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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682333

RESUMO

The high incidence cancer rates are due to factors such as behavior, occupational exposures, genetics, environmental pollution and infections. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with lung cancer among patients seen in the public health facilities in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. In this case-control study, 75 cases and 159 controls were interviewed using a structured close-ended questionnaire. Logistic regression showed a positive association between lung cancer and tobacco smoking (OR = 2.86, 95% CI: 1.21-6.77) and exposure to passive smoke (OR = 3.28, 95% CI: 1.48-7.30). When adjusted for other covariates, tobacco smoking and passive smoke were still positively associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Alcohol consumption (aORs ranging from 2.79 to 3.35) and history of lung disease (aORs ranging from 9.91 to 12.1) were statistically significantly associated with lung cancer. Our study suggests that tobacco smoke exposure is the major cause of lung cancer, and increased exposure to occupational and environmental carcinogenic substances, alcohol consumption and history of lung disease increase the risk of lung cancer. Based on our findings, policy development and planning of prevention strategies incorporating smoking legislations, occupational health and safety are essential in South Africa.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Exposição Ocupacional , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
2.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 585, 2022 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643456

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Most of the previous risk prediction models for lung cancer were developed from smokers, with discriminatory power ranging from 0.57 to 0.72. We constructed an individual risk prediction model for lung cancer among the male general population of Hong Kong. METHODS: Epidemiological data of 1,069 histology confirmed male lung cancer cases and 1,208 community controls were included in this analysis. Residential radon exposure was retrospectively reconstructed based on individual lifetime residential information. Multivariable logistic regression with repeated cross-validation method was used to select optimal risk predictors for each prediction model for different smoking strata. Individual absolute risk for lung cancer was estimated by Gail model. Receiver-operator characteristic curves, area under the curve (AUC) and confusion matrix were evaluated to demonstrate the model performance and ability to differentiate cases from non-cases. RESULTS: Smoking and smoking cessation, education, lung disease history, family history of cancer, residential radon exposure, dietary habits, carcinogens exposure, mask use and dust control in workplace were selected as the risk predictors for lung cancer. The AUC of estimated absolute risk for all lung cancers was 0.735 (95% CI: 0.714-0.756). Using 2.83% as the cutoff point of absolute risk, the predictive accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 0.715, 0.818 and 0.674, respectively. CONCLUSION: We developed a risk prediction model with moderate discrimination for lung cancer among Hong Kong males. External validation in other populations is warranted for this model in future studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Radônio , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Radônio/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
3.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 684, 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35729545

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Advanced lung cancer inflammation index (ALI) has been implicated in the prognosis of many types of tumors. But few studies elucidate its role in gastric cancer (GC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We consecutively recruited 615 GC patients who underwent radical gastrectomy. Patients were grouped according to ALI status. Risk factors for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in overall and sex-stratified cohorts were determined using multivariate cox regression analysis. We also compared survival differences between the two groups after one-to-one propensity score matching (PSM). RESULTS: Patients with low ALI showed larger tumor size, more advanced TNM staging, shorter OS (median: 37 vs 42 months) and DFS (median: 37 vs 42 months) (all P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that elevated ALI was independently associated with longer OS and DFS. After stratification by sex, low ALI was an independent risk factor for OS and DFS in male patients but not in female patients. But our further PSM analysis showed prognostic value of ALI in both male and female subgroups. CONCLUSION: Preoperative ALI is an independent prognostic factor for GC patients undergoing curative gastrectomy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Neoplasias Gástricas , Feminino , Gastrectomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Inflamação/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
4.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 674, 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) has become the cornerstone of treatment for patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC). The aim of this study was to compare the efficacies and toxicities of different CCRT regimens in the treatment of LA-NSCLC by adopting a network meta-analysis (NMA). METHODS: An exhaustive search of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) was conducted to identify relevant studies from inception to October 1, 2020. Direct and indirect evidence was combined to calculate the odds radios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), as well as to plot the surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) curves. Cluster analyses were adopted to compare the efficacies and toxicities of different CCRT regimens according to the similarity of 2 variables. Publication bias was detected by comparison-adjusted funnel plots. RESULTS: Twenty-two studies were enrolled in this NMA, including 18 regimens: CCRT (cisplatin + etoposide), CCRT (carboplatin + paclitaxel), CCRT (pemetrexed + carboplatin), CCRT (pemetrexed + cisplatin), CCRT (docetaxel + cisplatin), CCRT (S-1 + cisplatin), CCRT (mitomycin + vindesine + cisplatin), CCRT (cisplatin + vinorelbine), CCRT (cisplatin), CCRT (etoposide + cisplatin + amifostine), RT, CCRT (5-FU), CCRT (paclitaxel + cisplatin), CCRT (irinotecan + carboplatin), CCRT (nedaplatin), CCRT (carboplatin + etoposide), CCRT (paclitaxel), and CCRT (carboplatin). The results indicated that the regimens with CCRT (cisplatin + etoposide), CCRT (carboplatin + paclitaxel), CCRT (pemetrexed + cisplatin), CCRT (S-1 + cisplatin), and CCRT (cisplatin + vinorelbine) had relatively better efficacies compared with other regimens. As for toxicities of different CCRT regimens, the CCRT (carboplatin + paclitaxel), CCRT (pemetrexed + cisplatin), and CCRT (docetaxel + cisplatin) were relatively lower. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that CCRT (pemetrexed + cisplatin) and CCRT (carboplatin + paclitaxel) might be the best options for the treatment of LA-NSCLC, and CCRT (pemetrexed + cisplatin) had the highest 3-year overall survival (OS) rate.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carboplatina , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/etiologia , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Docetaxel/uso terapêutico , Etoposídeo/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Irinotecano/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Metanálise em Rede , Paclitaxel , Pemetrexede/uso terapêutico , Vinorelbina
5.
Exp Oncol ; 44(1): 17-22, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35548970

RESUMO

In the review on the issues of histogenesis of lung cancer (LC), the significant results of experimental, pathological, immunohistochemical and molecular-biological studies are presented. However, until now, no data has been obtained that would allow scientists to come to an unambiguous decision about the origin and development of this disease. The question remains not yet fully understood, since researchers discuss the origin of LC development in a hypothetical form. This situation poses the task of further in-depth scientific research, which would make it possible to clarify the unambiguous origin of LC development, and, therefore, would allow solving the problem of its early diagnosis and create grounds for screening programs, which is of high scientific and clinical significance.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Programas de Rastreamento
6.
Nutrition ; 99-100: 111676, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35576876

RESUMO

This meta-analysis evaluated the relationship between dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and lung cancer risk, which has been controversial in previous studies. We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases for relevant studies from inception to October 2021 in English only. We included case-control and cohort studies that reported relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between dietary GI or GL intake and lung cancer risk. Either a fixed- or random-effects model was used to estimate pooled RRs. Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, meta-regression, publication bias test, and dose-response meta-analysis were performed. We identified nine studies eligible for meta-analysis with 32810 cases and 351013 controls. The pooled RR for highest versus lowest intake was 1.14 (95% CI: 1.03-1.26, I2=64.8%, P=0.002) for GI and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.84-1.02, I2=42.3%, P=0.076) for GL. Subgroup analysis showed that the associations between GI or GL and lung cancer were similar between groups. Sensitivity analysis revealed reduced heterogeneity among GL-related studies when one particular study was excluded. There was no evidence of publication bias. A linear association between GI intake and lung cancer risk was observed. The present meta-analysis suggests that high dietary GI intake is associated with a significantly increased risk of lung cancer in a linear fashion. However, no significant association was observed between GL and lung cancer risk.


Assuntos
Carga Glicêmica , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Glicemia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
7.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 23(5): 1451-1463, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35633527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smokeless tobacco and waterpipes are used by hundreds of millions of people worldwide and consumption rates exceed that of cigarette smoking in much of South East Asia and parts of the Middle East. However, the cancer risks of these methods of tobacco consumption are less well-characterized than those of cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to systematically review the epidemiological evidence on the association between smokeless tobacco use and waterpipe smoking and lung cancer risk. METHODS: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and OpenSIGLE databases were searched to identify eligible case-control and cohort studies (published before 1st December 2020 in any language) that adjusted for cigarette smoking or included non-cigarette smokers only. Summary odds ratio/relative risk estimates and confidence intervals were extracted, and pooled risk ratios (RRs) for lung cancer were calculated using random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: The literature search identified 2,465 publications: of these, 26 studies including 6,903 lung cancer patients were included in the synthesis (20 studies of smokeless tobacco use, five of waterpipe smoking, one of both). Our results suggest that smokeless tobacco use is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer among non-cigarette smokers, and that betel quid tobacco may be particularly hazardous. The random effects meta-analysis showed that exclusive use of any type of smokeless tobacco (pooled RR = 1.53, 95%CI 1.09 - 2.14), betel quid chewing (pooled RR = 1.77, 95%CI 1.06 - 2.95), and waterpipe smoking (pooled RR = 3.25, 95%CI 2.01 - 5.25) were significantly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis of case-control/cohort studies supports the hypothesis that use of smokeless tobacco and waterpipe smoking is associated with increased risk of developing lung cancer. Considering the widespread and increasing use of smokeless tobacco in developing countries, and increasing prevalence of waterpipe smoking in almost all societies, these findings inform formulation of public health policy, legislation and tobacco control measures at national and international level to increase awareness and decrease the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use and waterpipe smoking.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Produtos do Tabaco , Tabaco sem Fumaça , Fumar Cachimbo de Água , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Tabaco sem Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/epidemiologia
8.
Thorac Cancer ; 13(12): 1814-1821, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35567315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current predictive tools assess catheter-related thrombosis (CRT) in patients with lung cancer in a static manner at a single time point of catheterization. The subsequent hazard changes over time are unknown. The conditional catheter-related thrombosis-free probability (CCFP) can provide dynamic information on continual CRT-free expectations. This study aimed to assess the CCFP and hazard rates based on risk categories and various venous access devices (VADs). METHODS: This retrospective study reviewed 939 patients with lung cancer with peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) or central venous catheters (CVCs) identified at the National Clinical Research Center for Cancer between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2018. The incidence of CRT has also been reported. Patients were stratified into low- and high-risk groups according to multivariate Cox regression analyses. CCFP is defined as the CRT-free probability given that patients have no CRT for a definite time. RESULTS: A total of 507 patients with PICCs and 432 patients with CVCs were included in this study. The 3-month CCFP increased from 74.2% at catheter insertion to 93.6% at 3 months. The hazards of CRT in the first month were highest (16.4%) and slightly thereafter. The high-risk group initially had a higher (21.4%) but significantly decreased CRT hazard after 2 months (8.3%), whereas the low-risk group maintained a comparable lower risk hazard of less than 5% after 1 month. In the overall cohort, patients with CVCs had lower CRT probability than those with PICCs (HR, 1.76; 95% CI: 1.28-2.41; p < 0.01). Further analysis demonstrated that compared with PICCs, CVCs provided a CRT-free benefit in low-risk patients (p = 0.02) but not in high-risk patients (p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: CCFP increased, and the hazards of CRT decreased over time in a risk-dependent manner in patients with lung cancer. These valuable dynamic data may help optimize risk-adjusted choices of VADs and risk-adjusted prophylactic anticoagulation strategies for patients.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Venoso Central , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Trombose , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateteres , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/etiologia
9.
Lung Cancer ; 168: 1-9, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430354

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In England, a risk-based approach is used to determine eligibility for lung cancer screening. Ensuring effective communication and counselling of risk is therefore increasingly important. In this study, we explore the perception of lung cancer risk in attendees of a community-based screening service, located in socio-economically deprived areas of Manchester. We analyse responses based on demographic variables, calculated risk score and screening eligibility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Manchester Lung Health Check (LHC) programme invited ever smokers, age 55-80, to a lung cancer risk assessment in which their 6-year risk was calculated (using the PLCOM2012 model). Those at high risk (PLCOM2012 score ≥ 1.51%) were eligible for low dose CT (LDCT) screening. Prior to their assessment, attendees were invited to complete the study questionnaire, which assessed absolute and comparative risk perception, disease knowledge (incidence, survival, and risk factors), lung cancer specific worry, and mental health. RESULTS: 371 participants completed the questionnaire; 66% (n = 243) had linked clinical data. Perceived absolute risk was markedly higher than calculated risk (median: 20% vs. 1%; p < 0.001) and higher in women than men (25% vs. 15%; p = 0.001). There was no correlation between perceived absolute and calculated risk. Overall, 30% classified themselves at higher, and 21% at lower, lung cancer risk compared to others their age. Median PLCOM2012 score increased with perceived comparative risk (p = 0.004). Those eligible for screening were more likely to: classify themselves at higher comparative risk (41% vs. 21%; p < 0.0001), report lung cancer-specific worry (27% vs. 10%; p = 0.001) and have indications of depression (20% vs. 10%; p = 0.05). Family history of lung cancer was significantly associated with higher comparative risk (adjOR 4.03, 95%CI 1.74-9.3; p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Employing comparative rather than absolute risk may assist risk counselling. Further research is required to determine the optimal approach to risk communication in this setting.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
10.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0265609, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35404962

RESUMO

We estimate the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of lung cancer incidence in symptomatic Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) patients receiving enhanced Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CCTA) and the unenhanced Computed Tomography Calcium Scoring (CTCS) examination. Retrospective analysis has been made of CCTA and CTCS data collected for 87 confirmed CAD adult patients. Patient effective dose (E) and organ doses (ODs) were calculated using CT-EXPO. Statistical correlation and the differences between E and ODs in enhanced CCTA and unenhanced CTCS were calculated using the Pearson coefficient and Wilcoxon unpaired t-test. Following BEIR VII report guidance, organ-specific LARs for the cohort were estimated using the organ-equivalent dose-to-risk conversion factor for numbers of cases per 100,000 patients exposed to low doses of 0.1 Gy. Significant statistical difference (p<0.0001) is found between E obtained for CTCS and that of CCTA. The scan length was found to be greater in CCTA (17.5 ± 2.9 cm) compared to that for CTCS (15 ± 2 cm). More elevated values of dose were noted for the esophagus (4.2 ± 2.15 mSv) and thymus (9.6 ± 2.54 mSv) for both CTCS and CCTA. CTCS organ doses were lower than that of CCTA. Per 100,000 patients, female cumulative doses are seen to give rise to greater lung cancer LARs compared to that for males, albeit with risk varying significantly, noticeably greater for females, younger patients and combined CCTA and CTCS scans. While scan parameters and tube-modulation methods clearly contribute to patient dose, mAs offers by far the greater contribution.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adulto , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Doses de Radiação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409936

RESUMO

Exposure to radon is the second most common factor causing lung cancer in smokers and the first among non-smokers. We aimed to measure the impact of the radon exposure on patients with different histological types of advanced lung cancer. The measurement of radon exposure was performed in 102 patients with lung cancer in stage 3B or higher (Poland). There were 78.4% of patients with non-small cell carcinoma and 21.6% of patients with small cell carcinoma. One month radon exposure measurement was performed with trace detectors in order to control whether high radon concentrations (>800 Bq/m3) were found in the homes of patients with cancer diagnosed. Results of the determinations were then compared with the representation of the most common types of lung cancer in the study population. In the analyzed group, the average concentration of radon during the exposure of the detector in the residential premises of the respondents accounted for 69.0 Bq/m3 [37.0-117.0] and had no statistically significant effect on the type of lung cancer developed in patients. The lack of statistical significance may result from the small study group and the accompanying exposure to other harmful components. As the incidence of lung adenocarcinoma is increasing and exposure to tobacco smoke is decreasing, the search for other modifiable causes of lung cancer should be the task in the future.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação , Radônio , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Habitação , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Radônio/análise
14.
Lung Cancer ; 167: 8-16, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35367910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In CheckMate 743 (NCT02899299), nivolumab + ipilimumab significantly prolonged overall survival in patients with unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). We present patient-reported outcomes (PROs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients (N = 605) were randomized to nivolumab + ipilimumab or chemotherapy. Changes in disease-related symptom burden and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were evaluated descriptively using the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (LCSS)-Mesothelioma (Meso) average symptom burden index (ASBI), LCSS-Meso 3-item global index (3-IGI), 3-level EuroQol 5-dimensional (EQ-5D-3L) visual analog score (VAS), and EQ-5D-3L utility index. PROs were assessed at baseline and every 2 (nivolumab + ipilimumab) or 3 weeks (chemotherapy) through 12 weeks, every 6 weeks through 12 months, every 12 weeks thereafter, and at specified follow-ups. Mixed-effect model repeated measures (MMRM) and time to deterioration analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Completion rates were generally >80%. LCSS-Meso ASBI mean changes from baseline trended to improve over time with nivolumab + ipilimumab and deteriorate with chemotherapy, but did not meet clinically important difference thresholds [±10 score change]. EQ-5D-3L VAS mean scores improved over time with nivolumab + ipilimumab; by week 60, patients had scores consistent with United Kingdom normal population values. MMRM analyses favored nivolumab + ipilimumab for all individual symptoms except cough. Nivolumab + ipilimumab delayed time to definitive deterioration in HRQoL (hazard ratio 0.52 [95% confidence interval 0.36-0.74]) and showed a trend in symptom delay versus chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Nivolumab + ipilimumab decreased the risk of deterioration in disease-related symptoms and HRQoL versus chemotherapy and maintained QoL in patients with unresectable MPM.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma Maligno , Mesotelioma , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Mesotelioma/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Qualidade de Vida
15.
Lung Cancer ; 167: 17-24, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35378379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To understand the geographic distribution of and area-level factors associated with malignant mesothelioma incidence and survival in Australia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Generalised linear models and Bayesian spatial models were fitted using population registry data. Area-level covariates were socioeconomic quintile, remoteness category and state or territory. The maximised excess events test was used to test for spatial heterogeneity. RESULTS: There was strong evidence of spatial differences in standardised incidence rates for malignant mesothelioma but survival was uniformly poor. Incidence rates varied by state or territory and were lower in remote areas. Patterns in the geographic distribution of modelled incidence counts for malignant mesothelioma differed substantially from patterns of standardised incidence rates. CONCLUSIONS: Geographic variation in the modelled incidence counts of malignant mesothelioma demonstrates varying demand for diagnostic and management services. The long latency period for this cancer coupled with migration complicates any associations with patterns of exposure, however some of the geographic distribution of diagnoses can be explained by the location of historical mines and asbestos-related industries.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma Maligno , Mesotelioma , Exposição Ocupacional , Austrália/epidemiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia
16.
Cancer Causes Control ; 33(6): 913-918, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35302182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although smoking is the primary risk factor for lung cancer, 15-25% of lung cancers occur in never smokers. Emerging evidence suggests lifestyle factors are associated with lung cancer risk, but few studies among never smokers exist. METHODS: A case-control study of never smokers within the Canadian Partnership for Tomorrow's Health was conducted. At recruitment, participants provided data on lifestyle, health history and sociodemographic factors. Incident lung cancers were identified through linkage with administrative health records. Cases (n = 190) were matched to controls (n = 760) on age, sex, and follow-up time. Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for matching factors and annual income, were used to identify associations between lifestyle factors and lung cancer risk. RESULTS: Consumption of < 5 servings of fruits and vegetables/day was associated with higher risk of lung cancer (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.03-2.17). Short or long sleep (≤ 6 or > 9 h/night) was also associated with increased risk of lung cancer (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.01-2.29). No associations were observed for obesity measures, alcohol consumption, or physical activity. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide evidence of a potential role between sleep, fruits and vegetable consumption, and lung cancer risk in a pan-Canadian, non-smoking population. However, the sample size is modest, and further investigation is needed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Fumantes , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Verduras
17.
Cancer ; 128(11): 2126-2137, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35298026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of reduction, cessation, and resumption of smoking on cancer development. METHODS: The authors identified 893,582 participants who currently smoked, had undergone a health screening in 2009, and had a follow-up screening in 2011. Among them, 682,996 participated in a third screening in 2013. Participants were categorized as quitters, reducers I (≥50% reduction), reducers II (<50% reduction), sustainers (referent), or increasers (≥20% increase). Outcome data were obtained through December 31, 2018. RESULTS: Reducers I exhibited a decreased risk of all cancers (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-0.99), smoking-related cancers (aHR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99), and lung cancer (aHR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.77-0.88). Quitters had the lowest risk of all cancers (aHR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.96), smoking-related cancers (aHR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.89-0.93), and lung cancer (aHR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.76-0.83). In further analysis with 3 consecutive screenings, additional smoking reduction (from reducers II to reducers I) lowered the risk of lung cancer (aHR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.58-0.94) in comparison with sustainers. Quitting among reducers I further decreased the risk of all cancers (aHR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.80-1.00), smoking-related cancers (aHR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.81-0.92), and lung cancer (aHR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.52-0.84) in comparison with sustainers. Smoking resumption after quitting, even at a lower level, increased the risk of smoking-related cancers (aHR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.06-1.33) and lung cancer (aHR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.21-1.80) in comparison with sustained quitting. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation and, to a lesser extent, smoking reduction decreased the risks of cancer. Smoking resumption increased cancer risks in comparison with sustained quitting. LAY SUMMARY: Worldwide, tobacco use is the single leading preventable risk factor for cancer and cancer death. This study examined the effects of reduction, cessation, and resumption of smoking on cancer development by measuring smoking behavior repetitively. Although smoking reduction has a substantial cancer prevention benefit for those who cannot quit, cessation should be encouraged whenever possible. Quitters should be monitored to ensure that they do not resume smoking.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Redução do Consumo de Tabaco , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia
18.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 58(4): 311-322, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35312585

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tobacco consumption and radon exposure are considered the first and second most common causes of lung cancer, respectively. The aim of this study was to analyze both whether selected genetic polymorphisms in loci that are in DNA repair pathways, are related to non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and whether they may modulate the association between residential radon exposure and lung cancer in both smokers and never smokers. METHODS: A multicentre, hospital-based, case-control study with 826 cases and 1201 controls was designed in a radon-prone area. Genotyping was determined in whole blood and residential radon exposure was measured in participants' dwellings. RESULTS: Attending to tobacco exposure, the variant in the gene NBN (rs1805794) was associated with lung cancer in never smokers (OR 2.72; 95%1.44-5.2) and heavy smokers (OR 3.04; 95%CI 1.21-7.69). The polymorphism with the highest lung cancer association was OGG1 (rs125701), showing an OR of 8.04 (95%CI 1.64-58.29) for its homozygous variant genotype in heavy smokers. Attending to indoor radon exposure (>200Bq/m3), rs1452584, for its homozygous variant genotype, showed the highest association (OR 3.04 (95%CI 1.15-8.48). CONCLUSION: The genes analyzed seem to have no association with the fully adjusted model, but they might modulate lung cancer association when different categories of tobacco consumption are considered (i.e. heavy smokers). This association may similarly be elevated for those individuals having high indoor radon exposures, though at a minor extent.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação , Radônio , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/etiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/etiologia , Polimorfismo Genético , Radônio/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Tabaco
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35269773

RESUMO

There is evidence that asbestos could play a role in the carcinogenesis of digestive cancers. The presence of asbestos fibres in histological samples from gastric, biliary, colon cancers has been reported, but the mechanism is still controversial. It has been hypothesised that asbestos reaches these sites, especially through contaminated water; however, some experimental studies have shown that the inhaled fibres are mobile, so they can migrate to many organs, directly or via blood and lymph flow. We report four unusual cases of colorectal cancers in patients with a long history of asbestos exposure who also developed synchronous or metachronous mesothelioma. We evaluated the roles of BRCA associated protein-1 (BAP1) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) in colon cancer and mesothelioma to support the hypothesis that BAP-1 and CDKN2A are tumour suppressor genes involved in disease progression, recurrence, or death in both digestive cancers and mesothelioma. Potentially, these markers may be used as predictors of worse prognosis, but we also stress the importance of clinical surveillance of exposed patients because asbestos could induce cancer in any organ.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma Maligno , Mesotelioma , Asbestos/toxicidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Mesotelioma/diagnóstico , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/genética
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35270346

RESUMO

Elevated air pollution, along with rapid urbanization, have imposed higher health risks and a higher disease burden on urban residents. To accurately assess the increasing exposure risk and the spatial association between PM2.5 and lung cancer incidence, this study integrated PM2.5 data from the National Air Quality Monitoring Platform and location-based service (LBS) data to introduce an improved PM2.5 exposure model for high-precision spatial assessment of Guangzhou, China. In this context, the spatial autocorrelation method was used to evaluate the spatial correlation between lung cancer incidence and PM2.5. The results showed that people in densely populated areas suffered from higher exposure risk, and the spatial distribution of population exposure risk was highly consistent with the dynamic distribution of the population. In addition, areas with PM2.5 roughly overlapped with areas with high lung cancer incidence, and the lung cancer incidence in different locations was not randomly distributed, confirming that lung cancer incidence was significantly associated with PM2.5 exposure. Therefore, dynamic population distribution has a great impact on the accurate assessment of environmental exposure and health burden, and it is necessary to use LBS data to improve the exposure assessment model. More mitigation controls are needed in highly populated and highly polluted areas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Análise Espacial
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