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1.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5565-5572, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the status of extravasated platelet activation (EPA) surrounding podoplanin (PDPN)-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in pancreatic cancer stroma by neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 74 patients were enrolled in this study. We investigated CD42b and PDPN expression in the groups of untreated, gemcitabine (GEM) alone, GEM plus S-1 (GS) and GEM plus nab-paclitaxel (GnP). RESULTS: CD42b expression in surrounding CAFs was observed in 58% patients. CD42b expression was significantly correlated with PDPN expression. CD42b-positive cases were significantly lower in the group treated with GnP than in the untreated group and groups treated with GEM alone or GS. PDPN expression was reduced in the GnP group, as revealed by markedly disorganized collagen and a low density of PDPN-positive fibroblasts. There was a significantly lower CD42b expression and fewer PDPN-positive fibroblasts in the GnP group than in untreated, GEM alone, and GS groups, but there was no significant difference between the latter three groups. CONCLUSION: There is a significant association between EPA and PDPN-positive CAFs in pancreatic cancer stroma. Our data suggest that the GnP regimen decreases EPA through PDPN-positive CAF depletion.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Albuminas/uso terapêutico , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Ácido Oxônico/uso terapêutico , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Complexo Glicoproteico GPIb-IX de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Tegafur/uso terapêutico
2.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5339-5344, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Gemcitabine is standard first-line treatment for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, however the efficacy is limited. Although acquired drug resistance and side-effects are known to limit efficacy, opposite effects of a drug, which enhance the malignancy of treated cancer, have been observed but are not well understood. The aim of the present study was to determine whether gemcitabine has such opposite effects on the BxPC-3 human pancreatic cancer cell line expressing green fluorescent protein (BxPC-3-GFP) in an orthotopic mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BxPC-3-GFP tumors grown subcutaneously in nude mice were harvested. Tumor fragments were orthotopically implanted in the tail of the pancreas of nude mice using the technique of surgical orthotopic implantation. The BxPC-3-GFP orthotopic models were divided randomly into three groups: Group 1: untreated control; Group 2: low-dose gemcitabine (weekly intraperitoneal injection at 25 mg/kg for 6 weeks); Group 3: high-dose gemcitabine (weekly intraperitoneal injection at 125 mg/kg for 6 weeks). Each group comprised eight mice. Tumor size, fluorescent area of metastases, and body weight were measured. RESULTS: Low- and high-dose gemcitabine inhibited primary tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner, and to the greatest extent by high-dose gemcitabine compared to the untreated control (p=0.0134). In contrast, the extent of metastasis on the peritoneum was significantly increased by low-dose gemcitabine compared to the untreated control (p=0.0112). The extent of metastasis showed no significant difference between the untreated control and mice treated with high-dose gemcitabine. Body weight of the treated mice was not significantly different from that of the untreated mice. CONCLUSION: The use of very bright GFP expressing of BxPC-3 cells and the orthotopic model demonstrated an unexpected increase in metastasis by low-dose gemcitabine. Future experiments will investigate the mechanism of this phenomenon.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo
3.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5369-5374, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are ex vivo expanded major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unrestricted cytotoxic cells with promising effects against a variety of cancer types. Regulatory T-cells (T-reg) have been shown to reduce the effectiveness of CIK cells against tumor cells. Peptide P60 has been shown to inhibit the immunosuppressive functions of T-regs. This study aimed at examining the effect of p60 on CIK cells efficacy against renal and pancreatic cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of P60 on CIK cytotoxicity was examined using flow cytometry, WST-8-based cell viability assay and interferon γ (IFNγ) ELISA. RESULTS: P60 treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the viability of renal and pancreatic cancer cell lines co-cultured with CIK cells. No increase in IFNγ secretion from CIK cells was detected following treatment with P60. P60 caused no changes in the distribution of major effector cell populations in CIK cell cultures. CONCLUSION: P60 may potentiate CIK cell cytotoxicity against tumor cells.


Assuntos
Células Matadoras Induzidas por Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cocultura/métodos , Células Matadoras Induzidas por Citocinas/metabolismo , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
4.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5781-5787, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is established in the treatment of ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma for downsizing borderline-resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) and may affect nodal positivity and rates of R0 resection. This study aimed to identify the impact of NAC on postoperative histopathological parameters with a prognostic relevance. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A one-to-three matched-pair analysis, including an overall total of 132 patients (25% treated with NAC and subsequent resection and 75% undergoing upfront surgery) was performed. Influence of NAC on nodal positivity, lymphatic, vascular and perineural invasion, as well as resection stage and grading, was examined. Furthermore, perioperative complications, in-hospital stay, re-admission rates, mortality, as well as preoperative body mass index and American Association of Anesthesiologist classification scores, were evaluated. RESULTS: Patients treated with NAC significantly less frequently had lymphatic tissue invasion (lymph node invasion: 51.5% vs. 72.7%; p=0.032, and lymphatic vessel invasion 9.4% vs. 55.3%; p=0.0004), whereas vascular and perineural invasion, as well as grading and resection state were not significantly different. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 regression in correlation with nodal positivity also did not differ, and both groups showed comparable perioperative complication rates. Occurrence and severity of postoperative pancreatic fistula (18.2% vs. 24.3%; p=0.034) were significantly lower in patients who had undergone NAC. CONCLUSION: NAC significantly affects postoperative histopathological tumour stage in BRPC and appears to be a safe treatment option without increased perioperative complications, re-admission, in-hospital stay, or mortality. Further studies are mandatory to underline the suitability of NAC for ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma subgroups in order to guide clinicians in their daily decision-making comprehensively.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígeno CA-19-9/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/terapia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise por Pareamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Período Pós-Operatório , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4721-4728, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Recent research has identified the transcription factors NFATc2 and Sp1 as key regulators in the carcinogenesis of pancreatic carcinoma. This study aimed to examine the effect of clinically achievable dosages of analgesics including ketamine, s-ketamine, metamizole, and paracetamol as well as that of sufentanil, ropicavaine, and lidocaine on pancreatic carcinoma cells and the expression of NFATc2 and Sp1. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of analgesics on the expression of NFATc2 and Sp1 were investigated with immunoblotting. Cell proliferation was measured with the ELISA BrdU assay. RESULTS: In PaTu8988t pancreatic carcinoma cells, 48 h stimulation with ketamine and s-ketamine significantly inhibited proliferation and decreased expression of NFATc2 in the nucleus. The addition of metamizole and lidocaine reduced proliferation of PaTu8988t cells after 48 h. CONCLUSION: New treatment concepts target specific signaling and transcription pathways. The extent to which drugs influence these mechanisms in pancreatic carcinoma cells needs to be investigated in future studies.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anestésicos Locais/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Transcrição Genética
6.
Pharm Res ; 36(10): 143, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385111

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pancreatic Polypeptide-secreting tumor of the distal pancreas (PPoma) is a rare, difficult and indolent type of cancer with a survival rate of 5-year in only 10% of all cases. The PPoma is classified as a neuroendocrine tumor (NET) not functioning that overexpresses SSTR 2 (somatostatin receptor subtype 2). Thus, in order to improve the diagnosis of this type of tumor, we developed nanoparticulate drug carriers based on poly-lactic acid (PLA) polymer loaded with octreotide and radiolabeled with Technetium-99 m (99mTc). METHODS: PLA/PVA octreotide nanoparticles were developed by double-emulsion technique. These nanoparticles were characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and radiolabeled with 99mTc by the direct via forming 99mTc-PLA/PVA octreotide nanoparticles. The safety of these nanosystems was evaluated by the MTT cell toxicity assay and their in vivo biodistribution was evaluated in xenografted inducted animals. RESULTS: The results showed that a 189 nm sized nanoparticle were formed with a PDI of 0,097, corroborating the monodispersive behavior. These nanoparticles were successfully radiolabeled with 99mTc showing uptake by the inducted tumor. The MTT assay corroborated the safety of the nanosystem for the cells. CONCLUSION: The results support the use of this nanosystem (99mTc-PLA/PVA octreotide nanoparticles) as imaging agent for PPoma. Graphical Abstract Polypeptide-Secreting Tumor of the Distal Pancreas (PPoma) Radiolabeled Nanoparticles for Imaging.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/diagnóstico por imagem , Nanopartículas/química , Octreotida/química , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Polipeptídeo Pancreático/metabolismo , Poliésteres/química , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/química , Tecnécio/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Octreotida/metabolismo , Pâncreas/diagnóstico por imagem , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Cintilografia/métodos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/metabolismo , Receptores de Somatostatina/genética , Receptores de Somatostatina/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
7.
J Surg Oncol ; 120(6): 966-975, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Gastrinomas are the most prevalent functioning neuroendocrine tumors (NET) in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). Guidelines suggest medical therapy in most patients, but surgery may be considered in a subgroup. Currently, factors to guide management are necessary. This population-based cohort study assessed prognostic factors of survival in patients with MEN1-related gastrinomas. METHODS: Patients with MEN1 having gastrinomas were identified in the Dutch MEN1 database from 1990 to 2014 based on fasting serum gastrin (FSG) levels and/or pathology. Predictors of overall survival were assessed using Cox regression. RESULTS: Sixty-three patients with gastrinoma (16% of the MEN1 population) were identified. Five- and 10-year overall survival rates were 83% and 65%, respectively. Prognostic factors associated with overall survival were initial FSG levels ≥20x upper limit of normal (ULN) (hazard ratio [HR], 6.2 [95% confidence interval, 1.7-23.0]), pancreatic NET ≥2 cm (HR 4.5; [1.5-13.1]), synchronous liver metastases (HR 8.9; [2.1-36.7]), gastroduodenoscopy suspicious for gastric NETs (HR 12.7; [1.4-115.6]), and multiple concurrent NETs (HR 5.9; [1.2-27.7]). CONCLUSION: Life expectancy of patients with MEN1 gastrinoma is reduced. FSG levels and pancreatic NETs ≥2 cm are prognostic factors. FSG levels might guide surveillance intensity, step-up to additional diagnostics, or provide arguments in selecting patients who might benefit from surgery.


Assuntos
Gastrinoma/mortalidade , Neoplasias Intestinais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Gastrinoma/metabolismo , Gastrinoma/patologia , Gastrinoma/cirurgia , Humanos , Neoplasias Intestinais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Intestinais/patologia , Neoplasias Intestinais/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/metabolismo , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Taxa de Sobrevida
8.
Life Sci ; 233: 116732, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394125

RESUMO

AIMS: Linderane, an important bioactive compound in Linderae, improved glucose and lipid metabolism in ob/ob mice. However, the effect of linderane on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced oxidative damage in INS-1 cells remains unclear. MAIN METHODS: INS-1 cells were pre-treated with different doses of linderane for 2 h and then treated with 3 mM STZ for 12 h. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was detected using an Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit. The level of intracellular ROS was determined using dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA). The activities of insulin secretion, SOD, catalase (CAT) and GPx were measured using ELISA kits. The expression levels of bax, bcl-2, p38, p-p38, nuclear Nrf2 and HO-1 were measured using western blot. KEY FINDINGS: The results showed that STZ-caused inhibitory effects on cell viability and insulin secretion were mitigated by linderane. Furthermore, linderane inhibited apoptosis and oxidative stress in STZ-induced INS-1 cells. Finally, linderane suppressed the activation of p38 MAPK pathway, as well as enhanced the activation of Nrf2 pathway in STZ-induced INS-1 cells. Activation of p38 MAPK pathway or inhibition of Nrf2 significantly reversed the protective effects of linderane against STZ-induced ROS production and cell apoptosis. SIGNIFICANCE: The protective effects of linderane on STZ-induced INS-1 cells might be attributed to the inhibition of p38 MAPK and activation of Nrf2 pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Furanos/farmacologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Insulinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Estreptozocina/toxicidade , Animais , Insulinoma/metabolismo , Insulinoma/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Ratos , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
10.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(10): 2481-2493, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451931

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) represents one of the most fatal types of cancer with an exceptionally poor prognosis, underscoring the need for improved diagnostic and treatment approaches. An over-expression of somatostatin receptors (SST) as well as of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 has been shown for many tumour entities. Respective expression data for PAC, however, are scarce and contradictory. METHODS: Overall, 137 tumour samples from 70 patients, 26 of whom were diagnosed with PAC and 44 with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (PanNET), were compared in terms of SST and CXCR4 expression by immunohistochemical analysis using well-characterized rabbit monoclonal antibodies. RESULTS: Only SST1 and CXCR4 expression was detected in PAC tumours, with SST1 present in 42.3% and CXCR4 in 7.7% of cases. However, the overall staining intensity was very weak. In contrast to the tumour cells, in many PAC cases, tumour capillaries exhibited strong SST3, SST5, or CXCR4 expression. In PanNETs, SST2 was the most-prominently expressed receptor, observed in 75.0% of the tumours at medium-strong intensity. SST5, SST1, and CXCR4 expression was detected in 20.5%, 15.9%, and 11.4% of PanNET cases, respectively, but the staining intensity was only weak. SST2 positivity in PanNET, but not in PAC, was associated with favourable patient outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: SST or CXCR4 expression in PAC is clearly of no therapeutic relevance. However, indirect targeting of these tumours via SST3, SST5, or CXCR4 on tumour microvessels may represent a promising additional therapeutic strategy.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Intestinais/genética , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Receptores CXCR4/genética , Somatostatina/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Intestinais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Intestinais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Intestinais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/metabolismo , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/mortalidade , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Receptores CXCR4/metabolismo , Somatostatina/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
11.
Anticancer Res ; 39(7): 3493-3498, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal cancer of the digestive system. IL-29 is a new member of the IFNλ family and well-known for its strong antiviral activity. However, its direct effect on pancreatic cancer is still unclear. This study was performed to investigate if IL-29 has any direct effect on Pan-48 pancreatic cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clonogenic survival assay, cell proliferation, and caspase-3 activity kits were used to evaluate the effects of IL-29 on cell survival, proliferation, and apoptosis of Pan-48 pancreatic cancer cells. RT-PCR and IHC were subsequently performed to explore IL-29's potential molecular mechanisms. RESULTS: The percentage of colonies of Pan-48 cells was decreased following the addition of IL-29. This was consistent with a decreased optical density (OD) value of cancer cells. Furthermore, the relative caspase-3 activity in cancer cells was increased after the addition of IL-29, indicating increased apoptosis of cancer cells. The anti-proliferative effect of IL-29 on cancer cells correlated with increased expression of the anti-proliferative molecule p21. The pro-apoptotic effect of IL-29 on cancer cells correlated with an increased expression of the pro-apoptotic molecule Bax. CONCLUSION: IL-29 constrains Pan-48 pancreatic cell growth via up-regulation of p21 and Bax. Our study suggests a potential use of IL-29 in immunotherapy for pancreatic cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/genética , Interleucinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
12.
Cancer Sci ; 110(10): 3296-3305, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348600

RESUMO

Tissue factor (TF) is known to be overexpressed in various cancers including pancreatic cancer. The upregulation of TF expression has been observed not only in tumor cells, but also in tumor stromal cells. Because of the potential of TF as a delivery target, several studies investigated the effectiveness of Ab-drug conjugates (ADCs) against TF for cancer therapy. However, it is still unclear whether anti-TF ADC can exert toxicity against both tumor cells and tumor stromal cells. Here, we prepared ADC using a rat anti-mouse TF mAb (clone.1157) and 2 types of in vivo murine pancreatic cancer models, one s.c. and other orthotopic with an abundant tumor stroma. We also compared the feasibility of bis-alkylating conjugation (bisAlk) with that of conventional maleimide-based conjugation (MC). In the s.c. models, anti-TF ADC showed greater antitumor effects than control ADC. The results also indicated that the bisAlk linker might be more suitable than the MC linker for cancer treatments. In the orthotopic model, anti-TF ADC showed greater in vivo efficacy and more extended survival time control ADC. Treatment with anti-TF ADC (20 mg/kg, three times a week) did not affect mouse body weight changes in any in vivo experiment. Furthermore, immunofluorescence staining indicated that anti-TF ADC delivered agents not only to TF-positive tumor cells, but also to TF-positive tumor vascular endothelial cells and other tumor stromal cells. We conclude that anti-TF ADC should be a selective and potent drug for pancreatic cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Alquilantes/química , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Imunoconjugados/administração & dosagem , Maleimidas/química , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboplastina/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/química , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/química , Imunoconjugados/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Ratos , Células Estromais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Células Estromais/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(26): e15954, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261501

RESUMO

Early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer (PC) is based on endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). However, EUS is invasive and requires a high level of technical skill. Recently, liquid biopsies have achieved the same sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of numerous pathologies, including cancer. Insulin-promoting factor 1 (PDX1) and Msh-homeobox 2 (MSX2), 2 homeotic genes, have been confirmed to be related to pancreatic oncogenesis.The aim of this study is to establish the diagnostic utility of circulating serum levels of MSX2 and PDX1 expression in patients with PC.A prospective study was conducted from January 2014 to February 2017. Patients with a suspected diagnosis of PC who underwent fine needle aspiration biopsy guided by EUS (EUS-FNA) were included in the study, in addition to non-PC control subjects. Both tissue and blood serum samples were submitted to histopathological analysis and measurement of PDX1 and MSX2 gene expression by means of qRT-PCR.Patients were divided into non-PC, malignant pathology (MP), or benign pathology (BP) groups. Significant differences in both MSX2 [2.05 (1.66-4.60) vs 0.83 (0.49-1.60), P = .006] and PDX1 [2.59 (1.28-10.12) vs 1.02 (0.81-1.17), P = .036] gene expression were found in blood samples of PC compared with non-PC subjects. We also observed a significant increase in MSX2 transcripts in tissue biopsy samples of patients diagnosed with MP compared with those with BP [1.98 (1.44-4.61) and 0.66 (0.45-1.54), respectively, P = .012]. The ROC curves indicate a sensitivity and specificity of 80% for PDX1 and 86% for MSX2.Gene expression of MSX2 in tissue samples obtained by EUS-FNA and serum expression of MSX2 and PDX1 were higher in patients with PC.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Pâncreas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
14.
Anticancer Res ; 39(7): 3311-3315, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262851

RESUMO

Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is an important antiangiogenic and antitumorigenic factor in a variety of cancer forms, including pancreatic cancer. PEDF is mainly secreted as a soluble monomeric glycoprotein. In human pancreatic cancer PEDF levels are decreased, both in the tissue and serum. The decrease is associated with increased tumor angiogenesis, fibrosis, inflammation, autophagy, occurrence of liver metastasis and worse prognosis. In murine models, loss of PEDF is sufficient to induce invasive carcinoma and this phenotype is associated with large lesions characterized by poor differentiation. Lentiviral gene transfer of PEDF has resulted in decreased microvessel density and has inhibited tumor growth. Herein we review the multifunctional role of PEDF in pancreatic cancer and its therapeutic potential.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Olho/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Serpinas/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos
15.
Anticancer Res ; 39(7): 3317-3321, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262852

RESUMO

Hippo signaling is a key regulator of organ size, tissue hemostasis and regeneration. Dysregulation of the Hippo pathway has been recognized in a variety of human cancers, including pancreatic cancer. YES-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) are the two major downstream effectors of the Hippo pathway. YAP and TAZ have been found to promote pancreatic tumor development and progression, even in the absence of mutant Kirsten RAS (KRAS). Pancreatic cancer is associated with an abundant stromal reaction leading to tumor growth and immune escape. It has been found that YAP and TAZ modulate behavior of pancreatic stellate cells and recruitment of tumor-associated macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Moreover, YAP and TAZ are associated with chemoresistance and poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer. This review dissects the role of Hippo signaling in pancreatic cancer, focusing on molecular mechanisms and prospects for future intervention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Anticancer Res ; 39(7): 3609-3614, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The novel cytidine analog RX-3117, which is activated by uridine-cytidine kinase 2 (UCK2), shows encouraging activity in pancreatic and bladder cancer Phase IIa studies. In this study we highlight the potential role of UCK2 as a biomarker for selecting patients for RX-3117 treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The online genomics analysis and visualization platform, R2, developed by the Oncogenomics department at the AMC (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) was used for in silico UCK2-mRNA correlation with overall survival of pancreatic cancer patients, while UCK2 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on pancreatic tumor formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded sections from independent pancreatic cancer patients. mRNA expression was also determined for SUIT-2, PANC-1 and PDAC-3. Lastly, the drug sensitivity to RX-3117 was investigated using the Sulforhodamine-B cytotoxicity assay. RESULTS: The in silico data showed that a high UCK2-mRNA expression was correlated with a shorter overall survival in pancreatic cancer patients. Moreover, UCK2 protein expression was high in 21/25 patients, showing a significantly shorter mean. Overall Survival (8.4 versus 34.3 months, p=0.045). Sensitivity to RX-3117 varied between 0.6 and 11 µM. CONCLUSION: Pancreatic cancer cells are sensitive to pharmacologically achievable RX-3117 concentrations and UCK2 might be exploited as a biomarker for patient treatment selection.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Citidina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Uridina Quinase/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citidina/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Uridina Quinase/genética
17.
Oncology ; 97(3): 135-148, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have developed a Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1)-targeting dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer vaccine combined with standard chemotherapy for patients with advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). METHODS: We evaluated predictive markers of overall survival (OS) in PDA patients treated with multiple major histocompatibility complex class I/II-restricted, WT1 peptide-pulsed DC vaccinations (DC/WT1-I/II) in combination with chemotherapy. Throughout the entire period of immunochemotherapy, the plasma levels of soluble factors derived from granulocytes of 7 eligible PDA patients were examined. Moreover, systemic inflammatory response markers (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio [NLR], monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio [MLR], and granulocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio [GLR]) were assessed. In addition, cytoplasmic WT1 expression in PDA cells was examined. RESULTS: Compared to the 4 non-super-responders (OS <1 year), the remaining 3 super-responders (OS ≥1 year) showed significantly decreased low plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels throughout long-term therapy. The NLR, MLR, and GLR after 5 DC/WT1-I/II vaccinations and 3 cycles of gemcitabine were significantly lower in the super-responders than in the non-super-responders. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic WT1 expression in the PDA cells of super-responders was relatively weak compared to that in the PDA cells of non-super-responders. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged low levels of a granulocyte-related systemic inflammatory response after the early period of therapy and low cytoplasmic WT1 expression in PDA cells may be markers predictive of OS in PDA patients receiving WT1-targeting immunochemotherapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Proteínas WT1/imunologia , Biomarcadores , Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Terapia Combinada , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Peptídeos/imunologia , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinação , Proteínas WT1/genética
18.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 838-850.e6, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known about mechanisms of perineural invasion (PNI) by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAs) or other tumors. Annexin A2 (ANXA2) regulates secretion of SEMA3D, an axon guidance molecule, which binds and activates the receptor PLXND1 to promote PDA invasion and metastasis. We investigated whether axon guidance molecules promote PNI and metastasis by PDA cells in mice. METHODS: We performed studies in a dorsal root ganglion (DRG) invasion system, wild-type C57BL/6 mice (controls), mice with peripheral sensory neuron-specific disruption of PlxnD1 (PLAC mice), LSL-KRASG12D/+;LSL-TP53R172H/+;PDX-1-CRE+/+ (KPC) mice, and KPC mice crossed with ANXA2-knockout mice (KPCA mice). PDA cells were isolated from KPC mice and DRG cells were isolated from control mice. Levels of SEMA3D or ANXA2 were knocked down in PDA cells with small hairpin and interfering RNAs and cells were analyzed by immunoblots in migration assays, with DRGs and with or without antibodies against PLXND1. PDA cells were injected into the pancreas of control and PLAC mice, growth of tumors was assessed, and tumor samples were analyzed by histology. DRG cells were incubated with SEMA3D and analyzed by live imaging. We measured levels of SEMA3D and PLXND1 in PDA specimens from patients with PNI and calculated distances between tumor cells and nerves. RESULTS: DRG cells increase the migration of PDC cells in invasion assays; knockdown of SEMA3D in PDA cells or antibody blockade of PLXND1 on DRG cells reduced this invasive activity. In mice, orthotopic tumors grown from PDA cells with knockdown of SEMA3D, and in PLAC mice, orthotopic tumors grown from PDA cells, had reduced innervation and formed fewer metastases than orthotopic tumors grown from PDA cells in control mice. Increased levels of SEMA3D and PLXND1 in human PDA specimens associated with PNI. CONCLUSIONS: DRG cells increase the migratory and invasive activities of pancreatic cancer cells, via secretion of SEMA3D by pancreatic cells and activation of PLXND1 on DRGs. Knockdown of SEMA3D and loss of neural PLXND1 reduces innervation of orthotopic PDAs and metastasis in mice. Increased levels of SEMA3D and PLXND1 in human PDA specimens associated with PNI. Strategies to disrupt the axon guidance pathway mediated by SEMA3D and PLXND1 might be developed to slow progression of PDA.


Assuntos
Anexina A2/metabolismo , Orientação de Axônios , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Gânglios Espinais/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Semaforinas/metabolismo , Animais , Anexina A2/deficiência , Anexina A2/genética , Orientação de Axônios/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/secundário , Comunicação Celular , Gânglios Espinais/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genes p53 , Genes ras , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/deficiência , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos da Linhagem 129 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/deficiência , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Crescimento Neuronal , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fenótipo , Semaforinas/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Transativadores/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
19.
Int J Oncol ; 55(1): 211-222, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180531

RESUMO

Lymph node metastasis is an independent prognostic factor in pancreatic cancer. However, the mechanisms of lymph node colonization are unknown. As a mechanism of lymphatic metastasis, it has been reported for other types of cancer that spheroids from tumor cells cause circular chemorepellent­induced defects (CCIDs) in lymphatic endothelial monolayers. In pancreatic cancer, such mechanisms of metastasis have not been elucidated. The present study evaluated the involvement of this new mechanism of metastasis in pancreatic cancer and investigated the associated factors. In human pancreatic cancer tissue, it was observed that clusters of cancer cells penetrated the wall of lymphatic ducts around the primary tumor. An in vitro co­culture system was then used to analyze the mechanisms of tumor cell­mediated disruption of lymphatic vessels. Time­lapse microscopic imaging revealed that spheroids from pancreatic cancer cells caused circular defects in lymphatic endothelial monolayers. CCID formation ability differed depending on the cell line. Neither aggregation of spheroids nor adhesion to lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) exhibited a significant correlation with this phenomenon. The addition of supernatant from cultured cancer cells enhanced CCID formation. Microarray analysis revealed that the expression of S100 calcium binding protein P (S100P) was significantly increased when LECs were treated with supernatant from cultured cancer cells. Addition of a S100P antagonist significantly suppressed the migration of LECs and CCID formation. The present findings demonstrated that spheroids from pancreatic cancer cells caused circular defects in lymphatic endothelial monolayers. These CCIDs in pancreatic cancer were partly regulated by S100P, suggesting that S100P may be a promising target to inhibit lymph node metastasis.


Assuntos
Antígenos Nucleares/metabolismo , Autoantígenos/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Adesão Celular/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares
20.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 133, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elemene is an effective anticancer component extracted from Zingiberaceae plants. This work was aimed to evaluate the anti-tumor effect and mechanism actions of elemene on pancreatic carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: The anti-proliferation experiment was measured by Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method in the time of 24, 48 and 72 h in three different dosages. The cell cycle was detected by flow cytometer after 12 h treatment. Forty-eight nude mice were subcutaneously xenograft with BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells and divided into four groups: Control group and high, medium, low dosage of elemene (20, 40 and 60 mg/kg) treatment groups. Immunoblot and immunohistochemical methods were applied to detect the protein expression of P53 and Bcl-2 in the tumor of pancreatic cancer xenografts. H & E staining was used to detect the histopathological changes in each group. RESULTS: A significant inhibition effect was observed in the anti-proliferation of BxPC-3 and Panc-1 cells in vitro in the time course of 24, 48 and 72 h with a dose dependent manner. The cell cycle results showed that elemene could arrest pancreatic cancer cells in the S phase after 12 h treatment in BxPC-3 and Panc-1 cell line. The in vivo BxPC-3 xenografts study exhibited that elemene was significantly decreased the tumor size in the high dosage group, compared to control group. And there is no any significant change in body weight of all animals. H&E pathology section result showed that treatment with elemene significantly decreased the inflammation cells and reduced the histopathological changes with a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, treatment with elemene significantly up-regulates the protein expression of P53, while down-regulate the protein expression of Bcl-2 in the tumor tissues, respectively. Furthermore, the western blot result showed that treatment with elemene increased the expression of P53 and decreased the expression of Bcl-2, compared with the control group, which is similar to the results of immunohistochemical staining. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that elemene has a potential anti pancreatic cancer effect, down-regulation the protein expression of Bcl-2 and up-regulation the protein expression of P53 in a dose dependent manner may be is the anti-tumor mechanism.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Sesquiterpenos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/fisiopatologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53 , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Zingiberaceae/química
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