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1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5309-5311, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Experimental studies have shown that celecoxib is related to the downregulation of Tregs and an increase in the therapeutic efficacy of PD-1 inhibitors; however, such effect has not been shown in human cancers. Our report confirmed the synergistic effect of celecoxib with a PD-1 inhibitor. CASE REPORT: A 57-year-old male with advanced pulmonary adenocarcinoma was treated with nivolumab monotherapy as 5th line sequential treatment. Although the patient experienced tumor remission, regrowth of the primary tumor was observed and he complained of lumbar pain. Therefore, celecoxib (400 mg/day) was initiated without cessation of nivolumab. Chest radiography revealed a marked shrinkage of the primary site, with a decreasing trend of carcinoma embryonic antigen. CONCLUSION: This is the report of a case of recovery of sensitivity to nivolumab by additional treatment with celecoxib.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Celecoxib/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Celecoxib/administração & dosagem , Celecoxib/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/uso terapêutico , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Receptores ErbB/genética , Humanos , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Radiografia Torácica , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(11): 2731-2741, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892231

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is a gated ion channel for which adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a ligand. Activated P2X7R is widely expressed in a variety of immune cells and tissues and is involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Studies have confirmed that P2X7R is involved in the regulation of tumor cell growth, stimulating cell proliferation or inducing apoptosis. Recent studies have found that P2X7R is abnormally expressed in lung cancer and is closely related to the carcinogenesis and development of lung cancer. In this paper, we comprehensively describe the structure, function, and genetic polymorphisms of P2X7R. In particular, the role and therapeutic potential of P2X7R in lung cancer are discussed to provide new targets and new strategies for the treatment and prognosis of clinical lung cancer. METHODS: The relevant literature on P2X7R and lung cancer from PubMed databases is reviewed in this article. RESULTS: P2X7R regulates the function of lung cancer cells by activating multiple intracellular signaling pathways (such as the JNK, Rho, HMGB1 and EMT pathways), thereby affecting cell survival, growth, invasion, and metastasis and patient prognosis. Targeting P2X7R with inhibitors effectively suppresses the growth and metastasis of lung cancer cells. CONCLUSION: In summary, P2X7R is expected to become a potential target for the treatment of lung cancer, and more clinical research is needed in the future to explore the effectiveness of P2X7R antagonists as treatments.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2X/farmacologia , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos
3.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 4989-4999, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular process that facilitates cancer metastasis. Therefore, therapeutic approaches that target EMT have garnered increasing attention. The present study aimed to examine the in vitro effects of ephemeranthol A on cell death, migration, and EMT of lung cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ephemeranthol A was isolated from Dendrobium infundibulum. Non-small cell lung cancer cells H460 were treated with ephemeranthol A and apoptosis was evaluated by Hoechst 33342 staining. Anoikis resistance was determined by soft agar assay. Wound healing assay was performed to test the migration. The regulatory proteins of apoptosis and cell motility were determined by western blot. RESULTS: Treatment with ephemeranthol A resulted in a concentration-dependent cell apoptosis. At non-toxic concentrations, the compound could inhibit anchorage-independent growth of the cancer cells, as indicated by the decreased colony size and number. Ephemeranthol A also exhibited an inhibitory effect on migration. We further found that ephemeranthol A exerts its antimetastatic effects via inhibition of EMT, as indicated by the markedly decrease of N-cadherin, vimentin, and Slug. Furthermore, the compound suppressed the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and protein kinase B (Akt) proteins, which are key regulators of cell migration. As for the anticancer activity, ephemeranthol A induced apoptosis by decreasing Bcl-2 followed by the activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9. CONCLUSION: The pro-apoptotic and anti-migratory effects of ephemeranthol A on human lung cancer cells support its use for the development of novel anticancer therapies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dendrobium/química , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Fenantrenos/química
4.
Life Sci ; 259: 118389, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898522

RESUMO

AIMS: Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is released at a high concentration in the tumor microenvironment. The overexpression of ectonucleotidases in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), metabolizing ΑΤP to the immunosuppressive adenosine, is studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the expression of the ectonucleotidases CD73 and CD39 in NSCLC in parallel with immunological parameters and markers of hypoxia and anaerobic metabolism. In vitro experiments with A549 and H1299 lung cancer cell lines were also conducted. RESULTS: CD73 and CD39 were not expressed by normal bronchial and alveolar epithelium. In contrast, these were overexpressed by cancer cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). High CD73 cancer cell expression was directly linked with lactate dehydrogenase LDH5 and with hypoxia-inducible factor HIF1α expression by cancer cells. The expression of CD39 by CAFs was directly linked with PD-L1 expression by cancer cells. A significant abundance of FOXP3+ and PD-1+ TILs was noted in tumors with high CD73 and CD39 stroma expression. In in vitro experiments, hypoxia and acidity induced CD73 mRNA and protein levels in cancer cell lines. Exposure of cancer cell lines to adenosine induced the expression of PD-L1 and LDHA mRNA and protein levels. CONCLUSION: Ectonucleotidases are up-regulated in cancer cells, CAFs, and TILs in lung tumors. Such overexpression is linked with regulatory TIL-phenotype and PD-L1 up-regulation by cancer cells. Overexpression of LDH5 is up-regulated by adenosine, creating a vicious cycle, as the high amounts of ATP produced by LDH5-mediated anaerobic glycolysis promote the production of adenosine by a tumor microenvironment rich in ectonucleotidases.


Assuntos
5'-Nucleotidase/metabolismo , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Apirase/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Hipóxia/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Adenosina/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/enzimologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Tolerância Imunológica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enzimologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
N Engl J Med ; 383(14): 1328-1339, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of the anti-programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) monoclonal antibody atezolizumab, as compared with those of platinum-based chemotherapy, as first-line treatment for patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with PD-L1 expression are not known. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial involving patients with metastatic nonsquamous or squamous NSCLC who had not previously received chemotherapy and who had PD-L1 expression on at least 1% of tumor cells or at least 1% of tumor-infiltrating immune cells as assessed by the SP142 immunohistochemical assay. Patients were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive atezolizumab or chemotherapy. Overall survival (primary end point) was tested hierarchically according to PD-L1 expression status among patients in the intention-to-treat population whose tumors were wild-type with respect to EGFR mutations or ALK translocations. Within the population with EGFR and ALK wild-type tumors, overall survival and progression-free survival were also prospectively assessed in subgroups defined according to findings on two PD-L1 assays as well as by blood-based tumor mutational burden. RESULTS: Overall, 572 patients were enrolled. In the subgroup of patients with EGFR and ALK wild-type tumors who had the highest expression of PD-L1 (205 patients), the median overall survival was longer by 7.1 months in the atezolizumab group than in the chemotherapy group (20.2 months vs. 13.1 months; hazard ratio for death, 0.59; P = 0.01). Among all the patients who could be evaluated for safety, adverse events occurred in 90.2% of the patients in the atezolizumab group and in 94.7% of those in the chemotherapy group; grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred in 30.1% and 52.5% of the patients in the respective groups. Overall and progression-free survival favored atezolizumab in the subgroups with a high blood-based tumor mutational burden. CONCLUSIONS: Atezolizumab treatment resulted in significantly longer overall survival than platinum-based chemotherapy among patients with NSCLC with high PD-L1 expression, regardless of histologic type. (Funded by F. Hoffmann-La Roche/Genentech; IMpower110 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02409342.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Análise de Sobrevida
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4184, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826889

RESUMO

Oncogenic processes exert their greatest effect by targeting regulators of cell proliferation. Studying the mechanism underlying growth augmentation is expected to improve clinical therapies. The ovarian tumor (OTU) subfamily deubiquitinases have been implicated in the regulation of critical cell-signaling cascades, but most OTUs functions remain to be investigated. Through an unbiased RNAi screen, knockdown of OTUD5 is shown to significantly accelerate cell growth. Further investigation reveals that OTUD5 depletion leads to the enhanced transcriptional activity of TRIM25 and the inhibited expression of PML by altering the ubiquitination level of TRIM25. Importantly, OTUD5 knockdown accelerates tumor growth in a nude mouse model. OTUD5 expression is markedly downregulated in tumor tissues. The reduced OTUD5 level is associated with an aggressive phenotype and a poor clinical outcome for cancers patients. Our findings reveal a mechanism whereby OTUD5 regulates gene transcription and suppresses tumorigenesis by deubiquitinating TRIM25, providing a potential target for oncotherapy.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/genética , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Células HEK293 , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Interferência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma , Ubiquitinação
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4261, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848136

RESUMO

Metastasis, the spread of malignant cells from a primary tumour to distant sites, causes 90% of cancer-related deaths. The integrin ITGB3 has been previously described to play an essential role in breast cancer metastasis, but the precise mechanisms remain undefined. We have now uncovered essential and thus far unknown roles of ITGB3 in vesicle uptake. The functional requirement for ITGB3 derives from its interactions with heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and the process of integrin endocytosis, allowing the capture of extracellular vesicles and their endocytosis-mediated internalization. Key for the function of ITGB3 is the interaction and activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which is required for endocytosis of these vesicles. Thus, ITGB3 has a central role in intracellular communication via extracellular vesicles, proposed to be critical for cancer metastasis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Integrina beta3/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados , Endocitose , Feminino , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Proteoglicanas de Heparan Sulfato/metabolismo , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Modelos Biológicos , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Transplante de Neoplasias
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21369, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846757

RESUMO

Although treatments have improved significantly in recent years, the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains poor. miR-335 has been demonstrated to play the antitumor role in several cancer types. Its expression was reduced in NSCLC tissues relative to noncancerous adjacent tissues. Furthermore, downregulation of miR-335 in A459 lung cancer cells promoted cell proliferation. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the clinical significance and prognostic value of miR-335 in NSCLC.The lung cancer tissues and adjacent nontumor lung tissues were obtained from 131 patients who underwent the primary surgical resection at Lianyungang First People's Hospital. Student t test was used to distinguish differences between groups. χ test was involved for analysis of clinicopathological data. The overall survival was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and the log rank test. Multiple Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was carried out to identify the independent factors that had a significant impact on patient survival.miR-335 was significantly lower in NSCLC samples compared to non-cancerous samples (P < .001). The expression level of miR-335 was significantly correlated with tumor histology (P = .028), lymph node metastasis (P = .002), differentiation degree (P < .001), and pathological TNM stage (P < .001). The log-rank test indicated that patients with decreased miR-335 expression experienced poor overall survival in NSCLC (P = .029).The results of the present study indicated that miR-335 was down-expressed in NSCLC, and is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis, suggesting that the expression of miR-335 might be an independent prognostic factor of overall survival in patients with NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0232917, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810161

RESUMO

In human lung cancer progression, the EMT process is characterized by the transformation of cancer cells into invasive forms that migrate to other organs. Targeting to EMT-related molecules is emerging as a novel therapeutic approach for the prevention of lung cancer cell migration and invasion. Traf2- and Nck-interacting kinase (TNIK) has recently been considered as an anti-proliferative target molecule to regulate the Wnt signaling pathway in several types of cancer cells. In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib and the integrin-αⅤß3 targeted cyclic peptide (cRGDfK) on EMT in human lung cancer cells. Sunitinib strongly inhibited the TGF-ß1-activated EMT through suppression of Wnt signaling, Smad and non-Smad signaling pathways. In addition, the cRGDfK also inhibited the expression of TGFß1-induced mesenchymal marker genes and proteins. The anti-EMT effect of sunitinib was enhanced when cRGDfK was treated together. When sunitinib was treated with cRGDfK, the mRNA and protein expression levels of mesenchymal markers were decreased compared to the treatment with sunitinib alone. Co-treatment of cRGDfK has shown the potential to improve the efficacy of anticancer agents in combination with therapeutic agents that may be toxic at high concentrations. These results provide new and improved therapies for treating and preventing EMT-related disorders, such as lung fibrosis and cancer metastasis, and relapse.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Cíclicos/administração & dosagem , Sunitinibe/administração & dosagem , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/antagonistas & inibidores , Células A549 , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Domínio Catalítico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Humanos , Integrina alfaVbeta3/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Invasividade Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3296, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620799

RESUMO

Identifying robust, patient-specific, and predictive biomarkers presents a major obstacle in precision oncology. To optimize patient-specific therapeutic strategies, here we couple pathway knowledge with large-scale drug sensitivity, RNAi, and CRISPR-Cas9 screening data from 460 cell lines. Pathway activity levels are found to be strong predictive biomarkers for the essentiality of 15 proteins, including the essentiality of MAD2L1 in breast cancer patients with high BRCA-pathway activity. We also find strong predictive biomarkers for the sensitivity to 31 compounds, including BCL2 and microtubule inhibitors (MTIs). Lastly, we show that Bcl-xL inhibition can modulate the activity of a predictive biomarker pathway and re-sensitize lung cancer cells and tumors to MTI therapy. Overall, our results support the use of pathways in helping to achieve the goal of precision medicine by uncovering dozens of predictive biomarkers.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Camundongos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Interferência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3556, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678093

RESUMO

Early cancer detection greatly increases the chances for successful treatment, but available diagnostics for some tumours, including lung adenocarcinoma (LA), are limited. An ideal early-stage diagnosis of LA for large-scale clinical use must address quick detection, low invasiveness, and high performance. Here, we conduct machine learning of serum metabolic patterns to detect early-stage LA. We extract direct metabolic patterns by the optimized ferric particle-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry within 1 s using only 50 nL of serum. We define a metabolic range of 100-400 Da with 143 m/z features. We diagnose early-stage LA with sensitivity~70-90% and specificity~90-93% through the sparse regression machine learning of patterns. We identify a biomarker panel of seven metabolites and relevant pathways to distinguish early-stage LA from controls (p < 0.05). Our approach advances the design of metabolic analysis for early cancer detection and holds promise as an efficient test for low-cost rollout to clinics.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Aprendizado de Máquina , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Metabolômica , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos
13.
Mol Cell ; 79(1): 180-190.e4, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619468

RESUMO

Rigosertib is a styryl benzyl sulfone that inhibits growth of tumor cells and acts as a RAS mimetic by binding to Ras binding domains of RAS effectors. A recent study attributed rigosertib's mechanism of action to microtubule binding. In that study, rigosertib was obtained from a commercial vendor. We compared the purity of clinical-grade and commercially sourced rigosertib and found that commercially sourced rigosertib contains approximately 5% ON01500, a potent inhibitor of tubulin polymerization. Clinical-grade rigosertib, which is free of this impurity, does not exhibit tubulin-binding activity. Cell lines expressing mutant ß-tubulin have also been reported to be resistant to rigosertib. However, our study showed that these cells failed to proliferate in the presence of rigosertib at concentrations that are lethal to wild-type cells. Rigosertib induced a senescence-like phenotype in the small percentage of surviving cells, which could be incorrectly scored as resistant using short-term cultures.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Sulfonas/farmacologia , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Glicina/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Mutação , Tubulina (Proteína)/química , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
14.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(10): 2519-2534, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648226

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Metastasis is an unavoidable event happened among almost all small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients. However, the molecular driven factors have not been elucidated. Recently, a novel hydrolase called cell migration inducing hyaluronidase (CEMIP) triggered both migration and invasion in many tumors but not SCLC. Therefore, in this study, we verified that CEMIP promoted migration and invasion in SCLC and applied proteomics analysis to screen out potential target profiles and the signaling pathway related to CEMIP regulation. METHOD: Immunofluorescence was conducted to exam the expression of CEMIP on SCLC and paired adjacent normal tissues among enrollment. RT-qPCR and Western blot (WB) assays were conducted to valuate cellular protein and mRNA expression of CEMIP and EMT markers. Lentivirus-CEMIP-shRNAs and CEMIP plasmid were used for expression manipulating. Changes of cellular migration and invasion were tested through transwell assays. Tandem Mass Tag (TMT) peptide labeling coupled with LC-MS/MS was used for quantifying proteins affected by reducing expression of CEMIP on H446 cells. RESULTS: The expression of CEMIP showed 1.64 ± 0.16-fold higher in SCLC tissues than their normal counterpart. Decreasing the expression of CEMIP on SCLC cells H446 regressed both cellular migration and invasion ability, whereas the promoting cellular migration and invasion was investigated through over-expressing CEMIP on H1688. Proteomic and bioinformatics analysis revealed that total 215 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) that either their increasing or decreasing relative expression met threshold of 1.2-fold changes with p value ≤ 0.05. The dramatic up-regulated DEPs included an unidentified peptide sequence (encoded by cDNA FLJ52096) SPICE1 and CRYAB, while the expression of S100A6 was largely down-regulated. DEPs mainly enriched on caveolae of cellular component, calcium ion binding of biological process and epithelial cell migration of molecular function. KEGG enrichment indicated that DEPs mainly exerted their function on TGF-ß, GABAergic synapse and MAPK signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: It is the first report illustrating that CEMIP might be one of the metastatic triggers in SCLC. And also, it provided possible molecular mechanism cue and potential downstream target on CEMIP-induced cellular migration and invasion on SCLC.


Assuntos
Hialuronoglucosaminidase/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/metabolismo , Idoso , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/biossíntese , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transdução de Sinais , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/genética , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/patologia
15.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(10): 2621-2630, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661602

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype-based subsets of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) might be predictors of tumor progression. We evaluated the clinical properties of different phenotypic CTCs in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Secondly, we explored the association between different phenotypic CTCs and the uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) by the primary tumor on a positron emission tomographic (PET) scan. METHODS: Venous blood samples from 34 pathologically confirmed Stage IIB-IVB NSCLC patients were collected prospectively. CTCs were immunoassayed using a SE-i·FISH®CTC kit. We identified CTCs into cytokeratin positive (CK+) and cytokeratin negative (CK-) phenotypes. CTC classifications were correlated with the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) measured by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) curves were produced using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: CTCs were detected in 91.2% of NSCLC patients. CTC counting was associated with TNM stage (P = 0.014) and distant metastasis (P = 0.007). The number of CK-CTCs was also positively associated with TNM stage (P = 0.022) and distant metastasis (P = 0.007). Both total CTC counting and CK-CTC counting did not show association with SUVmax value (P = 0.959, P = 0.903). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that patients with ≥ 7 CTCs had shorter OS (P = 0.003) and PFS (P = 0.001) relative to patients with < 7 CTCs). Notably, the number of CK-CTCs can act as independent risk factors for PFS (P = 0.044) and OS (P = 0.043) in NSCLC patients. However, SUVmax value was not associated with OS (P = 0.895) and PFS (P = 0.686). CONCLUSION: The CTC subpopulations could be useful evidence for testing metastasis and prognosis in NSCLC patients. The SUVmax value of the primary tumor was not related to prognosis in patients with NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/farmacocinética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos
16.
Life Sci ; 257: 118123, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710945

RESUMO

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a cancer of the mesothelial lining of the pleura, peritoneum, pericardium and testes. The most common form is asbestos-linked MM that is etiologically linked to repeated asbestos exposure with a long latency period, although non-asbestos MM has also been reported. Late diagnosis, poor survival rates, lack of diagnostic and prognostic markers act as major impediments in the clinical management of MM. Despite advances in immune checkpoint inhibition and CAR T-cell-based therapies, MM which is of different histologic subtypes remains challenging to treat. We review microRNAs (miRNAs) and the miRNA interactome implicated in MM which can be useful as circulating miRNA biomarkers for early diagnosis of MM and as biomarkers for prognostication in MM. Further, we underscore the relevance of the NRF2/MAPK signal transduction pathway that has been implicated in MM which may be useful as druggable targets or as biomarkers of predictive response. In addition, since MM is driven partly by inflammation, we elucidate chemopreventive phytochemicals that are beneficial in MM, either via crosstalk with the NRF2/MAPK pathway or via concerted anticancer mechanisms, and may be of benefit as adjuvants in chemotherapy. Taken together, a multifactorial approach comprising identification of miRNA target hubs and NRF2/MAPK biomarkers along with appropriately designed clinical trials may enable early detection and faster intervention in MM translating into better patient outcomes for this aggressive cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Mesotelioma/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Humanos
17.
Mol Cell Biol ; 40(18)2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661120

RESUMO

The DNA and protein complex known as chromatin is subject to posttranslational modifications (PTMs) that regulate cellular functions such that PTM dysregulation can lead to disease, including cancer. One critical PTM is acetylation/deacetylation, which is being investigated as a means to develop targeted cancer therapies. The histone acetyltransferase (HAT) family of proteins performs histone acetylation. In humans, MOF (hMOF), a member of the MYST family of HATs, acetylates histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16ac). MOF-mediated acetylation plays a critical role in the DNA damage response (DDR) and embryonic stem cell development. Functionally, MOF is found in two distinct complexes: NSL (nonspecific lethal) in humans and MSL (male-specific lethal) in flies. The NSL complex is also able to acetylate additional histone H4 sites. Dysregulation of MOF activity occurs in multiple cancers, including ovarian cancer, medulloblastoma, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, and lung cancer. Bioinformatics analysis of KAT8, the gene encoding hMOF, indicated that it is highly overexpressed in kidney tumors as part of a concerted gene coexpression program that can support high levels of chromosome segregation and cell proliferation. The linkage between MOF and tumor proliferation suggests that there are additional functions of MOF that remain to be discovered.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Histona Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Acetilação , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/fisiologia , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
18.
Life Sci ; 257: 118034, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621923

RESUMO

THE HEADINGS AIMS: Levamisole has anti-parasite and antitumor activities, but the anti-lung cancer mechanism has not been studied. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is regarded as a promising drug because of the ability to selectively target cancer cells. However, the tolerance of cancer cells to TRAIL limits its antitumor activity. Other drugs combined with TRAIL need to be explored to enhance its antitumor activity. Based on the adjuvant anticancer effect of levamisole on anticancer drugs activity, the antitumor activity of levamisole combined with TRAIL will be investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro and in vivo experiments were employed to investigate the anti-tumor activity. Flow-cytometry analysis, western blotting and siRNA transfection were used to explore the molecular mechanism. KEY FINDINGS: Levamisole decreased the proliferation of lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. Besides, levamisole also enhanced TRAIL-induced DR4-independent apoptosis by inhibiting the phosphorylation of cJUN. A new cellular protective pathway LC3B-DR4/Erk was also disclosed, in which levamisole only increased the expression of LC3B and then activated the phosphorylation of Erk and increased the expression of DR4, while p-Erk and DR4 inter-regulated. SIGNIFICANCE: Levamisole may be used as an adjuvant of TRAIL in treating lung cancer. The discovery of LC3B-DR4/Erk as a new protective pathway provides a new direction for sensitizing lung cancer cells to TRAIL.


Assuntos
Levamisol/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Receptores do Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/metabolismo
19.
Life Sci ; 257: 118040, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622943

RESUMO

AIMS: Timosaponin AIII (TAIII), an active component with anti-tumor activity from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, can induce both autophagy and apoptosis of cancer cells. The present study aimed to reveal the promoting or inhibiting role of TAIII-induced autophagy on TAIII-induced apoptosis, to determine the respective upstream signaling pathways for TAIII-induced autophagy and apoptosis; and to observe the therapeutic potential of TAIII in human non-small cell lung cancer in vivo. METHODS AND MATERIALS: WST-1 assay was used to determine the effect of TAIII on cell growth and proliferation. Apoptosis was detected by DAPI staining and flow cytometry. Autophagy was verified by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Western blot was used to determine the levels of protein expression. Furthermore, the anti-tumor activity of TAIII was observed in nude mice. KEY FINDINGS: TAIII at high concentrations from 10 µM to 30 µM induced both autophagy and apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. TAIII at low concentration (1 µM) only induced autophagy. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway was identified to be responsible for TAIII-induced autophagy both at high or low concentrations. The MAPK/Erk1/2 signaling pathway was identified to be responsible for TAIII-induced apoptosis at the high concentration (20 µM). TAIII-induced autophagy protected cancer cells from apoptosis, and combination of TAIII and autophagy inhibitor showed higher anti-cancer activity.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Saponinas/farmacologia , Esteroides/farmacologia , Células A549 , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Saponinas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Esteroides/metabolismo
20.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4401-4404, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The occurrence of lung adenocarcinoma metastasizing to the pancreas is overall rare and can histologically imitate primary pancreatic ductal carcinoma (PDAC). CASE REPORT: This is a case report of a 70-year-old female with a history of surgically resected right lung adenocarcinoma presenting for routine follow up without symptoms. CT scans revealed a pancreatic cystic mass with ductal dilatation that was sampled via endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and thought to be a primary pancreatic mucinous neoplasm with high grade dysplasia suspicious for carcinoma based on smear cytology. On repeat EUS-FNA and biopsy (FNB) with additional immunohistochemical testing for lung adenocarcinoma markers thyroid transcription factor (TTF1) and Napsin A and molecular testing, the lesion was identified as a metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma with an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR L858R) mutation; subsequently, the patient underwent targeted therapy that yielded an almost complete response. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented case in English literature of a lung adenocarcinoma metastasis to the pancreas mimicking a pancreatic primary neoplasm and highlights the potential pitfalls of EUS-FNA for the diagnosis of certain metastases to the pancreas.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/secundário , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mutação , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
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