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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4995, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020491

RESUMO

Endometrioid ovarian carcinoma (EnOC) demonstrates substantial clinical and molecular heterogeneity. Here, we report whole exome sequencing of 112 EnOC cases following rigorous pathological assessment. We detect a high frequency of mutation in CTNNB1 (43%), PIK3CA (43%), ARID1A (36%), PTEN (29%), KRAS (26%), TP53 (26%) and SOX8 (19%), a recurrently-mutated gene previously unreported in EnOC. POLE and mismatch repair protein-encoding genes were mutated at lower frequency (6%, 18%) with significant co-occurrence. A molecular taxonomy is constructed, identifying clinically distinct EnOC subtypes: cases with TP53 mutation demonstrate greater genomic complexity, are commonly FIGO stage III/IV at diagnosis (48%), are frequently incompletely debulked (44%) and demonstrate inferior survival; conversely, cases with CTNNB1 mutation, which is mutually exclusive with TP53 mutation, demonstrate low genomic complexity and excellent clinical outcome, and are predominantly stage I/II at diagnosis (89%) and completely resected (87%). Moreover, we identify the WNT, MAPK/RAS and PI3K pathways as good candidate targets for molecular therapeutics in EnOC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Endometrioide/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Endometrioide/metabolismo , Carcinoma Endometrioide/mortalidade , Carcinoma Endometrioide/patologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Prognóstico , Transdução de Sinais , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
2.
Nature ; 585(7826): 603-608, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939090

RESUMO

Ferroptosis-an iron-dependent, non-apoptotic cell death process-is involved in various degenerative diseases and represents a targetable susceptibility in certain cancers1. The ferroptosis-susceptible cell state can either pre-exist in cells that arise from certain lineages or be acquired during cell-state transitions2-5. However, precisely how susceptibility to ferroptosis is dynamically regulated remains poorly understood. Here we use genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 suppressor screens to identify the oxidative organelles peroxisomes as critical contributors to ferroptosis sensitivity in human renal and ovarian carcinoma cells. Using lipidomic profiling we show that peroxisomes contribute to ferroptosis by synthesizing polyunsaturated ether phospholipids (PUFA-ePLs), which act as substrates for lipid peroxidation that, in turn, results in the induction of ferroptosis. Carcinoma cells that are initially sensitive to ferroptosis can switch to a ferroptosis-resistant state in vivo in mice, which is associated with extensive downregulation of PUFA-ePLs. We further find that the pro-ferroptotic role of PUFA-ePLs can be extended beyond neoplastic cells to other cell types, including neurons and cardiomyocytes. Together, our work reveals roles for the peroxisome-ether-phospholipid axis in driving susceptibility to and evasion from ferroptosis, highlights PUFA-ePL as a distinct functional lipid class that is dynamically regulated during cell-state transitions, and suggests multiple regulatory nodes for therapeutic interventions in diseases that involve ferroptosis.


Assuntos
Éteres/metabolismo , Ferroptose , Peroxissomos/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/química , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Éteres/química , Feminino , Edição de Genes , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Masculino , Camundongos , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Peroxissomos/genética
3.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(10): 1767-1778, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833542

RESUMO

N1-methyladenosine (m1A) is an important post-transcriptional modification in RNA, and plays critical roles in cellular functions. However, the relationship between m1A regulators and clinical significance of gynecological cancers remains unknown. In this study, we systematically analyzed RNA-seq and clinical data from several public database. Cell proliferation and migration assays were performed to verify the function of the m1A writer TRMT10C in cancer cells. We observed genetic alterations and dysregulated expressions of m1A regulators in gynecological cancer samples. We demonstrated that several m1A regulators could serve as prognostic biomarkers for gynecological cancer patients. The high correlations among the expression of m1A, N6-methyladenosine (m6A), and 5mC regulators were also revealed. Gene set enrichment analysis indicated that the mechanism of TRMT10C in regulating tumorigenesis was related to a variety of cancer-related pathways. Moreover, silencing TRMT10C suppressed the proliferation, colony formation, and migration of ovarian cancer and cervical cancer cells. In summary, our results highlight the importance of m1A regulators in regulating oncogenesis, and indicate that targeting specific m1A regulators might be a potential therapeutic strategy for gynecological cancers.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Metiltransferases/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
4.
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi ; 55(8): 529-534, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854477

RESUMO

Objective: To examine the expression of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1) in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) tissues, and investigate the correlation among their expression, clinicopathological features and prognosis. Methods: The specimens of 180 patients with EOC treated in the First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University from October 2002 to December 2013 were confirmed by pathological examination. The pathological tissue specimens of subtypes ,included 120 cases of serous carcinoma, 30 cases of mucinous carcinoma, 20 cases of endometrioid carcinoma, and 20 cases of clear cell carcinoma. The normal paracancerous tissues of 50 cases randomly selected from the 180 patients as control group. Immunohistochemical SP method was used to detect the expressions of both PD-1 and PD-L1 in epithelial ovarian cancer tissues, and the relationships among their expressions,the clinicopathological parameters and prognosis were respectively analyzed. Results: (1) PD-1 was expressed in lymphocytes infiltrated in EOC tissues, and PD-L1 was expressed in the cell membranes of cancer tissues. In all EOC cases, 33 cases (18.3%, 33/180) of both PD-1 and PD-L1 were highly expressed, and only 1 (2.0%, 1/50) of control group showed high expression. There was statistically significant difference between two groups (P<0.01). (2) Among the four subtypes tissue specimens of EOC, the high expression rate of PD-1 was 25.0% (30/120) for serous carcinoma, 3/15 for endometrioid carcinoma, 0 (0/30) for mucinous carcinoma, and 0 (0/15) for clear cell carcinoma. The high expression rate of PD-L1 was 23.3% (28/120) for serous carcinoma, 3.3% (1/30) for mucinous carcinoma, 2/15 for endometrioid carcinoma, and 2/15 for clear cell carcinoma. Both PD-1 and PD-L1 expressions in the four sub-types of tissue specimens were significantly different (P<0.05). The high expression rate of both PD-1 and PD-L1 was 9.2% (8/87) in the early stage and 26.9% (25/93) in the late stage. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P<0.01). Similarly, the expression of both PD-1 and PD-L1 were significantly higher in the cases of high-grade EOC (type Ⅱ) than those of low-grade (type Ⅰ) and in the cases of EOC distributed bilaterally than that distributed unilaterally, and there were statistically significant differences (P<0.05). (3) The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the survival time were respectively 35 and 36 months in the cases with high expressions of both PD-1 and PD-L1, and the survival time were the same as 61 months in the cases with low expression of both PD-1 and PD-L1, and the comparison was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusions: The expression levels of PD-1 and PD-L1 in EOC tissues are higher than those in adjacent tissues, especially in serous carcinomas. The expression of both PD-1 and PD-L1 is higher in specimens of the patients with advanced stages. The results showed that the high expression of both PD-1 and PD-L1 is an indicator of poor prognosis of patients suffering from EOC.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , RNA Mensageiro/genética
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4184, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826889

RESUMO

Oncogenic processes exert their greatest effect by targeting regulators of cell proliferation. Studying the mechanism underlying growth augmentation is expected to improve clinical therapies. The ovarian tumor (OTU) subfamily deubiquitinases have been implicated in the regulation of critical cell-signaling cascades, but most OTUs functions remain to be investigated. Through an unbiased RNAi screen, knockdown of OTUD5 is shown to significantly accelerate cell growth. Further investigation reveals that OTUD5 depletion leads to the enhanced transcriptional activity of TRIM25 and the inhibited expression of PML by altering the ubiquitination level of TRIM25. Importantly, OTUD5 knockdown accelerates tumor growth in a nude mouse model. OTUD5 expression is markedly downregulated in tumor tissues. The reduced OTUD5 level is associated with an aggressive phenotype and a poor clinical outcome for cancers patients. Our findings reveal a mechanism whereby OTUD5 regulates gene transcription and suppresses tumorigenesis by deubiquitinating TRIM25, providing a potential target for oncotherapy.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/genética , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Células HEK293 , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Interferência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma , Ubiquitinação
6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5561-5571, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801704

RESUMO

Purpose: Platinum/paclitaxel-based chemotherapy is the strategy for ovarian cancer, but chemoresistance, inherent or acquired, occurs and hinders therapy. Therefore, further understanding of the mechanisms of drug resistance and adoption of novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Methods: In this study, we report that sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1PR1)-mediated chemoresistance for ovarian cancer. Then we developed nanoparticles with a hydrophilic PEG2000 chain and a hydrophobic DSPE and biodegradable CaP (calcium ions and phosphate ions) shell with pH sensitivity as a delivery system (CaP-NPs) to carry BAF312, a selective antagonist of S1PR1 (BAF312@CaP-NPs), to overcome the cisplatin (DDP) resistance of the ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3DR. Results: We found that S1PR1 affected acquired chemoresistance in ovarian cancer by increasing the phosphorylated-signal transduction and activators of transcription 3 (P-STAT3) level. The mean size and zeta potential of BAF312@CaP-NPs were 116 ± 4.341 nm and -9.67 ± 0.935 mV, respectively. The incorporation efficiency for BAF312 in the CaP-NPs was 76.1%. The small size of the nanoparticles elevated their enrichment in the tumor, and the degradable CaP shell with smart pH sensitivity of the BAF312@CaP-NPs ensured the release of BAF312 in the acidic tumor niche. BAF312@CaP-NPs caused substantial cytotoxicity in DDP-resistant ovarian cancer cells by downregulating S1PR1 and P-STAT3 levels. Conclusion: We found that BAF312@CaP-NPs act as an effective and selective delivery system for overcoming S1PR1-mediated chemoresistance in ovarian carcinoma by inhibiting S1PR1 and P-STAT3.


Assuntos
Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Benzil/administração & dosagem , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Esfingosina-1-Fosfato/genética , Azetidinas/farmacocinética , Compostos de Benzil/farmacocinética , Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Receptores de Esfingosina-1-Fosfato/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Esfingosina-1-Fosfato/metabolismo
7.
Gene ; 757: 144947, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659254

RESUMO

Forkhead box M1(FoxM1) played an important role in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer, but its downstream molecular network is mysterious. Here, we combined ChIP-seq with RNA-seq analysis and identified 687 FoxM1-binding regions and 182 genes regulated by FoxM1. The above data pointed out that KRT5 and KRT7 were downstream target genes of FoxM1. Next, we used qPCR and Western blot to verify that FoxM1 knockdown inhibited the expression levels of KRT5 and KRT7. We also demonstrated that FoxM1 regulated KRT5 and KRT7 genes expression through binding a consensus AP-2 cis element, and showed that KRT5 and KRT7 deficiency could prevent the migration but not proliferation of SK-OV-3 cells. Finally, tissue microarray results indicated that KRT5 and KRT7 were highly expressed in ovarian cancer and positively correlated with FoxM1 expression. TCGA database showed that high expression of KRT5 and KRT7 could significantly reduce the survival rate of patients with ovarian cancer. The above results clarify the specific downstream molecular network of FoxM1 to promote the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer, and provide a basis experiment for the judgment of ovarian cancer prognosis and the design of drug targets.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Proteína Forkhead Box M1/metabolismo , Queratina-5/metabolismo , Queratina-7/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Proteína Forkhead Box M1/genética , Humanos , Queratina-5/genética , Queratina-7/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235766, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639993

RESUMO

High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) remains the deadliest form of epithelial ovarian cancer and despite major efforts little improvement in overall survival has been achieved. Identification of recurring "driver" genetic lesions has the potential to enable design of novel therapies for cancer. Here, we report on a study to find such new therapeutic targets for HGSOC using exome-capture sequencing approach targeting all kinase genes in 127 patient samples. Consistent with previous reports, the most frequently mutated gene was TP53 (97% mutation frequency) followed by BRCA1 (10% mutation frequency). The average mutation frequency of the kinase genes mutated from our panel was 1.5%. Intriguingly, after BRCA1, JAK3 was the most frequently mutated gene (4% mutation frequency). We tested the transforming properties of JAK3 mutants using the Ba/F3 cell-based in vitro functional assay and identified a novel gain-of-function mutation in the kinase domain of JAK3 (p.T1022I). Importantly, p.T1022I JAK3 mutants displayed higher sensitivity to the JAK3-selective inhibitor Tofacitinib compared to controls. For independent validation, we re-sequenced the entire JAK3 coding sequence using tagged amplicon sequencing (TAm-Seq) in 463 HGSOCs resulting in an overall somatic mutation frequency of 1%. TAm-Seq screening of CDK12 in the same population revealed a 7% mutation frequency. Our data confirms that the frequency of mutations in kinase genes in HGSOC is low and provides accurate estimates for the frequency of JAK3 and CDK12 mutations in a large well characterized cohort. Although p.T1022I JAK3 mutations are rare, our functional validation shows that if detected they should be considered as potentially actionable for therapy. The observation of CDK12 mutations in 7% of HGSOC cases provides a strong rationale for routine somatic testing, although more functional and clinical characterization is required to understand which nonsynonymous mutations alterations are associated with homologous recombination deficiency.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Janus Quinase 3/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/metabolismo , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Janus Quinase 3/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
9.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(10): 2559-2574, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681294

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Canonical Wnt/ ß-catenin pathway is one mechanism being activated in platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Detecting potential targets for Wnt pathway modulation as a putative future therapeutic approach was the aim of this study. METHODS: Biological effects of different Wnt modulators (SB216763, XAV939 and triptolide) on the EOC cell lines A2780 and its platinum-resistant clone A2780cis were investigated via multiple functional tests. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was carried out to compare the expression levels of Wnt marker proteins (ß-catenin, snail/ slug, E-cadherin) in patient specimens and to correlate them with lifetime data. RESULTS: We could show that activated Wnt signaling of the platinum-resistant EOC cell line A2780cis can be reversed by Wnt manipulators through SB216763 or XAV939. All Wnt manipulators tested consecutively decreased cell proliferation and cell viability. Apoptosis of A2780 and A2780cis was enhanced by triptolide in a dose-dependent manner, whereas cell migration was inhibited by SB216763 and triptolide. IHC analyses elucidated significantly different expression patterns for Wnt markers in the serous subtype. Herein, higher plasmatic snail/ slug expression is associated with improved progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). CONCLUSION: According to the described effects on EOC biology, all three Wnt manipulators seem to have the potential to augment the impact of a platinum-based chemotherapy in EOC. This is promising as a dominance of this pathway was confirmed in serous histology.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/metabolismo , Compostos Organoplatínicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígenos CD/biossíntese , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Caderinas/biossíntese , Caderinas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Compostos de Epóxi/farmacologia , Feminino , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Humanos , Indóis/farmacologia , Maleimidas/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , beta Catenina/biossíntese , beta Catenina/metabolismo
10.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(8): 1923-1932, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533406

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Thyroid hormone receptors (THR) have manifold functions and are involved in the carcinogenesis of several tumor types. Within this study, we aimed to investigate the expression pattern (nuclear versus cytoplasmic) of the THR alpha and its impact on patients survival in ovarian cancer (OvCa). METHODS: The presence of the thyroid hormone receptors THRα, THRα1 and - 2 was investigated in 156 ovarian cancer samples using immunohistochemistry (IHC) using semi-quantitative immunoreactivity (IR) scores and correlated with clinical, pathological data, subtype of ovarian cancer, clinical data, staining of 20 already described OvCa marker proteins and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Among all subtypes of OvCa, clear cell carcinomas showed the highest THRα expression. Furthermore, nuclear THRα was associated with a reduced survival in this subtype. However, nuclear expressed THRα1 turned out to be a positive prognosticator for all subtypes of OvCa patients. Nuclear THRα2 is a positive prognosticator for OvCa patients of the serous subtype. In contrast, cytoplasmic expression THRα2 was associated with a reduced OS in all subtypes of OvCa patients; while, cytoplasmic expression of THRα1 is associated with reduced OS in mucinous OvCa patients only. In addition, THRα expression correlates with gonadotropin receptors, steroid hormone receptors, TA-MUC1 and glycodelin. CONCLUSION: Depending on nuclear or cytoplasmic expression, our study shows that THRα and its isoforms 1 and 2 provide different prognostic information for ovarian cancer patients. Further investigations should analyze if THRs may represent new endocrine targets for the treatment of ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Receptores alfa dos Hormônios Tireóideos/biossíntese , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida
11.
Mol Pharmacol ; 98(2): 156-167, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591477

RESUMO

The natural product (+)-discodermolide (DDM) is a microtubule stabilizing agent and potent inducer of senescence. We refined the structure of DDM and evaluated the activity of novel congeners in triple negative breast and ovarian cancers, malignancies that typically succumb to taxane resistance. Previous structure-activity analyses identified the lactone and diene as moieties conferring anticancer activity, thus identifying priorities for the structural refinement studies described herein. Congeners possessing the monodiene with a simplified lactone had superior anticancer efficacy relative to taxol, particularly in resistant models. Specifically, one of these congeners, B2, demonstrated 1) improved pharmacologic properties, specifically increased maximum response achievable and area under the curve, and decreased EC50; 2) a uniform dose-response profile across genetically heterogeneous cancer cell lines relative to taxol or DDM; 3) reduced propensity for senescence induction relative to DDM; 4) superior long-term activity in cancer cells versus taxol or DDM; and 5) attenuation of metastatic characteristics in treated cancer cells. To contrast the binding of B2 versus DDM in tubulin, X-ray crystallography studies revealed a shift in the position of the lactone ring associated with removal of the C2-methyl and C3-hydroxyl. Thus, B2 may be more adaptable to changes in the taxane site relative to DDM that could account for its favorable properties. In conclusion, we have identified a DDM congener with broad range anticancer efficacy that also has decreased risk of inducing chemotherapy-mediated senescence. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Here, we describe the anticancer activity of novel congeners of the tubulin-polymerizing molecule (+)-discodermolide. A lead molecule is identified that exhibits an improved dose-response profile in taxane-sensitive and taxane-resistant cancer cell models, diminished risk of chemotherapy-mediated senescence, and suppression of tumor cell invasion endpoints. X-ray crystallography studies identify subtle changes in the pose of binding to ß-tubulin that could account for the improved anticancer activity. These findings support continued preclinical development of discodermolide, particularly in the chemorefractory setting.


Assuntos
Alcanos/química , Carbamatos/química , Lactonas/síntese química , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Pironas/química , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Moduladores de Tubulina/síntese química , Células A549 , Área Sob a Curva , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactonas/química , Lactonas/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Taxoides/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Moduladores de Tubulina/química , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233962, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525899

RESUMO

High grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) is the most common and deadly type of ovarian cancer, largely due to difficulties in early diagnosis and rapid metastasis throughout the peritoneal cavity. Previous studies have shown that expression of Notch3 correlates with worse prognosis and increased tumorigenic cell behaviors in HGSC. We investigated the mechanistic role of Notch3 in a model of metastatic ovarian cancer using the murine ovarian surface epithelial cell line, ID8 IP2. Notch3 was activated in ID8 IP2 cells via expression of the Notch3 intracellular domain (Notch3IC). Notch3IC ID8 IP2 cells injected intraperitoneally caused accelerated ascites and reduced survival compared to control ID8 IP2, particularly in early stages of disease. We interrogated downstream targets of Notch3IC in ID8 IP2 cells by RNA sequencing and found significant induction of genes that encode adhesion and extracellular matrix proteins. Notch3IC ID8 IP2 showed increased expression of ITGA1 mRNA and cell-surface protein. Notch3IC-mediated increase of ITGA1 was also seen in two human ovarian cancer cells. Notch3IC ID8 IP2 cells showed increased adhesion to collagens I and IV in vitro. We propose that Notch3 activation in ovarian cancer cells causes increased adherence to collagen-rich peritoneal surfaces. Thus, the correlation between increased Notch3 signaling and poor prognosis may be influenced by increased metastasis of HGSC via increased adherence of disseminating cells to new metastatic sites in the peritoneum.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/secundário , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/secundário , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário , Receptor Notch3/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/metabolismo , Adesão Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Peritoneais/metabolismo , Receptor Notch3/genética
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(21): e20299, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D (XPD) gene polymorphisms in breast and ovarian cancer development has long been controversial and existing data were inconsistent. Here, we conducted a comprehensive systemic review and meta-analysis to better clarify the association. METHODS: Relevant case-control studies published in electronic data base from October 1999 to September 2019 were assessed. The statistical analyses of the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated by using Revman 5.2 software (Cochrane Collaboration, Copenhagen). RESULTS: 31 articles including 38 case-control studies and 2 XPD polymorphisms (rs1799793 and rs238406) were analyzed. The results showed statistical significance in heterozygous mutants among Asian population for rs1799793 (GA vs GG + AA: OR = 1.38, 95%CI = 1.21-1.56), and Caucasian population for rs238406 (CA vs AA + CC: OR = 0.63, 95%CI = 0.49-0.80), while the rest comparisons including overall groups and subgroups stratified by cancer types and ethnicity failed to indicate any association with breast and ovarian cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: The current meta-analysis suggested no concrete correlation of XPD rs1799793(G/A) and rs238406(C/A) polymorphisms with breast cancer or ovarian cancer susceptibility. However, it indicated that heterozygous genotypes might share different pathophysiologic mechanism from not only homozygous wildtypes but also homozygous mutants. More case-control studies with well-adjusted data and diverse populations are essential for validation of our conclusion.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína Grupo D do Xeroderma Pigmentoso/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Proteína Grupo D do Xeroderma Pigmentoso/metabolismo
14.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(9): 1545-1557, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456571

RESUMO

ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) GTPase-activating protein (GAP) with coiled-coil, ankyrin repeat and PH domains 1 (ACAP1) is an Arf6 GAP that regulates membrane trafficking and is critical for the migratory potential of cells. However, the roles of ACAP1 have not been fully explored and its association with clinicopathological features in ovarian cancer is still unknown. In this study, we systematically analyzed multiple databases, including TISIDB, Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER2.0), Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), CORTECON, Kaplan-Meier Plotter and LinkedOmics platforms to reveal the clinical significance and function of ACAP1 in ovarian cancer. We found that the expression of ACAP1 was upregulated in ovarian cancer and high ACAP1 expression predicted poor prognosis. Our data demonstrated that the expression and methylation status of ACAP1 were strongly correlated with immune infiltration levels, immunomodulators, and chemokines. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) analysis also showed that the mechanism of ACAP1 in regulating ovarian cancer was related to a variety of immune-related pathways. In addition, we also revealed that the expression of ACAP1 was altered during cell differentiation and associated with cancer cell stemness markers. Our study highlights the clinical significance of ACAP1 in ovarian cancer and provides insight into the novel function of ACAP1 in regulation of tumor immune microenvironment and cancer cell stemness.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Quimiocinas/genética , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/metabolismo , Humanos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Microambiente Tumoral , Regulação para Cima
15.
J Surg Oncol ; 122(3): 538-546, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We sought to explore the expression of mismatch repair (MMR) status and its correlation with clinicopathologic and survival characteristics in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC). METHODS: Expression of four MMR proteins (MLH1, PMS, MSH2, and MSH6) were measured using tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry in 120 OCCC patients. The associations of clinicopathologic parameters with recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method, and multivariate analysis was further performed by the Cox regression model. RESULTS: Overall, 120 OCCC patients met the entry criteria, and their MMR status was detected, consisting of 24 patients with dMMR and 96 patients with proficient MMR (pMMR). Patients with dMMR were strongly associated with platinum-sensitive disease (P = .006) and large tumor volume (P = .038). Among all the patients who have received surgery, tumors with dMMR had a better RFS and OS than those with pMMR (hazard ratio [HR] for recurrence: 0.459 [95% confidence interval {95% CI} = 0.224-0.940], P = .029; HR for death: 0.381 [95% CI = 0.170-0.853], P = .015). In subgroup analysis, dMMR patients experienced a better trend of RFS (HR = 0.273; P = .055) and OS (HR = 0.165; P = .040) than pMMR cases among early stages (I-II), but this difference was not observed in advanced stage (III-IV) patients. Meanwhile, pMMR was associated with a more favorable trend of prognosis than dMMR in platinum-resistant patients (RFS: HR = 0.317, P = .051; OS: HR = 0.370, P = .046). Multivariate analysis revealed that only advanced stages (III-IV) were adverse independent prognosticators for both RFS (HR = 5.938 [95% CI = 2.804-12.574]; P < .001) and OS (HR = 6.209 [95% CI = 2.724-14.156]; P < .001). CONCLUSION: Tumors with dMMR were related to better OS in OCCC on univariate analysis. Only the tumor stage was an independent prognosticator for both RFS and OS. MMR status is a potentially valuable prognostic index in OCCC patients, and larger prospective studies are required to validate its prognostic role.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/patologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/mortalidade , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/mortalidade , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/biossíntese , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/biossíntese , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/biossíntese , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Análise Serial de Tecidos
16.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232235, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401768

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Altered expression of caveolin-1 (CAV1) and autophagy marker ATG4C is observed in various types of human cancers. However, the clinical significance of CAV1 and ATG4C expression in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains largely unknown. The present study aims to explore the clinicopathological value and prognostic significance of CAV1 and ATG4C expression in EOC. METHODS: The expression pattern and prognostic value of CAV1 and ATG4C mRNA in EOC were analyzed using data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database (N = 373). In addition, immunohistochemistry analysis was performed to detect and assay the expression of CAV1 and ATG4C proteins in tissue microarray of EOC. RESULTS: Based on TCGA data, Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients with low CAV1 mRNA (p = 0.021) and high ATG4C mRNA (p = 0.018) expression had a significantly shorter overall survival (OS). Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the expression levels of CAV1 (p = 0.023) and ATG4C mRNA (p = 0.040) were independent prognostic factors for OS in EOC. In addition, the Concordance Index of the nomogram for OS prediction was 0.660. Immunohistochemical analysis showed the expression levels of stromal CAV1 and cancerous ATG4C proteins, and high expression of both CAV1 and ATG4C protein in the stroma were found to significantly correlate with the histologic subtypes of EOC, especially with serous subtype. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased expression of CAV1 mRNA and increased expression of ATG4C mRNA in EOC can predict poor overall survival. The expression levels of CAV1 protein in stromal cells and ATG4C protein in cancer cells are significantly associated with histologic subtypes of EOC. These findings suggest that CAV1 and ATG4C serve as useful prognostic biomarkers and candidate therapeutic targets in EOC.


Assuntos
Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Caveolina 1/metabolismo , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232253, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365084

RESUMO

Proteases have been implicated in the tumorigenesis and aggressiveness of a variety of cancer types. In fact, proteases have proven to be very clinically useful as tumor biomarkers in the blood of patients. Proteases are typically involved in complex systems of substrates, activators, and inhibitors, thus making our ability to establish their exact function in cancer more difficult. Trypsin, perhaps the most famous of proteases, has been shown to play a role in cancer progression, but its functional role in ovarian cancer has not been much studied. PAR2, a transmembrane receptor that is known to be activated by trypsin, has been reported to be associated with ovarian cancer. Here, we found that stimulation of ovarian cancer cell lines with trypsin or PAR2 activating peptide markedly increased MAPK signaling and cell proliferation. Additionally, HE4, a WAP-family glycoprotein and ovarian cancer biomarker, was found to inhibit trypsin degradation, thereby retaining its activity. Patient data seemed to support this phenomenon, as the serum of ovarian cancer patients with high HE4 expression, revealed significantly elevated trypsin levels. These data support the hypothesis that trypsin plays a tumorigenic role in ovarian cancer, which can be mediated by its receptor PAR2, and potentiated by HE4.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Receptor PAR-2/metabolismo , Tripsina/genética , Proteína 2 do Domínio Central WAP de Quatro Dissulfetos/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Proteólise , Receptor PAR-2/genética , Tripsina/química , Tripsina/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2639, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32457312

RESUMO

Homologous recombination (HR) is important for error-free DNA double strand break repair and maintenance of genomic stability. However, upregulated HR is also used by cancer cells to promote therapeutic resistance. Therefore, inducing HR deficiency (HRD) is a viable strategy to sensitize HR proficient cancers to DNA targeted therapies in order to overcome therapeutic resistance. A bromodomain containing protein, BRD9, was previously reported to regulate chromatin remodeling and transcription. Here, we discover that following DNA damage, the bromodomain of BRD9 binds acetylated K515 on RAD54 and facilitates RAD54's interaction with RAD51, which is essential for HR. BRD9 is overexpressed in ovarian cancer and depleting BRD9 sensitizes cancer cells to olaparib and cisplatin. In addition, inhibitor of BRD9, I-BRD9, acts synergistically with olaparib in HR-proficient cancer cells. Overall, our results elucidate a role for BRD9 in HR and identify BRD9 as a potential therapeutic target to promote synthetic lethality and overcome chemoresistance.


Assuntos
DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , DNA Helicases/química , DNA Helicases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Instabilidade Genômica , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Complexos Multiproteicos/química , Complexos Multiproteicos/genética , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Ftalazinas/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Rad51 Recombinase/química , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2641, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32457376

RESUMO

Acquired resistance to PARP inhibitors (PARPi) is a major challenge for the clinical management of high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). Here, we demonstrate CX-5461, the first-in-class inhibitor of RNA polymerase I transcription of ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA), induces replication stress and activates the DNA damage response. CX-5461 co-operates with PARPi in exacerbating replication stress and enhances therapeutic efficacy against homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair-deficient HGSOC-patient-derived xenograft (PDX) in vivo. We demonstrate CX-5461 has a different sensitivity spectrum to PARPi involving MRE11-dependent degradation of replication forks. Importantly, CX-5461 exhibits in vivo single agent efficacy in a HGSOC-PDX with reduced sensitivity to PARPi by overcoming replication fork protection. Further, we identify CX-5461-sensitivity gene expression signatures in primary and relapsed HGSOC. We propose CX-5461 is a promising therapy in combination with PARPi in HR-deficient HGSOC and also as a single agent for the treatment of relapsed disease.


Assuntos
Benzotiazóis/farmacologia , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/tratamento farmacológico , Dano ao DNA , Naftiridinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/metabolismo , Replicação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Feminino , Xenoenxertos , Recombinação Homóloga , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos SCID , Modelos Biológicos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , RNA Polimerase I/antagonistas & inibidores , Transcriptoma
20.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 44(7): 982-990, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384322

RESUMO

Endometrioid ovarian carcinoma (EOC) has clinical and biological differences compared with other histologic types of ovarian carcinomas, but it shares morphologic and molecular features with endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. To analyze the molecular heterogeneity of EOC according to the new molecular classification of endometrial cancer and to evaluate the prognostic significance of this molecular classification, we have analyzed 166 early-stage EOC by immunohistochemistry for mismatch repair proteins and p53 expression, and by Sanger sequencing for the exonuclease domain of polymerase epsilon (POLE EDM). In addition, we have carried out next-generation sequencing analysis of tumors with POLE EDM mutations to confirm the ultramutated profile. Eight tumors carried POLE EDM mutations and were classified as ultramutated (5%), 29 showed mismatch repair deficiency and were classified as hypermutated (18%), 16 tumors had a mutated pattern of p53 expression and were classified as p53 abnormal (11%), and 114 tumors did not have any of the previous alterations and were classified as no specific type (66%). Five tumors showed >1 classification criteria. The frequencies of ultramutated and hypermutated tumors were lower in EOC compared with the frequency reported in endometrial cancer. Subrogate molecular groups differed in both morphologic features (histologic grade, squamous and morular metaplasia, and necrosis) and immunohistochemical expression of several biomarkers (ARID1A, nuclear ß-catenin, estrogen receptors, Napsin A, and HINF1B). In addition, the number of CD8 tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes was higher in ultramutated and hypermutated tumors. The most commonly mutated genes in the ultramutated group were ARID1A (100%), PIK3R1, PTEN, BCOR, and TP53 (67% each), whereas no mutations were detected in KRAS. Although the prognosis did not differ among subgroups in the multivariate analysis, a trend toward a better prognosis in POLE-mutated and a worse prognosis in p53 abnormal tumors was observed. In addition, this classification could have important therapeutic implications for the use of immunotherapy in tumors classified as ultramutated and hypermutated.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Endometrioide/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Endometrioide/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Endometrioide/genética , Carcinoma Endometrioide/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise Serial de Tecidos
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