhances the rate of mutations in the descendants of the irradiated cell after many generations of normal replications. CASE REPORT We report the first case of mantle cell lymphoma of the torus tubarius, and the first CD10-positive mantle cell lymphoma of the Waldeyer's ring. Mantle cell lymphoma appeared 65 years after treatment of chronic sinusitis with nasopharyngeal radium irradiation. CONCLUSIONS On the basis of the medical literature about atomic bomb survivors, nuclear plant workers, and radiologists exposed to radiation, and our case, we conclude that radiation can, in a very small percentage of exposed individuals, cause non-Hodgkin lymphoma: in 0.24% of atomic bomb survivors and in at least 0.13% of the patients treated with nasopharyngeal radium irradiation. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma can occur many decades after radiation exposure, and individuals treated with nasopharyngeal radium irradiation, usually in their childhood, need continuing follow-up.


Assuntos
Linfoma de Célula do Manto/etiologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/etiologia , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/etiologia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/etiologia , Sinusite/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Língua/etiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Braquiterapia/efeitos adversos , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/diagnóstico , Masculino , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/diagnóstico , Rádio (Elemento) , Neoplasias da Língua/diagnóstico
8.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 184(3-4): 496-499, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330007

RESUMO

Radon is the second most important risk factor for lung cancer after tobacco smoking. In Chiang Mai, Thailand, the values of indoor radon activity concentrations are considerably higher than global average values and it is a highest level among East Asian countries. The aim of our study is to identify novel biomarkers for lung cancer risk in high radon areas using a proteomic approach. In our transitional study, a total of 81 participants of non-smokers were examined, consist of 25 lung cancer patients (LC), 16 healthy controls from low levels of natural radiation areas (LLNRA) and 40 healthy controls from high levels of natural radiation areas (HLNRA). The results showed that a total of 799 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Among these, a total of 25 proteins were observed in both LC and HLNRA, but not in LINRA. Owing to the results obtained from this study, we also point out the research direction regarding the validation of some new candidate protein as a biomarker to screen population with high risk for lung cancer in the area with high levels of radon.


Assuntos
Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/análise , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/diagnóstico , Proteoma/análise , Radônio/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/sangue , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/etiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Tailândia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Dermatol Online J ; 25(5)2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220903

RESUMO

Cutaneous epithelioid angiosarcoma is a rare neoplasm of vascular endothelial cell origin that can mimic a cutaneous lymphoma, metastatic carcinoma, or Kaposi sarcoma. It is one of the most malignant cutaneous tumors and early diagnosis is essential, as the tumor metastasizes quickly. We describe a 75-year-old man who presented with three tender, indurated violaceous plaques on his scalp. Biopsy revealed a poorly circumscribed infiltrate extending into the subcutaneous fat, composed of atypical epithelioid cells lining vascular spaces. We provide a brief review of the clinical presentation, histopathologic features, differential diagnosis, and management of this rare tumor.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Hemangiossarcoma/patologia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Idoso , Carcinoma/diagnóstico , Carcinoma/secundário , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Dermatológicos/métodos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Hemangiossarcoma/diagnóstico , Hemangiossarcoma/terapia , Humanos , Linfoma Cutâneo de Células T/diagnóstico , Masculino , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/terapia , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia/métodos , Sarcoma de Kaposi/diagnóstico , Couro Cabeludo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/radioterapia
12.
Int J Radiat Biol ; 95(10): 1372-1377, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145030

RESUMO

Purpose: Projects evaluating the effects of radiation, within the National Institutes of Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST), National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), have focused on risk analyses for life shortening and cancer prevalence using laboratory animals. Genetic and epigenetic alterations in radiation-induced tumors have been also analyzed with the aim of better understanding mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis. As well as the economic and practical limitations of repeating such large-scale experiments, ethical considerations make it vital that we store and share the pathological data and samples of the animal experiments for future use. We are now constructing such an archive called the Japan-Storehouse of Animal Radiobiology Experiments (J-SHARE). Methods: J-SHARE records include information such as detailed experimental protocols, necropsy records and photographs of organs at necropsy. For each animal organs and tumor tissues are dissected, and parts are stored as frozen samples at -80 °C. Samples fixed with formalin are also embedded in paraffin blocks for histopathological analyses. Digital copies of stained tissues are being systematically saved using a virtual slide system linked to original records by barcodes. Embedded and frozen tissues are available for molecular analysis. Conclusion: Similar archive systems for radiation biology have also been under construction in the USA and Europe, the Northwestern University Radiation Archive (NURA), and STORE at the BfS, respectively. The J-SHARE will be linked with the sister-archives and made available for collaborative research to institutions and universities all over the world.


Assuntos
Acesso à Informação , Histologia , Radiobiologia/métodos , Experimentação Animal , Animais , Arquivos , Carcinogênese , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Japão , Registros Médicos , Camundongos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/genética , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Radiobiologia/tendências , Pesquisa/tendências , Projetos de Pesquisa , Medição de Risco
13.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 99(10): 878-883, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017252

RESUMO

The incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma has increased rapidly in Sweden in the past decades. Here, we present a prospective study of the Melanoma in Southern Sweden (MISS)-cohort, with 29,460 participating women in southern Sweden that investigates the risk factors for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Data on the host and skin cancer risk factors were collected through questionnaires and then matched with the National Cancer Registry. Statistical analyses were based on uni- and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, using age as the time-scale. We found that sunbed use (hazard ratio (HR) 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.4), red and light blond hair (HR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.3), freckles (HR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.8) and immunosuppressive medications (HR 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-4.5) were independent risk factors. Furthermore, we observed a dose-dependent relationship between sunbed use and the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Our findings support the idea of integrating dermatological follow-up examinations for immunosuppressed patients and banning the use of sunbeds in order to prevent cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Banho de Sol , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/imunologia , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Cor de Olho , Feminino , Cor de Cabelo , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Suécia/epidemiologia
14.
Oncology ; 96(4): 173-178, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30836369

RESUMO

Firstly used in the early 90s to generate 3-dimensional projections of X-ray images, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has resulted in a large application in dentomaxillofacial imaging, even in children. CBCT uses ionizing radiation that may cause damage to the DNA, and children are at the greatest carcinogenesis risk due to their higher tissue radiosensitivity and their longer life expectancy compared to adults. The questions of whether the cancer risk is really increased after repeated dental CBCT in childhood and of what the underlying biological basis is have become hot topics in the field of dentistry and radiobiology. We performed an overview of the current literature to assess an acceptable role of CBCT in pediatric dentistry.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/efeitos adversos , Dano ao DNA , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/etiologia , Odontopediatria , Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos , Radiografia Dentária/efeitos adversos , Fatores Etários , Humanos , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/genética , Odontopediatria/métodos , Radiografia Dentária/métodos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Tumori ; 105(6): NP4-NP7, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808258

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The most important long-term effect of radiotherapy is induction of secondary cancers. A rare radiation-induced tumor is a squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal. Case reports have been described in Asian patients after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer. CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe an unusual case report of a 53-year-old Caucasian man who developed squamous cell carcinomas of the right and left external auditory canal, respectively 29 and 30 years after radiotherapy for a pituitary adenoma. CONCLUSION: In young patients with benign tumors, we should always evaluate whether the benefits of radiotherapy outweigh the risks and side effects. After radiotherapy, screening programs should be developed since early detection improves salvage treatment of these secondary and often morbid tumors.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Neoplasias da Orelha/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Orelha/etiologia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/diagnóstico , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/diagnóstico , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/etiologia , Adulto , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Meato Acústico Externo/patologia , Neoplasias da Orelha/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/terapia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/radioterapia , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia/métodos
16.
Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) ; 31(4): 232-241, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718086

RESUMO

AIMS: Angiosarcoma is a rare and aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. There is limited literature describing prognostic factors and guidelines for treatment. We aim to describe outcomes in angiosarcoma, including the impact of patient-, tumour- and treatment-related factors on prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with non-metastatic angiosarcoma diagnosed between 2008 and 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards methods were used to evaluate factors associated with locoregional recurrence, distant failure and overall survival. The Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank statistics were used to compare outcomes among patients with and without a history of prior radiation therapy. RESULTS: The cohort included 65 patients. The median age at diagnosis was 68 years (35-93). Nineteen patients had a history of receiving prior radiation therapy at the anatomic location of their angiosarcoma. Treatment modalities included surgery (n = 19), surgery + radiation therapy (n = 12), surgery + chemotherapy (n = 8), chemotherapy + radiation therapy (n = 7) and all three modalities (n = 14). The median follow-up was 18 (2-192) months. The 2-year locoregional control, distant control and overall survival were 61.8, 63.6 and 58.9%, respectively. On multivariable analysis, a history of previous radiation therapy was associated with inferior outcomes with respect to locoregional recurrence (hazard ratio 89.67, 95% confidence interval 8.45-951.07, P < 0.001), distant failure (hazard failure 3.74, 95% confidence interval 1.57-8.91, P = 0.003) and overall survival (hazard ratio 3.89, 95% confidence interval 1.56-9.60, P = 0.003). In patients with primary angiosarcoma, the rates of locoregional control, distant control and overall survival were 72.4, 73.4 and 65.1%, respectively, compared with 31.9, 41.1 and 45.1% in patients with radiation therapy-induced angiosarcoma (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Angiosarcomas that arise as a result of previous radiation therapy have worse outcomes compared with primary angiosarcomas. Although selection bias and compromise of clinical care in radiation therapy-induced angiosarcoma are partially to blame, differences in genomic profiles of the tumours need to be characterised to evaluate the underlying biological differences, as this may guide future treatment management. This study adds to the existing body of literature on angiosarcoma. Results from the current study are presented alongside previously published data to further characterise outcomes and prognostic factors on this rare and aggressive malignancy.


Assuntos
Hemangiossarcoma/induzido quimicamente , Hemangiossarcoma/radioterapia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hemangiossarcoma/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
J Cutan Pathol ; 46(1): 52-58, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30251277

RESUMO

Post-radiation vascular lesions are a rare complication most commonly seen in patients previously treated for breast cancer. The main two entities include angiosarcoma (AS), which are malignant tumors that have a poor prognosis, and atypical vascular lesions (AVL), which typically behave in a benign manner and only rarely progress to angiosarcoma. The overall incidence of these lesions is low, but it appears to be increasing. Histopathologic distinction of AVL and AS is essential due to different clinical outcomes and treatment. However, due to the occasional existence of overlapping clinical and histopathologic features, it may be sometimes difficult to render a definite diagnosis, particularly in small biopsies. Ancillary techniques are, in general, of little help for separating the borderland cases but, in some instances, immunohistochemical study (IHC) for Ki67 and IHC or fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis for MYC may help in the diagnosis of angiosarcoma. Herein we discuss the clinical characteristics, histopathologic features, management strategies, and outcome of these lesions, with special emphasis on their differential diagnosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Hemangiossarcoma , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Radiodermatite , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Feminino , Hemangiossarcoma/diagnóstico , Hemangiossarcoma/metabolismo , Hemangiossarcoma/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/patologia , Radiodermatite/diagnóstico , Radiodermatite/metabolismo , Radiodermatite/patologia , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
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