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1.
Anticancer Res ; 41(7): 3481-3487, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Metformin is an antidiabetic drug that has been reported to have antitumor activity in many cancer types. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumor effect of metformin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the molecular mechanism of the antitumor effect of metformin alone and in combination with AKT serine/threonine kinase (AKT) inhibition via cell viability and western blot analyses. RESULTS: Notably, metformin increased the phosphorylation of AKT at serine 473 using protein array screening. Metformin-induced AKT activation was markedly suppressed by siRNA targeting activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) but not AMP-activated protein kinase α. These results indicate that AKT activation by metformin was induced in an ATF4-dependent and AMPKα-independent manner. Treatment using metformin combined with MK-2206, an AKT inhibitor, or a siRNA for AKT markedly reduced the viability of cells compared with those cells treated with these agents alone. In addition, MK-2206 increased cell sensitivity to the combination of metformin with ionizing radiation or cisplatin. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of AKT can enhance the antitumor effect of metformin and would be a promising strategy to sensitize non-small-cell lung cancer to a combination of metformin with radiation or cisplatin.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Metformina/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo
2.
Anticancer Res ; 41(7): 3673-3682, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230166

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to investigate useful prognostic factors of immunotherapy in patients with lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively observed 73 patients who underwent immunotherapy (nivolumab, pembrolizumab, and atezolizumab) for lung cancer. The systemic inflammatory score (SIS) was calculated as the sum of the following factors scored one point each: Hemoglobin <12.5 g/dl and serum albumin <3.6 g/dl, resulting in scores of 0-2. We examined the correlation between the SIS and initial tumor response and progression-free and overall survival with other existing markers, namely tumor programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression level; neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR); modified Glasgow prognostic score; and prognostic nutritional index, etc. Results: SIS ≤1 was significantly associated with better initial tumor response. In multivariate analysis, PD-L1 expression ≥50% (p=0.010), SIS ≤1 (p=0.028) and NLR <5.6 (p=0.047) were significantly associated with longer progression-free survival, and SIS ≤1 (p=0.030) and NLR <5.6 (p=0.037) were associated with longer overall survival. CONCLUSION: SIS is a useful marker of the efficacy of immunotherapy that can be obtained via routine blood tests.


Assuntos
Inflamação/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Linfócitos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/patologia , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(27): e26580, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232204

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Lung cancer (LC) is a prevalent malignancy worldwide with increased morbidity and mortality. Mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-3 (SIRT3) has been reported to be involved in tumorigenesis. In this retrospective study, we measured the expression and diagnostic value of SIRT3 in LC patients.Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to measure serum SIRT3 mRNA level in 150 LC patients and 52 healthy volunteers. SIRT3 protein level was detected using western blot for 84 pairs of LC and adjacent normal tissues. The association of SIRT3 mRNA level with clinical parameters of LC patients was estimated via chi-square test. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was plotted to evaluate the diagnostic performance of serum SIRT3 in LC patients.SIRT3 mRNA and protein levels were significantly decreased in LC tissues and serum samples, compared with corresponding controls (P < .05). Moreover, the expression of SIRT3 mRNA was negatively associated with tumor size (P = .002), tumor node metastasis stage (P < .001), and metastasis (P < .001). ROC curve demonstrated that serum SIRT3 could distinguish LC patients from healthy individuals, with an area under the curve of 0.918. The optimal cutoff value was 3.12, reaching a sensitivity of 86.4%, and a specificity of 94%.SIRT3 expression is significantly down-regulated in LC serum and tissues. SIRT3 may be employed as a promising biomarker in the early diagnosis of LC.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Sirtuína 3/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/biossíntese , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Western Blotting , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Neoplásico/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sirtuína 3/biossíntese
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208396

RESUMO

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) continues to be the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Recently, targeting molecules whose functions are associated with tumorigenesis has become a game changing adjunct to standard anti-cancer therapy. As evidenced by the results of preclinical and clinical investigations, whole-body irradiations (WBI) with X-rays at less than 0.1-0.2 Gy per fraction can induce remissions of various neoplasms without inciting adverse side effects of conventional chemo- and radiotherapy. In the present study, a murine model of human NSCLC was employed to evaluate for the first time the anti-neoplastic efficacy of WBI combined with inactivation of CTLA-4, PD-1, and/or HSP90. The results indicate that WBI alone and in conjunction with the inhibition of the function of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and the programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor immune checkpoints (ICs) and/or heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) markedly reduced tumorigenesis in mice implanted by three different routes with the syngeneic Lewis lung cancer cells and suppressed clonogenic potential of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC1) cells in vitro. These results were associated with the relevant changes in the profile of pro- and anti-neoplastic immune cells recruited to the growing tumors and the circulating anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In contrast, inhibition of the tested molecular targets used either separately or in combination with each other did not exert notable anti-neoplastic effects. Moreover, no significant synergistic effects were detected when the inhibitors were applied concurrently with WBI. The obtained results supplemented with further mechanistic explanations provided by future investigations will help design the effective strategies of treatment of lung and other cancers based on inactivation of the immune checkpoint and/or heat shock molecules combined with low-dose radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Checkpoint Imunológico/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Transplante de Neoplasias , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Irradiação Corporal Total , Animais , Células Clonais , Pulmão/patologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ensaio Tumoral de Célula-Tronco
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112378, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082244

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been demonstrated to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of human cancers and carcinogenesis of several environmental pollutants. Nevertheless, the function of circRNAs in cadmium carcinogenesis is unclear. circ-SHPRH is down-regulated in many cancers including non-small cell lung cancer. In our present study, during cadmium-induced transformation of human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was induced. Meanwhile, at the middle and late stages of cell transformation, cadmium down-regulated the expression of circ-SHPRH, as well as QKI, a tumor suppressor protein known to prevent the proliferation and EMT during progression of human cancers, compared with passage-matched control BEAS-2B cells. Overexpression of circ-SHPRH in cadmium-transformed BEAS-2B cells promoted the expression of QKI and significantly inhibited proliferation, EMT, invasion, migration and anchorage-independent growth in soft agar of the cells. Mechanistic studies showed that circ-SHPRH functioned as a sponge of miR-224-5p to regulate QKI expression. Interestingly, QKI and circ-SHPRH could form a positive-feedback loop that perpetuated circ-SHPRH/miR-224-5p/QKI axis. Collectively, our results demonstrated that circ-SHPRH inhibited cadmium-induced transformation of BEAS-2B cells through sponging miR-224-5p to regulate QKI expression under cadmium treatment. Our study uncovered a novel molecular mechanism involved in circRNAs in the development of lung cancer due to cadmium exposure.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Circular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/induzido quimicamente , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Regulação para Baixo , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia
6.
Life Sci ; 280: 119716, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119539

RESUMO

AIMS: Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) is a NAD+-dependent protein-modifying enzyme involved in regulating gene expression, DNA damage repair, cell metabolism, and mitochondrial functions. Given that it acts as both a tumor promoter and suppressor, the complex mechanisms underlying SIRT1 signaling in cancer remain controversial. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a key role in the progression of carcinogenesis and tumors metastasis. Studies have shown that mitochondrial defects are critical in EMT process, and SIRT1 is found to regulate the generation and energy metabolism of mitochondria. Here, we elucidate a novel mechanism by which SIRT1 affects EMT in lung cancer cells via its regulation on mitochondria. MAIN METHODS: SIRT1 signaling was detected in TGF-ß1-induced EMT and was found to regulate mitochondria status, including mitochondrial biogenesis-related protein levels as detected by western blotting, mitochondrial structure observed by transmission electron microscopy, and respiratory functions analyzed by a respiration capacity assay. The effects of modulating SIRT1 expression on EMT and migration of lung cancer cells or normal cells were evaluated by in vitro and in vivo models. KEY FINDINGS: We found that the regulation of SIRT1 signaling on the biogenesis or functions of mitochondria was critical to EMT. Overexpression of SIRT1 reduced EMT or metastasis potential of lung cancer cells by improving the quantity and quality of mitochondria, whereas silencing SIRT1 promote EMT in cancer cells, even in normal cells by disturbing mitochondria status. SIGNIFICANCE: Consequently, SIRT1 is an attractive therapeutic target for reversing EMT or tumor metastasis.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Células A549 , Animais , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Nus , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Biogênese de Organelas , Transdução de Sinais , Sirtuína 1/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
7.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 78(14): 5569-5585, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089345

RESUMO

The macrophage mannose receptor (CD206, MR) is an endocytic lectin receptor which plays an important role in homeostasis and innate immunity, however, the endogenous glycan and glycoprotein ligands recognized by its C-type lectin domains (CTLD) have not been well studied. Here we used the murine MR CTLD4-7 coupled to the Fc-portion of human IgG (MR-Fc) to investigate the MR glycan and glycoprotein recognition. We probed 16 different cancer and control tissues using the MR-Fc, and observed cell- and tissue-specific binding with varying intensity. All cancer tissues and several control tissues exhibited MR-Fc ligands, intracellular and/or surface-located. We further confirmed the presence of ligands on the surface of cancer cells by flow cytometry. To characterize the fine specificity of the MR for glycans, we screened a panel of glycan microarrays. Remarkably, the results indicate that the CTLD4-7 of the MR is highly selective for specific types of pauci- and oligomannose N-glycans among hundreds of glycans tested. As lung cancer tissue and the lung cancer cell line A549 showed intense MR-Fc binding, we further investigated the MR glycoprotein ligands in those cells by immunoprecipitation and glycoproteomic analysis. All enriched glycoproteins, of which 42 were identified, contained pauci- or oligomannose N-glycans, confirming the microarray results. Our study demonstrates that the MR CTLD4-7 is highly selective for pauci- and oligomannosidic N-glycans, structures that are often elevated in tumor cells, and suggest a potential role for the MR in tumor biology.


Assuntos
Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Lectinas de Ligação a Manose/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Células A549 , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicosilação , Humanos , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Ligantes , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Lectinas de Ligação a Manose/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065983

RESUMO

Dysregulation of messenger RNA (mRNA) processing-in particular mRNA splicing-is a hallmark of cancer. Compared to normal cells, cancer cells frequently present aberrant mRNA splicing, which promotes cancer progression and treatment resistance. This hallmark provides opportunities for developing new targeted cancer treatments. Splicing of precursor mRNA into mature mRNA is executed by a dynamic complex of proteins and small RNAs called the spliceosome. Spliceosomes are part of the supraspliceosome, a macromolecular structure where all co-transcriptional mRNA processing activities in the cell nucleus are coordinated. Here we review the biology of the mRNA splicing machinery in the context of other mRNA processing activities in the supraspliceosome and present current knowledge of its dysregulation in lung cancer. In addition, we review investigations to discover therapeutic targets in the spliceosome and give an overview of inhibitors and modulators of the mRNA splicing process identified so far. Together, this provides insight into the value of targeting the spliceosome as a possible new treatment for lung cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Splicing de RNA , Spliceossomos/metabolismo , Processamento Alternativo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068421

RESUMO

Resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKIs) is a major obstacle in managing lung cancer. The root of Scutellaria baicalensis (SB) traditionally used for fever clearance and detoxification possesses various bioactivities including anticancer effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether SB exhibited anticancer activity in EGFR TKI-resistant lung cancer cells and to explore the underlying mechanism. We used four types of human lung cancer cell lines, including H1299 (EGFR wildtype; EGFR TKI-resistant), H1975 (acquired TKI-resistant), PC9/ER (acquired erlotinib-resistant), and PC9/GR (acquired gefitinib-resistant) cells. The ethanol extract of SB (ESB) decreased cell viability and suppressed colony formation in the four cell lines. ESB stimulated nuclear fragmentation and the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3. Consistently, the proportion of sub-G1 phase cells and annexin V+ cells were significantly elevated by ESB, indicating that ESB induced apoptotic cell death in EGFR TKI-resistant cells. ESB dephosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and downregulated the target gene expression. The overexpression of constitutively active STAT3 reversed ESB-induced apoptosis, suggesting that ESB triggered apoptosis in EGFR TKI-resistant cells by inactivating STAT3. Taken together, we propose the potential use of SB as a novel therapeutic for lung cancer patients with EGFR TKI resistance.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/antagonistas & inibidores , Scutellaria baicalensis/química , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
10.
Anticancer Res ; 41(6): 2867-2874, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer with poor prognosis. Lenvatinib is a multi-kinase inhibitor that has the potential to suppress tumor progression. Our previous study suggested that lenvatinib induces cytotoxicity and apoptosis in CL-1-5-F4 cells in vitro. However, whether lenvatinib suppresses NSCLC progression in vivo remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumor growth inhibition and normal tissue toxicity evaluation following lenvatinib treatment were performed on CL-1-5-F4-bearing mice. RESULTS: Tumor growth calculated by caliper and living cell intensity decreased by lenvatinib treatment as analysed by bioluminescence imaging. Phosphorylation of AKT, NF-κB, and NF-κB downstream proteins involved in tumor progression were reduced by lenvatinib in the tumor tissue. No pathological changes were found in the liver, kidney, and spleen after lenvatinib treatment. CONCLUSION: Induction of apoptosis and suppression of AKT/NF-κB were associated with lenvatinib-induced inhibition of the progression of NSCLC in vivo.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/enzimologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enzimologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
11.
Anticancer Res ; 41(6): 2963-2977, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains a significant cause of death despite the recent introduction of several improved therapeutics. Pemetrexed disodium heptahydrate (pemetrexed) is currently available in combination with a platinum derivative for patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC for first-line treatment, and as a single agent for second-line treatment. However, the mechanisms underlying its anticancer activities are still not well understood. In this study, we evaluated the growth inhibitory effects of pemetrexed on PC9 (EGFR exon 19 deletion) cells and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PC9 cells were treated with pemetrexed and then assessed for the cell viability, morphological and nuclear changes, antigenic alterations, SA-ß-gal staining, and changes in protein expression. RESULTS: Pemetrexed reduced the cell viability of PC9 cells and initiated cell morphological changes in a concentration-dependent manner. Pemetrexed significantly induced G1 phase arrest in a dose-dependent manner. The results demonstrated that pemetrexed induced apoptosis in PC9 cells, a change coupled with an increase in reactive oxygen species and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. Pemetrexed decreased Bcl-2 expression, while Bax expression was increased, and cytochrome c was released. Furthermore, the expression of extrinsic pathway proteins, e.g. Fas/FasL, DR4/TRAIL, and Fas-associated protein with death domain, was increased by pemetrexed, which then activated caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3 and induced poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase proteolysis. CONCLUSION: This study revealed the mechanisms by which pemetrexed works an anticancer drug in the treatment of NSCLC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Éxons , Deleção de Genes , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Pemetrexede/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA , Receptores ErbB/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Anticancer Res ; 41(6): 3193-3204, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We analyzed the prognostic efficacy of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: During 2005-2016, 211 patients underwent neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) followed by surgical resection for LA-NSCLC at Asan Medical Center. PD-L1 expression and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) were measured pre- and post-neoadjuvant CCRT and analyzed using immuno - histochemical staining. RESULTS: In total, 39 patients were enrolled. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were significantly longer in patients with increased PD-L1 expression and increased CD8+ TIL density post-neoadjuvant CCRT. Univariate Cox regression analysis confirmed that increased levels of PD-L1 and increased CD8+ TIL density were prognostic factors for OS and DFS. Multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed that increased levels of PD-L1 was a prognostic factor for OS and increased CD8+ TIL density for DFS. CONCLUSION: Relative changes in PD-L1 expression post-neoadjuvant CCRT can be utilized to predict the prognosis of LA-NSCLC patients.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Quimiorradioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071790

RESUMO

Lung cancer is still one of the deadliest cancers, with over two million incidences annually. Prevention is regarded as the most efficient way to reduce both the incidence and death figures. Nevertheless, treatment should still be improved, particularly in addressing therapeutic resistance due to cancer stem cells-the assumed drivers of tumor initiation and progression. Phytochemicals in plant-based diets are thought to contribute substantially to lung cancer prevention and may be efficacious for targeting lung cancer stem cells. In this review, we collect recent literature on lung homeostasis, carcinogenesis, and phytochemicals studied in lung cancers. We provide a comprehensive overview of how normal lung tissue operates and relate it with lung carcinogenesis to redefine better targets for lung cancer stem cells. Nine well-studied phytochemical compounds, namely curcumin, resveratrol, quercetin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, luteolin, sulforaphane, berberine, genistein, and capsaicin, are discussed in terms of their chemopreventive and anticancer mechanisms in lung cancer and potential use in the clinic. How the use of phytochemicals can be improved by structural manipulations, targeted delivery, concentration adjustments, and combinatorial treatments is also highlighted. We propose that lung carcinomas should be treated differently based on their respective cellular origins. Targeting quiescence-inducing, inflammation-dampening, or reactive oxygen species-balancing pathways appears particularly interesting.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Quimioprevenção , Gerenciamento Clínico , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071893

RESUMO

Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R), a receptor-type tyrosine kinase, transduces signals related to cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. We recently reported that OSI-906, an IGF1R inhibitor, in combination with the Aurora B inhibitor ZM447439 suppresses cell proliferation. However, the mechanism underlying this suppressive effect is yet to be elucidated. In this study, we examined the effects of combination treatment with OSI-906 and ZM447439 on cell division, so as to understand how cell proliferation was suppressed. Morphological analysis showed that the combination treatment generated enlarged cells with aberrant nuclei, whereas neither OSI-906 nor ZM447439 treatment alone caused this morphological change. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that over-replicated cells were generated by the combination treatment, but not by the lone treatment with either inhibitors. Time-lapse imaging showed mitotic slippage following a severe delay in chromosome alignment and cytokinesis failure with furrow regression. Furthermore, in S-trityl-l-cysteine-treated cells, cyclin B1 was precociously degraded. These results suggest that the combination treatment caused severe defect in the chromosome alignment and spindle assembly checkpoint, which resulted in the generation of over-replicated cells. The generation of over-replicated cells with massive aneuploidy may be the cause of reduction of cell viability and cell death. This study provides new possibilities of cancer chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Aurora Quinase B/antagonistas & inibidores , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclina B1/metabolismo , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Mitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Proteólise , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/metabolismo
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070214

RESUMO

During tubo-ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) progression, tumoral cells undergo phenotypic changes in their epithelial marker profiles, which are essential for dissemination processes. Here, we set out to determine whether standard epithelial markers can predict HGSC patient prognosis. Levels of E-CADH, KRT7, KRT18, KRT19 were quantified in 18 HGSC cell lines by Western blot and in a Discovery cohort tissue microarray (TMA) (n = 101 patients) using immunofluorescence. E-CADH and KRT7 levels were subsequently analyzed in the TMA of the Canadian Ovarian Experimental Unified Resource cohort (COEUR, n = 1158 patients) and in public datasets. Epithelial marker expression was highly variable in HGSC cell lines and tissues. In the Discovery cohort, high levels of KRT7 and KRT19 were associated with an unfavorable prognosis, whereas high E-CADH expression indicated a better outcome. Expression of KRT7 and E-CADH gave a robust combination to predict overall survival (OS, p = 0.004) and progression free survival (PFS, p = 5.5 × 10-4) by Kaplan-Meier analysis. In the COEUR cohort, the E-CADH-KRT7 signature was a strong independent prognostic biomarker (OS, HR = 1.6, p = 2.9 × 10-4; PFS, HR = 1.3, p = 0.008) and predicted a poor patient response to chemotherapy (p = 1.3 × 10-4). Our results identify a combination of two epithelial markers as highly significant indicators of HGSC patient prognosis and treatment response.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Caderinas/metabolismo , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/metabolismo , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/metabolismo , Queratina-7/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estudos de Coortes , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/mortalidade , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Queratina-19/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Vimentina/metabolismo
16.
Life Sci ; 278: 119573, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964297

RESUMO

AIMS: Myosin phosphatase targeting protein 1 (MYPT1) was identified to function as a tumor suppressor in several kinds of cancers, but its role and the molecular mechanisms in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain undiscovered. Herein, we aimed to reveal MYPT1 expression pattern and role in NSCLC, and investigate the underlying mechanisms. MAIN METHODS: Sixty-eight paired NSCLC tissues and the adjacent normal tissues were included in this study. Western blotting and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain (qPCR) technologies were applied for protein and RNA detection. CCK-8, colony formation, flow cytometry, wound healing, transwell chambers coated with Matrigel and in vivo experiments were applied to detect cell viability, colony formation, apoptosis, migration, invasiveness and tumorigenesis, respectively. KEY FINDINGS: MYPT1 expressed at a lower level in NSCLC tissues as compared with the adjacent normal tissues, which predicted advanced clinic process and poor prognosis. Overexpression of MYPT1 resulted in obvious inhibitions in cell viability, colony formation, migration, invasiveness and tumorigenesis, and induced cell apoptotic rates, as well as decreased the expression levels of ß-catenin and TCF4. Besides, overexpression of ß-catenin weakened the above roles of MYPT1. In addition, the luciferase gene reporter assay verified that MYPT1 was a target of miR-19b-3p. Further experiments showed that miR-19b-3p promoted cell viability, invasiveness and migration and repressed cell apoptosis by targeting MYPT1. SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, this study demonstrates that MYPT1, regulated by miR-19b-3p, inhibits the progression of NSCLC via inhibiting the activation of wnt/ß-catenin signaling.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Fosfatase de Miosina-de-Cadeia-Leve/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Células A549 , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Progressão da Doença , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Humanos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Invasividade Neoplásica , Pneumonectomia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo
17.
Life Sci ; 278: 119649, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043989

RESUMO

Lung cancer (LC) is a leading cause of death worldwide with high mortality and morbidity. A wide variety of risk factors are considered for LC development such as smoking, air pollution and family history. It appears that genetic and epigenetic factors are also potential players in LC development and progression. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a signaling pathway with vital function in inducing energy balance and homeostasis. An increase in AMP:ATP and ADP:ATP ratio leads to activation of AMPK signaling by upstream mediators such as LKB1 and CamKK. Dysregulation of AMPK signaling is a common finding in different cancers, particularly LC. AMPK activation can significantly enhance LC metastasis via EMT induction. Upstream mediators such as PLAG1, IMPAD1, and TUFM can regulate AMPK-mediated metastasis. AMPK activation can promote proliferation and survival of LC cells via glycolysis induction. In suppressing LC progression, anti-tumor compounds including metformin, ginsenosides, casticin and duloxetine dually induce/inhibit AMPK signaling. This is due to double-edged sword role of AMPK signaling in LC cells. Furthermore, AMPK signaling can regulate response of LC cells to chemotherapy and radiotherapy that are discussed in the current review.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia
18.
Cancer Sci ; 112(7): 2770-2780, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934437

RESUMO

Ceramide synthase 6 (CERS6) promotes lung cancer metastasis by stimulating cancer cell migration. To examine the underlying mechanisms, we performed luciferase analysis of the CERS6 promoter region and identified the Y-box as a cis-acting element. As a parallel analysis of database records for 149 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cancer patients, we screened for trans-acting factors with an expression level showing a correlation with CERS6 expression. Among the candidates noted, silencing of either CCAAT enhancer-binding protein γ (CEBPγ) or Y-box binding protein 1 (YBX1) reduced the CERS6 expression level. Following knockdown, CEBPγ and YBX1 were found to be independently associated with reductions in ceramide-dependent lamellipodia formation as well as migration activity, while only CEBPγ may have induced CERS6 expression through specific binding to the Y-box. The mRNA expression levels of CERS6, CEBPγ, and YBX1 were positively correlated with adenocarcinoma invasiveness. YBX1 expression was observed in all 20 examined clinical lung cancer specimens, while 6 of those showed a staining pattern similar to that of CERS6. The present findings suggest promotion of lung cancer migration by possible involvement of the transcription factors CEBPγ and YBX1.


Assuntos
Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Pseudópodes , Esfingosina N-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Y-Box/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/secundário , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Pseudópodes/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Esfingosina N-Aciltransferase/genética , Ativação Transcricional , Regulação para Cima , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Y-Box/genética , Proteínas rac1 de Ligação ao GTP
19.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 78(12): 5179-5195, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974094

RESUMO

Despite new advances on the functions of ER chaperones at the cell surface, the translocation mechanisms whereby these chaperones can escape from the ER to the cell surface are just emerging. Previously we reported that in many cancer types, upon ER stress, IRE1α binds to and triggers SRC activation resulting in KDEL receptor dispersion from the Golgi and suppression of retrograde transport. In this study, using a combination of molecular, biochemical, and imaging approaches, we discovered that in colon and lung cancer, upon ER stress, ER chaperones, such as GRP78 bypass the Golgi and unconventionally traffic to the cell surface via endosomal transport mediated by Rab GTPases (Rab4, 11 and 15). Such unconventional transport is driven by membrane fusion between ER-derived vesicles and endosomes requiring the v-SNARE BET1 and t-SNARE Syntaxin 13. Furthermore, GRP78 loading into ER-derived vesicles requires the co-chaperone DNAJC3 that is regulated by ER-stress induced PERK-AKT-mTOR signaling.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Mutação , Transporte Proteico , Transdução de Sinais , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2581, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972544

RESUMO

While the potential of patient-derived organoids (PDOs) to predict patients' responses to anti-cancer treatments has been well recognized, the lengthy time and the low efficiency in establishing PDOs hamper the implementation of PDO-based drug sensitivity tests in clinics. We first adapt a mechanical sample processing method to generate lung cancer organoids (LCOs) from surgically resected and biopsy tumor tissues. The LCOs recapitulate the histological and genetic features of the parental tumors and have the potential to expand indefinitely. By employing an integrated superhydrophobic microwell array chip (InSMAR-chip), we demonstrate hundreds of LCOs, a number that can be generated from most of the samples at passage 0, are sufficient to produce clinically meaningful drug responses within a week. The results prove our one-week drug tests are in good agreement with patient-derived xenografts, genetic mutations of tumors, and clinical outcomes. The LCO model coupled with the microwell device provides a technically feasible means for predicting patient-specific drug responses in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Animais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/instrumentação , Gefitinibe/farmacologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Organoides/citologia , Organoides/patologia , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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