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1.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4417-4422, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Ovarian carcinoma is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women in the United States. Serous papillary carcinoma is the most common histological type of ovarian carcinoma that often goes undetected until it has spread within the pelvis and abdomen leading to poor prognosis. Translation of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology into personalized medicine and identification of new potential targets for therapeutic applications may be helpful. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 59-year-old female who initially presented in the emergency department with increasing abdominal girth, and bloating. Computed tomography showed ascites and omental and pelvic masses. Fine needle biopsy of the omental mass showed high-grade papillary adenocarcinoma consistent with high-grade ovarian serous carcinoma. She was treated with chemotherapy followed by debulking surgery. Primary ovarian serous carcinoma and synchronous primary fallopian tube serous carcinoma with multiple leiomyomas were identified in the surgical specimen. Pleural biopsy was also positive for carcinoma. NGS and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression testing were performed in the ovarian serous carcinoma. The results showed mutations of breast cancer type 1 (BRCA1) and type 2 (BRCA2), tumor protein p53 (TP53) (c.524G>A at pR175H), and heat shock protein 90 alpha family class B member 1 (HSP90AB1) (p.R456C), as well as low RNA expression score of PD-L1. CONCLUSION: Identification of these mutations and PD-L1 abnormality at the diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma may shed light for clinicians to provide targeted therapy with poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors for ovarian serous carcinoma. This is the first documented case of ovarian serous carcinoma to have found a HSP90AB1 (p.R456C) mutation.


Assuntos
Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/genética , Leiomiomatose/genética , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/tratamento farmacológico , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução , Tratamento Farmacológico , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/cirurgia , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Leiomiomatose/tratamento farmacológico , Leiomiomatose/patologia , Leiomiomatose/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Estados Unidos
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e27130, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477158

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Bevacizumab (BV) plus chemotherapy is broadly used in advanced ovarian cancer (OC). However, the efficacy of BV-based regimens for advanced OC patients is not satisfactory. Therefore, it is urgent to explore the predictive genetic biomarkers for BV.Tumor tissues from advanced OC patients receiving BV-based regimens were analyzed with a 150-gene targeted panel for next generation sequencing. The associations between gene alterations or clinicopathology features and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier curves or Cox regression. The association of the genetic alteration in potential predictive genes and expressions of 11 vascular endothelial growth factor-related genes were analyzed in The Cancer Genome Atlas cohort using 292 OC cases.Sixty two Chinese advanced OC patients treated with BV-based therapy were included. The median PFS of was 6.9 months, and objective response rate was 14.5%. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, the status of endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) (hazard ratio = 6.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.25-18.13, P < .001) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) (hazard ratio = 3.58, 95% CI 1.27-10.08, P = .016) were significantly correlated with PFS. MYC Proto-Oncogene amplification seemed to have a positive trend (hazard ratio = 0.21, 95% CI 0.05-1.02, P = .052). Moreover, EGFR and HER2 alterations were not prognostic factors of overall survival for OC in The Cancer Genome Atlas OC cohort. The vascular endothelial growth factor-related signature analysis indicated vascular endothelial factor A expression was upregulated with EGFR alterations (P = .034) which may be involved in BV resistance, and HER2 alterations were associated with hypoxia inducible factor 1 subunit alpha overexpression significantly (P = .029).EGFR or HER2 alterations are negative predictors of PFS for OC patient treated with BV plus chemotherapy. Therefore, the clinicians may consider to use alternative regimens such as anti-EGFR or anti-HER2 targeted therapy instead of BV-based regimens on these patients when standard care fail.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Genes erbB-1 , Genes erbB-2 , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
3.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4277-4285, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: To evaluate the antitumor effects of Plitidepsin against clear cell carcinoma (CCC) of the ovary. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of eEF1A2 in ovarian cancer was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Using ovarian CCC cell lines, the antitumor effect of Plitidepsin was assessed both in vitro and in vivo. By over-expressing or knocking down the eEF1A2 expression, we investigated the role of eEF1A2 in the sensitivity of CCC cells to Plitidepsin. RESULTS: Immunoreactivity to eEF1A2 was observed in 76.2% of CCC, which was significantly higher than other histological subtypes of ovarian cancer. Plitidepsin exhibited significant antitumor activity toward chemonaive and chemoresistant CCC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Ectopic expression of eEF1A2 in CCC cells resulted in increased sensitivity to Plitidepsin. In contrast, eEF1A2 knockdown decreased sensitivity of CCC cells to plitidepsin. CONCLUSION: Plitidepsin, a novel anti-cancer agent that targets eEF1A2, may be a promising agent for treating ovarian CCC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/tratamento farmacológico , Depsipeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Fator 1 de Elongação de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Peptídeos Cíclicos/administração & dosagem , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino , Depsipeptídeos/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Camundongos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Fator 1 de Elongação de Peptídeos/genética , Peptídeos Cíclicos/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
4.
In Vivo ; 35(5): 2647-2653, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: To evaluate the role of serine protease inhibitor B11 (SERPINB11) expression as a prognostic biomarker in high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) and clear cell carcinoma of the ovary (CCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We obtained tumor tissues from patients with HGSC (n=145) and CCC (n=59). We evaluated immunohistochemically the expression of SERPINB11 and investigated whether SERPINB11 expression affects platinum-resistance and the prognosis of HGSC and CCC. RESULTS: High expression of SERPINB11 was more common in CCC than in HGSC (57.6% vs. 28.3%; p<0.01), and SEPRINB11 expression did not correlate with platinum-resistance of HGSC and CCC. High expression of SERPINB11 was associated with worse progression-free survival and overall survival with marginal significance in HGSC; no relation between SERPINB11 expression and the prognosis of CCC was found. CONCLUSION: SERPINB11 expression maybe a prognostic biomarker for HGSC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Serpinas , Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Prognóstico , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase , Serpinas/genética
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(32): e26922, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As an anticancer gene, microRNA-145 (miRNA-145) inhibits the growth, migration, and invasion of cancer cells, and inhibits tumorigenesis by targeting various genes that are abnormally expressed in tumors. However, whether miRNA-145 can be applied as a biomarker for potential prognosis of ovarian cancer still remains controversial. Therefore, this study further explored the prognostic value and mechanism of miRNA-145 in ovarian cancer through meta-analysis and bioinformatics analysis. METHODS: Eligible studies were identified by searching the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Biomedical literature Database, Chinese Scientific and Journal Database, Wan Fang database, PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science up to July 2021. Pooled hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals for patient survival were calculated to investigate the effects of miRNA-145 on the prognosis of ovarian cancer. Survival curves of differential expression of miRNA-145 were analyzed by Oncomir. The target genes of miRNA-145 were predicted by miRTARbase and Diana-Tarbase V7.0 database. Enrichr database was applied to analyze the target genes by gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Protein-protein interaction network of target genes was constructed from STRING database. Cytoscape software was used to screen the hub genes to meet the requirements. The Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis database was applied to analyze the survival outcomes of hub genes. RESULTS: The results of this meta-analysis would be submitted to peer-reviewed journals for publication. CONCLUSION: This study provides high-quality evidence to support the relationship between miRNA-145 expression and ovarian cancer prognosis. Through bioinformatics analysis, we further explored the mechanism of miRNA-145 in ovarian cancer and related pathways.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/biossíntese , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Prognóstico
6.
Mol Biol (Mosk) ; 55(4): 598-605, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432777

RESUMO

Recently, a wealth of data have been accumulating on the role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the fine-tuning of mRNA expression. Four new lncRNAs, namely, TMEM92-AS1, FAM222A-AS, TXLNB, and lnc-CCL28, were identified as differentially expressed in ovarian tumors using deep machine learning. The levels of lnc-CCL28 transcripts in both tumors and normal tissue samples were sufficient for further analysis by RT-PCR. In addition, the promising ovarian cancer biomarkers, lncRNAs LINC00152, NEAT 1 and SNHG17 were added to RT-PCR analysis. For the first time, an increase in the level of lnc-CCL28 and SNHG 17 lncRNAs was found in ovarian tumors, and the overexpression of LINC00152 and NEAT1 was confirmed. It seems that lnc-CCL28 is involved in carcinogenesis and, in particular, in ovarian cancer progression. Overexpression of LINC00152 and lnc-CCL28 was significantly associated with the later stages and metastasis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , RNA Longo não Codificante , Carcinogênese/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1330: 1-19, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339027

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most lethal gynecological malignancy among women worldwide. In most cases, it is diagnosed late at an advanced stage and does not respond well to existing therapies leading to its poor prognosis. In addition, other factors including epidemiological, complex histological diversity, multiple molecular alterations, and overlapping signaling pathways are also important contributors to poor disease outcome. Efforts have continued to develop a deeper understanding of the molecular pathogenesis and altered signaling nodes that provide hope for better clinical management through the development of novel approaches for early diagnosis, disease subtyping, prognosis, and therapy. In this chapter, we provide a detailed overview of OC and its histological subtypes and discuss prevalent molecular aberrations and active signaling pathways that drive OC progression. We also summarize various diagnostic and prognostic markers and therapeutic approaches currently being employed and discuss emerging findings that hold the potential to change the future course of OC management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1330: 95-112, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339032

RESUMO

Ovarian Cancer is one of the most lethal and widespread gynecological malignancies. It is the seventh leading cause of all cancer deaths worldwide. High-Grade Serous Cancer (HGSC), the most commonly occurring subtype, alone contributes to 70% of all ovarian cancer deaths. This is mainly attributed to the complete lack of symptoms during the early stages of the disease and absence of an early diagnostic marker.PAX8 is emerging as an important histological marker for most of the epithelial ovarian cancers, as it is expressed in about 90% of malignant ovarian cancers, specifically in HGSC. PAX8 is a member of the Paired-Box gene family (PAX1-9) of transcription factors whose expression is tightly controlled temporally and spatially. The PAX genes are well known for their role in embryonic development and their expression continues to persist in some adult tissues. PAX8 is required for the normal development of Müllerian duct that includes Fallopian tube, uterus, cervix, and upper part of vagina. In adults, it is expressed in the Fallopian tube and uterine epithelium and not in the ovarian epithelium. Considering the recent studies that predict the events preceding the tumorigenesis of HGSC from the Fallopian tube, PAX8 appears to have an important role in the development of ovarian cancer.In this chapter, we review some of the published findings to highlight the significance of PAX8 as an important marker and an emerging player in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. We also discuss regarding the future perspectives of PAX8 wherein it could contribute to the betterment of ovarian cancer diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , Adulto , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Tubas Uterinas , Feminino , Humanos , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX8/genética
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1330: 125-137, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339034

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We tested if METCAM/MUC18 overexpression also plays a suppressor role in another human ovarian cancer cell line, BG-1, in addition to the SK-OV3 cell line. METHODS: Human ovarian cancer BG-1 cells were transfected with METCAM/MUC18 cDNA and G418-resistant clones expressing different levels of METCAM/MUC18 were isolated. These clones were used to test the effects of enforced expression of METCAM/MUC18 on in vitro motility, invasiveness, and anchorage-independent colony formation (in vitro tumorigenesis), and in vivo tumorigenesis after SC injection and after IP injection in female athymic nude mice. RESULTS: Overexpression of METCAM/MUC18 reduced in vitro motility and invasiveness of BG-1 cells and anchorage-independent colony formation (in vitro tumor formation). Higher expression of METCAM/MUC18 in BG-1 cells significantly reduced in vivo tumor proliferation of the BG-1 cells after IP injection (orthotopic route) of the clones in female nude mice, though it did not significantly affect in vivo tumor proliferation after SC injection (non-orthotopic route). CONCLUSION: Similar to SK-OV3 cells, METCAM/MUC18 also plays a suppressor role in the progression of BG-1 cells in a xenograft mouse model.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Animais , Antígeno CD146 , Carcinogênese/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Invasividade Neoplásica , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1330: 113-123, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339033

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer remains the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy in the Western world. Tumors are comprised of heterogeneous populations of various cancer, immune, and stromal cells; it is hypothesized that rare cancer stem cells within these subpopulations lead to disease recurrence and treatment resistance. Technological advances now allow for the analysis of tumor genomes and transcriptomes at the single-cell level, which provides the resolution to potentially identify these rare cancer stem cells within the larger tumor.In this chapter, we review the evolution of next-generation RNA sequencing techniques, the methodology of single-cell isolation and sequencing, sequencing data analysis, and the potential applications in ovarian cancer. We also summarize the current published work using single-cell sequencing in ovarian cancer.By utilizing this novel technique to characterize the gene expression of rare subpopulations, new targets and treatment pathways may be identified in ovarian cancer to change treatment paradigms.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Feminino , Humanos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1330: 151-169, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339036

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer is a heterogenous disease with variable clinicopathological and molecular mechanisms being responsible for tumorigenesis. Despite substantial technological improvement, lack of early diagnosis contributes to its highest mortality. Ovarian cancer is considered to be the most lethal female gynaecological cancer across the world. Conventional treatment modules with platinum- and Taxane-based chemotherapy can cause an initial satisfactory improvement in ovarian cancer patients. However, approximately 75-80% patients of advanced stage ovarian cancer, experience relapse and nearly 40% have overall poor survival rate. It has been observed that a subpopulation of cells referred as cancer stem cells (CSCs), having self renewal property, escape the conventional chemotherapy because of their quiescent nature. Later, these CSCs following its interaction with microenvironment and release of various inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases, induce invasion and propagation to distant organs of the body mainly peritoneal cavity. These CSCs can be enriched by their specific surface markers such as CD44, CD117, CD133 and intracellular enzyme such as aldehyde dehydrogenase. This tumorigenicity is further aggravated by the epithelial to mesenchymal transition of CSCs and neovascularisation via epigenetic reprogramming and over-expression of various signalling cascades such as Wnt/ß-catenin, NOTCH, Hedgehog, etc. to name a few. Hence, a comprehensive understanding of various cellular events involving interaction between cancer cells and cancer stem cells as well as its surrounding micro environmental components would be of unmet need to achieve the ultimate goal of better management of ovarian cancer patients. This chapter deals with the impact of ovarian cancer stem cells in tumorigenesis which would help in the implementation of basic research into the clinical field in the form of translational research in order to reduce the morbidity and mortality in ovarian cancer patients through amelioration of diagnosis and impoverishment of therapeutic resistance.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Feminino , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Microambiente Tumoral
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4919, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389725

RESUMO

BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutations predispose to breast, ovarian and other cancers. High-throughput sequencing of tumour genomes revealed that oncogene amplification and BRCA1/2 mutations are mutually exclusive in cancer, however the molecular mechanism underlying this incompatibility remains unknown. Here, we report that activation of ß-catenin, an oncogene of the WNT signalling pathway, inhibits proliferation of BRCA1/2-deficient cells. RNA-seq analyses revealed ß-catenin-induced discrete transcriptome alterations in BRCA2-deficient cells, including suppression of CDKN1A gene encoding the CDK inhibitor p21. This accelerates G1/S transition, triggering illegitimate origin firing and DNA damage. In addition, ß-catenin activation accelerates replication fork progression in BRCA2-deficient cells, which is critically dependent on p21 downregulation. Importantly, we find that upregulated p21 expression is essential for the survival of BRCA2-deficient cells and tumours. Thus, our work demonstrates that ß-catenin toxicity in cancer cells with compromised BRCA1/2 function is driven by transcriptional alterations that cause aberrant replication and inflict DNA damage.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Oncogenes/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética , beta Catenina/genética , Proteína BRCA1/deficiência , Proteína BRCA2/deficiência , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Células HeLa , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , RNA-Seq/métodos , beta Catenina/metabolismo
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298969

RESUMO

Cancer is a complex disease involving alterations of multiple processes, with both genetic and epigenetic features contributing as core factors to the disease. In recent years, it has become evident that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), an epigenetic factor, play a key role in the initiation and progression of cancer. MicroRNAs, the most studied non-coding RNAs subtype, are key controllers in a myriad of cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Furthermore, the expression of miRNAs is controlled, concomitantly, by other epigenetic factors, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, resulting in aberrant patterns of expression upon the occurrence of cancer. In this sense, aberrant miRNA landscape evaluation has emerged as a promising strategy for cancer management. In this review, we have focused on the regulation (biogenesis, processing, and dysregulation) of miRNAs and their role as modulators of the epigenetic machinery. We have also highlighted their potential clinical value, such as validated diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, and their relevant role as chromatin modifiers in cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias/genética , RNA Neoplásico/genética , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Metilação de DNA , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Terapia Genética , Código das Histonas , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/terapia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Prognóstico , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , RNA Neoplásico/biossíntese , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética
14.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e045075, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253662

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Women who inherit a pathogenic mutation in Breast Cancer Susceptibility Genes 1 or 2 (BRCA1 or BRCA2) are at substantially higher risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer than the average woman. Several cancer risk management strategies exist to address this increased risk. Decisions about which risk management strategies to choose are complex, personal and multifactorial for these women. This scoping review will map evidence relevant to cancer risk management decision making in BRCA mutation carriers without a personal history of cancer. The objective is to identify and describe the features of patient decision aids that have been developed for BRCA mutation carriers. This information may be beneficial for designing new decision aids or adapting existing decision aids to support decision making in this population. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This scoping review will be conducted according to the Joanna Briggs Institute's scoping review methodological framework. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews checklist will be used for guidance. Studies on decision aids for women with a BRCA mutation who are unaffected by breast or ovarian cancer will be considered for inclusion. Five electronic databases will be searched (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science) with no restrictions applied for language or publication date. Studies for inclusion will be selected independently by two review authors. Data will be extracted using a predefined data extraction form. Findings will be presented in tabular form. A narrative description of the evidence will complement the tabulated results. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval for conducting this scoping review is not required as this study will involve secondary analysis of existing literature. Findings will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at relevant conferences.


Assuntos
Genes BRCA2 , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Humanos , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Projetos de Pesquisa , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
15.
Yonsei Med J ; 62(8): 691-701, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296546

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Resveratrol (REV), a natural compound found in red wine, exhibits antitumor activity in various cancers, including ovarian cancer (OC). However, its potential anti-tumor mechanisms in OC are not well characterized. Here, we tried to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of REV in OC cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The anti-proliferative effects of REV against OC cells were measured using CCK-8 assay. Apoptosis was measured using an Annexin V-FITC/PI apoptosis detection kit. The anti-metastasis effects of REV were evaluated by invasion assay and wound healing assay. The miRNA profiles in REV-treated cells were determined by microarray assay. RESULTS: Our results showed that REV treatment suppresses the proliferation, induces the apoptosis, and inhibits the invasion and migration of OV-90 and SKOV-3 cells. miR-34a was selected for further study due to its tumor suppressive roles in various human cancers. We found miR-34a overexpression enhanced the inhibitory effects of REV on OC cells, whereas miR-34a inhibition had the opposite effect in OC cells. In addition, we verified that BCL2, an anti-apoptotic gene, was found directly targeted by miR-34a. We also found that REV reduced the expression of Bcl-2 in OC cells. Further investigations revealed that overexpression of Bcl-2 significantly abolished the anti-tumor effects of REV on OC cells. CONCLUSION: Overall, these results demonstrated that REV exerts anti-cancer effects on OC cells through an miR-34a/Bcl-2 axis, highlighting the therapeutic potential of REV for treatment of OC.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima
16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 138: 111536, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311534

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer rates the highest mortality among all gynecological malignancies. The main reason for high mortality is the development of drug resistance. It can be related to changes in the expression of many drug resistance genes as well as expression of extracellular matrix proteins and cell density in the tumor. We developed a simple two-dimensional and three-dimensional model of drug sensitive A2780 and resistant to cisplatin and paclitaxel variants of ovarian cancer cell line. Using MTT assay, we compared drug resistance in two-dimensional and three-dimensional cell culture conditions. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to compare the expression of drug resistance genes. The expression of proteins in spheroids was determined by immunohistochemistry. We observed a moderate increase in cisplatin resistance and a significant increase in paclitaxel resistance between two-dimensional and three-dimensional cell culture conditions. Our findings show that changes in the expression of drug resistance genes may play a crucial role in the drug resistance of cancer cells in traditional cell culture. On the other hand, the drug resistance in spheroids may result from different mechanisms such as cell density in the spheroid, extracellular matrix proteins expression and drug capacity to diffuse into the spheroid.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Comunicação Celular , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia
17.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1174: 338715, 2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247740

RESUMO

Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have the potential to become reliable and noninvasive biomarkers for ovarian cancer (OC) diagnosis; however, the conventional miRNAs detection techniques exhibit enduring limitations of low sensitivity and specificity. Graphene oxide (GO), a novel nanomaterial, is at the forefront of material design for extensive biomedical applications. Owing to the excellent water affinity and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) adsorption characteristics of GO, we designed and developed a GO-based qRT-PCR assay for the detection of miRNAs associated with OC. In the GO-based qRT-PCR system, GO could significantly improve the sensitivity and specificity of the qRT-PCR assay by noncovalently interacting with primers and ssDNA and reducing the occurrence of non-specific amplification. Moreover, the detection of miRNAs associated with OC confirmed that GO-based qRT-PCR assay could differentiate benign ovarian tumors from OC (sensitivity, 0.91; specificity, 1.00). Collectively, these findings provide robust evidence that GO-based qRT-PCR assay can be effectively used as a promising method to detect miRNAs for the screening of OC patients.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Grafite , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
18.
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi ; 56(7): 489-497, 2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304441

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the correlations of laminin subunit gamma 3 (LAMC3) expression with prognosis of ovarian cancer (OC). Methods: LAMC3 protein expression was measured using immunohistochemical streptavidin-peroxidase-biotin connection method (IHC). Gene expression and related clinical data in the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) cohort and clinical proteomic tumor analysis consortium (CPTAC) were applied to analyse the correlation between gene and protein expressions and clinical outcomes. Correlations between LAMC3 and clinicopathological factors were evaluated using the Pearson χ2 test (2-sided). The probability of survival and significance was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier plot. The functional clustering of biological pathways enriched from co-expressed genes of LAMC3 was used to explore the possible mechanisms that LAMC3 might contribute to poor prognosis. Results: Based on the IHC results of 216 OC tissues or ovaries (including 208 tumors and 8 normal tissues) and 51 OC tissues (including 24 chemotherapy-resistant and 27 sensitive tissues), and the protein expression data from CPTAC (including 100 primary tumors and 25 normal tissues), the results showed that the protein expression of LAMC3 was significantly decreased in OC tissues compared with normal, decreased in advanced-stage tissues compared with early-stage tissues, and decreased in drug-resistant tissues compared with sensitive tissues (all P<0.05). Furthermore, low expression of LAMC3 protein was significantly associated with poor disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in 51 OC tissues (P<0.01), consistent with the results that the low levels of LAMC3 mRNA predicted short DFS and OS in 489 OC tissues of the TCGA cohort (P<0.05). The results suggested that low expression of LAMC3 might be the adverse factors for OC development, such as drug resistance and advanced tumors, and might be a risk indicator for prognosis. Moreover, functional clustering of biological pathways enriched from the co-expressed genes of LAMC3 in TCGA ovarian cohort indicated that LAMC3 potentially involved in regulation of OC via oncogene-pathways such as Ras associated protein 1 (Rap1), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), Ras and cell adhesion-related pathways such as extra cellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction and focal adhesion. It indicated that LAMC3 might contribute to short survival and tumor progression by regulation of the above pathways. Conclusion: Low expression of LAMC3 is related to poor prognosis and malignant progression in OC, and thus it is expected to be a new prognostic marker and therapeutic target for clinical treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , Proteômica , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Feminino , Humanos , Laminina , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Prognóstico
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199930

RESUMO

Endometriosis is a common gynecological disorder that has been associated with endometrial, breast and epithelial ovarian cancers in epidemiological studies. Since complex diseases are a result of multiple environmental and genetic factors, we hypothesized that the biological mechanism underlying their comorbidity might be explained, at least in part, by shared genetics. To assess their potential genetic relationship, we performed a two-sample mendelian randomization (2SMR) analysis on results from public genome-wide association studies (GWAS). This analysis confirmed previously reported genetic pleiotropy between endometriosis and endometrial cancer. We present robust evidence supporting a causal genetic association between endometriosis and ovarian cancer, particularly with the clear cell and endometrioid subtypes. Our study also identified genetic variants that could explain those associations, opening the door to further functional experiments. Overall, this work demonstrates the value of genomic analyses to support epidemiological data, and to identify targets of relevance in multiple disorders.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Endometriose/epidemiologia , Endométrio/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Hormônio-Dependentes/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Endometriose/genética , Endometriose/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Neoplasias Hormônio-Dependentes/genética , Neoplasias Hormônio-Dependentes/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207612

RESUMO

The present limitations in the pathogenicity prediction of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) missense variants constitute an important problem with negative consequences for the diagnosis of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. However, it has been proposed that the use of endophenotype predictions, i.e., computational estimates of the outcomes of functional assays, can be a good option to address this bottleneck. The application of this idea to the BRCA1/2 variants in the CAGI 5-ENIGMA international challenge has shown promising results. Here, we developed this approach, exploring the predictive performances of the regression models applied to the BRCA1/2 variants for which the values of the homology-directed DNA repair and saturation genome editing assays are available. Our results first showed that we can generate endophenotype estimates using a few molecular-level properties. Second, we show that the accuracy of these estimates is enough to obtain pathogenicity predictions comparable to those of many standard tools. Third, endophenotype-based predictions are complementary to, but do not outperform, those of a Random Forest model trained using variant pathogenicity annotations instead of endophenotype values. In summary, our results confirmed the usefulness of the endophenotype approach for the pathogenicity prediction of the BRCA1/2 missense variants, suggesting different options for future improvements.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1 , Proteína BRCA2 , Simulação por Computador , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo
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