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1.
Arch Esp Urol ; 74(5): 470-476, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080566

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the diagnostic accuracy and liability of the instrumentalized urine cytology in the preliminary study of monosyntomatic gross haematuria. METHODS: A retrospective, descriptive and analytic study of the patients that complained of macroscopic hematuria at the one-stop clinic between 2011 and 2018. The complementary tests requested were: kidney/bladder ultrasounds, urethrocystoscopy and urinary instrumentalized cytology. All the urine cytology samples were examined by the same pathologist. RESULTS: 1122 patients were reviewed with ultrasonography and cystoscopy. Bladder tumor was detected in 354 patients (31.5%) and other urological malignancies were found in 33 cases (2.9%). Urinary instrumentalized cytologies were collected in 804 patients (71.4%), being positive in 236 cases (29.4%). Sensitivity and specificity of urinary cytology for urothelial tumor detection were 55.1% and 85.7%, respectively. Cytology was positive in 181 patients (52.1%) with visible bladder tumors through cystoscopy, in 7 patients (0.87%) without visible bladder tumors. In 433 patients with ultrasonography and cystoscopy both negative, urine cytology was performed with a negative result (38.6%). CONCLUSION: The usefulness of instrumentalized urinary cytology to diagnose urothelial tumors is restricted in terms of monosymptomatic gross haematuria one stop clinic. It allows the diagnosis of a very limited number of cases tumors and leaves a significant number of them out. In case of gross hematuria and negative imaging, urine cytology can be requested as a differed complementary.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Neoplasias Urológicas , Cistoscopia , Hematúria/etiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/complicações , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Urina , Neoplasias Urológicas/complicações , Neoplasias Urológicas/diagnóstico
2.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 305, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early detection of bladder cancer remains challenging because patients with early-stage bladder cancer usually have no incentive to take cytology or cystoscopy tests if they are asymptomatic. Our goal is to find non-invasive marker candidates that may help us gain insight into the metabolism of early-stage bladder cancer and be examined in routine health checks. RESULTS: We acquired urine samples from 124 patients diagnosed with early-stage bladder cancer or hernia (63 cancer patients and 61 controls). In which 100 samples were included in our marker discovery cohort, and the remaining 24 samples were included in our independent test cohort. We obtained metabolic profiles of 922 compounds of the samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Based on the metabolic profiles of the marker discovery cohort, we selected marker candidates using Wilcoxon rank-sum test with Bonferroni correction and leave-one-out cross-validation; we further excluded compounds detected in less than 60% of the bladder cancer samples. We finally selected eight putative markers. The abundance of all the eight markers in bladder cancer samples was high but extremely low in hernia samples. Moreover, the up-regulation of these markers might be in association with sugars and polyols metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, comparative urine metabolomics selected putative metabolite markers for the detection of early-stage bladder cancer. The suggested relations between early-stage bladder cancer and sugars and polyols metabolism may create opportunities for improving the detection of bladder cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1306: 61-80, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33959906

RESUMO

Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the most common tumor with high incidence. Relative to other cancers, BC has a high rate of recurrence, which results in increased mortality. As a result, early diagnosis and life-long monitoring are clinically significant for improving the long-term survival rate of BC patients. At present, the main methods of BC detection are cystoscopy and biopsy; however, these procedures can be invasive and expensive. This can lead to patient refusal and reluctance for monitoring. There are several BC biomarkers that have been approved by the FDA, but their sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy are not ideal. More research is needed to identify suitable biomarkers that can be used for early detection, evaluation, and observation. There has been heavy research in the proteomics and genomics of BC and many potential biomarkers have been found. Although the advent of metabonomics came late, with the recent development of advanced analytical technology and bioinformatics, metabonomics has become a widely used diagnostic tool in clinical and biomedical research. It should be emphasized that despite progress in new biomarkers for BC diagnosis, there remains challenges and limitations in metabonomics research that affects its translation into clinical practice. In this chapter, the latest literature on BC biomarkers was reviewed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Cistoscopia , Humanos , Metabolômica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/terapia
4.
Arch Esp Urol ; 74(4): 445-449, 2021 May.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942738

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Description of two incidental cases of bladder paraganglioma in women and review of the published literature. METHODS: A bibliographic search was carried out in Medline over the last 10 years according to the terms "urinary bladder" and "paraganglioma". RESULTS: Bladder paraganglioma (BP) accounts for less than 0.06% of bladder tumors and 10% of all paragangliomas. It may be sporadic or associated with hereditary predisposition syndromes such as Hereditary Paraganglioma- Pheochromocytoma Syndrome. Due to its rarity, there are no recommendations for treatment and monitoring but, their risk of malignancy forces a long-term follow up. The study of germinal mutations through massive sequencing ruled out the association with a hereditary syndrome. Initial management included early reassessment by cystoscopy, transurethral bladder resection (TURB) and imaging. CONCLUSIONS: Bladder paragangliomas are rare tumors that can be associated to hereditary syndromes. Its treatment and follow - up must be based on a multidisciplinary approach.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais , Paraganglioma , Feocromocitoma , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Feminino , Humanos , Paraganglioma/diagnóstico , Paraganglioma/genética , Paraganglioma/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia
5.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 432, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Muscle invasive urothelial bladder carcinoma (MIBC) present RB1 and TP53 somatic alterations in a variable percentage of tumors throughout all molecular subtypes. MIBCs with neuroendocrine features have a high response rate to immunity checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Whether the presence of somatic co-alterations in these 2 genes in MIBCs is relevant to their responsiveness to ICIs is not known. METHODS: The potential correlation of different genomic biomarkers of response to ICIs like tumor mutational burden (TMB), single nucleotide variants (SNV) predicted neoantigens, DNA damage response (DDR) genes, DNA somatic signatures and TILs infiltrate was explored in patients with somatic co-alterations in RB1 and TP53 (RB1&TP53) as compared with patients with no alterations in any (double wild type, DWT) or with alterations in just one of the 2 genes. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) pancancer BLCA dataset of cystectomy specimens (n = 407) with mutation, copy number alterations and transcriptomic (RNA sequencing) data as well as the IMVigor 210 study (n = 348) of metastatic urothelial bladder cancers treated with atezolizumab (PD-L1 inhibitor) with clinical response data containing transcriptomic (RNA sequencing), along with a subset (n = 274) with mutation and copy number data were used for this purpose. A novel tumor microenvironment metascore (TMM) was developed based in a LASSO regularized Cox model with predictive and prognostic ability. RESULTS: Samples with co-altered RB1&TP53: a) were enriched in immunity effectors (CD8 cytotoxic lymphocytes, NK cells) and display higher scores of a T cell inflamed signature; b) have a higher TMB, higher number of SNV predicted neoantigens and higher TILs fractions; c) have a higher number of DDR mutated and deep deleted DDR genes; d) have DNA somatic signatures 2 and 13 related to APOBEC mutagenesis. Using the IMVigor 210 dataset, RB1&TP53 samples had the highest response rate to atezolizumab and a strong correlation with TMB and TMM. The consensus molecular subtype classification in the IMVigor 210 dataset showed a significant correlation with both the response to treatment (p = 0.001, Chisquare) and the presence of RB1 and TP53 genomic alterations (p < 0.001, Chisquare). CONCLUSIONS: RB1&TP53 co-alterations are strongly associated with genomic biomarkers of response to ICIs in MIBCs.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Mutação , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Dano ao DNA , Feminino , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/mortalidade
6.
Pol Merkur Lekarski ; 49(290): 103-107, 2021 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895754

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNA) are short, single stranded, non-coding RNAs that play an important role in controlling gene expression at the posttranscriptional stage. There is no bladder cancer marker that has been approved as an alternative for diagnostic cystoscopy and urine cytology so far, thus research for alternative, more sensitive, and less invasive methods of bladder cancer detection are being made. AIM: The aim of the study was to compare the relative expression levels of miRNAs in patients with bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urine and serum samples were collected from patients with the diagnosis of bladder cancer (NMIBC 71%, MIBC 29%). We assessed expression of 4 miRNAs (106b-3p, 130b-3, 145- 3p and 199a-5p) using real-time PCR and double delta (ΔΔCt) method. The analysis was performed with the Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: miRNA 145-3p was significantly underexpressed in urine (p=0,0111) compared with control group, whereas in serum we did not find relevant differences between groups (p=0,0903). Overexpression was observed for miRNA 199a-5p tested in urine (p=0,0262) and for miRNA 106b-3p for both urine and serum (p=0,0262 and p=0,0149 respectively). For miR-130b-3 we did not find statistically significant differences neither for urine (p=0,6335) nor serum (p=0,2443). CONCLUSIONS: A correlation between the relative levels of expression for miRNA 106b-3p, 199a-5p and miRNA 145-3p was detected. We also observed differences between the results obtained for urine and serum. In the context of urinary cancers diagnosis urine seems to be more useful material than serum. We plan to continue our studies assessing expression levels of miRNA 106b-3 and miRNA 145-3p.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Biomarcadores , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803085

RESUMO

Exosomes are extracellular vesicles, enriched in biomolecular cargo consisting of nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids, which take part in intercellular communication and play a crucial role in both physiologic functions and oncogenesis. Bladder cancer is the most common urinary malignancy and its incidence is steadily rising in developed countries. Despite the high five-year survival in patients diagnosed at early disease stage, survival substantially drops in patients with muscle-invasive or metastatic disease. Therefore, early detection of primary disease as well as recurrence is of paramount importance. The role that exosomal biomarkers could play in bladder cancer patient diagnosis and surveillance, as well as their potential therapeutic applications, has not been extensively studied in this malignancy. In the present review, we summarize all relevant data obtained so far from cell lines, animal models, and patient biofluids and tissues. Current literature suggests that urine is a rich source of extracellular vesicle-derived biomarkers, compared with blood and bladder tissue samples, with potential applications in bladder cancer management. Further studies improving sample collection procedures and optimizing purification and analytical methods should augment bladder cancer diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic input of extracellular vesicles biomarkers in the future.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/terapia , Exossomos/patologia , Humanos , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
8.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 141, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to insufficient accuracy, urine-based assays currently have a limited role in the management of patients with bladder cancer. The identification of multiplex molecular signatures associated with disease has the potential to address this deficiency and to assist with accurate, non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring. METHODS: To evaluate the performance of Oncuria™, a multiplex immunoassay for bladder detection in voided urine samples. The test was evaluated in a multi-institutional cohort of 362 prospectively collected subjects presenting for bladder cancer evaluation. The parallel measurement of 10 biomarkers (A1AT, APOE, ANG, CA9, IL8, MMP9, MMP10, PAI1, SDC1 and VEGFA) was performed in an independent clinical laboratory. The ability of the test to identify patients harboring bladder cancer was assessed. Bladder cancer status was confirmed by cystoscopy and tissue biopsy. The association of biomarkers and demographic factors was evaluated using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and predictive models were derived using supervised learning and cross-validation analyses. Diagnostic performance was assessed using ROC curves. RESULTS: The combination of the 10 biomarkers provided an AUROC 0.93 [95% CI 0.87-0.98], outperforming any single biomarker. The addition of demographic data (age, sex, and race) into a hybrid signature improved the diagnostic performance AUROC 0.95 [95% CI 0.90-1.00]. The hybrid signature achieved an overall sensitivity of 0.93, specificity of 0.93, PPV of 0.65 and NPV of 0.99 for bladder cancer classification. Sensitivity values of the diagnostic panel for high-grade bladder cancer, low-grade bladder cancer, MIBC and NMIBC were 0.94, 0.89, 0.97 and 0.93, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary levels of a biomarker panel enabled the accurate discrimination of bladder cancer patients and controls. The multiplex Oncuria™ test can achieve the efficient and accurate detection and monitoring of bladder cancer in a non-invasive patient setting.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Humanos , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Urinálise , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924142

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can be secreted into body fluids and have thus been reported as a new type of cancer biomarker. This study aimed to determine whether urinary miRNAs act as noninvasive biomarkers for diagnosing bladder cancer. Small RNA profiles from urine were generated for 10 patients with bladder cancer and 10 healthy controls by using next-generation sequencing. We identified 50 urinary miRNAs that were differentially expressed in bladder cancer compared with controls, comprising 44 upregulated and six downregulated miRNAs. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that the biological role of these differentially expressed miRNAs might be involved in cancer-associated signaling pathways. Further analysis of the public database revealed that let-7b-5p, miR-149-5p, miR-146a-5p, miR-193a-5p, and miR-423-5p were significantly increased in bladder cancer compared with corresponding adjacent normal tissues. Furthermore, high miR-149-5p and miR-193a-5p expression was significantly correlated with poor overall survival in patients with bladder cancer. The qRT-PCR approach revealed that the expression levels of let-7b-5p, miR-149-5p, miR-146a-5p and miR-423-5p were significantly increased in the urine of patients with bladder cancer compared with those of controls. Although our results indicated that urinary miRNAs are promising biomarkers for diagnosing bladder cancer, this must be validated in larger cohorts in the future.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , MicroRNA Circulante , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/urina
10.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920347

RESUMO

Bladder cancer (BC) is a common malignancy of the urinary system and a leading cause of death worldwide. In this work, untargeted metabolomic profiling of biological fluids is presented as a non-invasive tool for bladder cancer biomarker discovery as a first step towards developing superior methods for detection, treatment, and prevention well as to further our current understanding of this disease. In this study, urine samples from 24 healthy volunteers and 24 BC patients were subjected to metabolomic profiling using high throughput solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in thin-film format and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a Q Exactive Focus Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The chemometric analysis enabled the selection of metabolites contributing to the observed separation of BC patients from the control group. Relevant differences were demonstrated for phenylalanine metabolism compounds, i.e., benzoic acid, hippuric acid, and 4-hydroxycinnamic acid. Furthermore, compounds involved in the metabolism of histidine, beta-alanine, and glycerophospholipids were also identified. Thin-film SPME can be efficiently used as an alternative approach to other traditional urine sample preparation methods, demonstrating the SPME technique as a simple and efficient tool for urinary metabolomics research. Moreover, this study's results may support a better understanding of bladder cancer development and progression mechanisms.


Assuntos
Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/urina , Idoso , Ácido Benzoico/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromatografia Líquida , Ácidos Cumáricos/urina , Feminino , Glicerofosfolipídeos/urina , Hipuratos/urina , Histidina/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , beta-Alanina/urina
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e213800, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787908

RESUMO

Importance: Management of high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) represents a clinical challenge due to high failure rates despite prior bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy. Objective: To describe real-world patient characteristics, long-term outcomes, and the economic burden in a population with high-risk NMIBC treated with BCG therapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study identified 412 patients with high-risk NMIBC from 63 139 patients diagnosed with bladder cancer who received at least 1 dose of BCG within Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) centers across the US from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2015. Adequate induction BCG therapy was defined as at least 5 installations, and adequate maintenance BCG therapy was defined as at least 7 installations. Data were analyzed from January 2, 2020, to January 20, 2021. Exposures: Intravesical BCG therapy, including adequate induction BCG therapy, was defined as at least 5 intravesical instillations of BCG within 70 days from BCG therapy start date. Adequate maintenance BCG therapy was defined as at least 7 installations of BCG within 274 days of the start (the first instillation) of adequate induction BCG therapy (ie, adequate induction BCG plus some form of additional BCG). Main Outcomes and Measures: The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate outcomes, including event-free survival. All-cause expenditures were summarized as medians with corresponding interquartile ranges (IQRs) and adjusted to 2019 USD. Results: Of the 412 patients who met inclusion criteria, 335 (81%) were male and 77 (19%) were female, with a median age of 67 (IQR, 61-74) years. Follow-up was 2694 person-years. A total of 392 patients (95%) received adequate induction BCG therapy, and 152 (37%) received adequate BCG therapy. For all patients with high-risk NMIBC, the 10-year progression-free survival rate and disease-specific death rate were 78% and 92%, respectively. Patients with carcinoma in situ (Cis) had worse disease-free survival than those without Cis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.85; 95% CI, 1.34-2.56). Total median costs at 1 year were $29 459 (IQR, $14 991-$52 060); at 2 years, $55 267 (IQR, $28 667-$99 846); and at 5 years, $117 361 (IQR, $59 680-$211 298). Patients with progressive disease had significantly higher median 5-year costs ($232 729 [IQR, $151 321-$341 195] vs $94 879 [IQR, $52 498-$172 631]; P < .001), with outpatient care, pharmacy, and surgery-related costs contributing. Conclusions and Relevance: Despite adequate induction BCG therapy, only 37% of patients received adequate BCG therapy. Patients with Cis had increased risk of progression, and progression regardless of Cis was associated with significantly increased costs relative to patients without progression. Extrapolating cost figures, regardless of progression, resulted in nationwide costs at 1 year of $373 million for patients diagnosed with high-risk NMIBC in 2019.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/uso terapêutico , Custos de Medicamentos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/economia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Vacina BCG/economia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/economia
12.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(4): e116-e119, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682446

RESUMO

We report a 48-year-old fit and healthy woman who was incidentally diagnosed to have adenocarcinoma of gallbladder after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Subsequent imaging showed no evidence of regional or distant spread. She was scheduled for elective laparotomy and resection of gallbladder bed, but during laparotomy frozen section analysis of an incidentally discovered peritoneal deposit confirmed metastasis, so the procedure was abandoned. Thereafter, she received cisplatin and gemcitabine chemotherapy. However, surveillance computed tomography incidentally noted a urinary bladder mass which had not been present before. Transurethral resection of the bladder lesion revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of urinary bladder. The appearance and immunoprofile of the lesion confirmed metastasis from the primary gallbladder cancer, which has not been documented in the literature to the best of our knowledge. Her disease progressed and she is being challenged with gemcitabine and carboplatin as second-line palliative chemotherapy. She is still alive two years after the initial diagnosis.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/secundário , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Feminino , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/diagnóstico , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(11): e24805, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The main purpose of this study is to systematically evaluate the diagnostic value of long-chain non-coding RNA urothelial carcinoembryonic antigen 1 (lncRNA-UCA1) for bladder cancer, and to provide a scientific basis for the diagnosis of bladder cancer. METHODS: By searching PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, CNKI, Wanfang, Weipu and other databases, in order to collect relevant literature of lncRNA-UCA1 for diagnosis of bladder cancer. The starting and ending time of the search is from the establishment of the database to December 31, 2019. Screen documents and extract data according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. QUADAS entry tool was used to evaluate the quality of literature. Meta-Disc 1.4 and Stata 12.0 software were used for statistical analysis, and UCA1 was combined for the statistics of bladder cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 7 articles were included in this study, including 954 cases of bladder cancer patients and 482 cases of non-bladder cancer patients. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) curve AUC of lncRNA-UCA1 used to diagnose bladder cancer was 0.86. The sensitivity was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.80-0.85), and the specificity was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.82-0.89). The positive likelihood ratio is 6.38 (95% CI: 3.01-13.55), and the negative likelihood ratio is 0.20 (95% CI: 0.13-0.31). The diagnostic odds ratio is 33.13 (95% CI: 11.16-98.33). CONCLUSION: lncRNA-UCA1 has a high value of clinical auxiliary diagnosis for bladder cancer, and it can be further promoted and applied clinically.


Assuntos
RNA Longo não Codificante/análise , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2292: 73-94, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651353

RESUMO

The characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is now widely studied as a promising source of cancer-derived biomarkers because of their role in tumor formation and progression. However, CTCs analysis presents some limitations and no standardized method for CTCs isolation from urine has been defined so far. In fact, besides blood, urine represents an ideal source of noninvasive biomarkers, especially for the early detection of genitourinary tumors. Besides CTCs, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have also been proposed as potential noninvasive biomarkers, and the evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of urinary lncRNAs has dramatically increased over the last years, with many studies being published. Therefore, this review provides an update on the clinical utility of urinary lncRNAs as novel biomarkers for the diagnosis of bladder and prostate cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/urina , RNA Longo não Codificante/urina , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/urina , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/urina , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética
15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2292: 121-131, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651357

RESUMO

Bladder cancer has a very high frequency of recurrence and therefore requires close clinical surveillance throughout its life, with cystoscopies and serial cytological examinations. These tests are both invasive and expensive, with considerable interpersonal and inter-institutional variability. Moreover, cytological examination used for the diagnosis of low-grade tumors has a low sensitivity; thus, there is an increasing focus on the research for new, accurate, urinary markers. Herein, the biological basis, methodologies, and diagnostic performance of biomarkers are discussed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/urina , Antígenos de Neoplasias/urina , Biomarcadores Tumorais/urina , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Proteínas Nucleares/urina , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico
16.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 43(4): e478-e480, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625095

RESUMO

A 6-week-old female presented with gross hematuria and was diagnosed with Ewing sarcoma of the bladder through ultrasound and cystoscopic biopsies, along with a negative metastatic workup. She was treated with transurethral resection, chemotherapy consisting of with vincristine, cycolphosphamide, doxorubicin, ifosfamide and etoposide, and partial cystectomy. After completing chemotherapy, the patient has been doing well with no evidence of disease. There have been 14 other cases, 4 pediatric, of Ewing sarcoma of the bladder reported. To our knowledge, our case is the youngest patient reported with this disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Sarcoma de Ewing/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/secundário , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ósseas/terapia , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Etoposídeo/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hematúria/diagnóstico , Humanos , Ifosfamida/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Sarcoma de Ewing/diagnóstico , Sarcoma de Ewing/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/terapia , Vincristina/uso terapêutico
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6949864, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33604385

RESUMO

Objective: This work analyzes the role of versican (VCAN) on bladder cancer (BLCA). Versican (VCAN) is a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan which is important for tumorigenesis and the development of cancer. However, the expression of VCAN on human bladder cancer (BLCA) has been rarely reported. Methods: The clinical significance of VCAN in BLCA has been determined by our bioinformatics tools. Then, we performed immunohistochemical staining (IHC) and analyzed the correlation between VCAN expression and clinicopathological features. Results: The bioinformatics results reveal that a high VCAN mRNA level was significantly associated with stage, histological subtype, molecular subtype, and metastasis in BLCA. Furthermore, IHC reveals that expression of VCAN was significantly correlated with the number of tumors, invasion depth, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and histological grade. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis reveals that patients with a high expression of VCAN have poor prognosis than those patients with a low expression of VCAN. According to our result from the bioinformatics database, the mechanism of VCAN in BLCA revealed that VCAN was related to FBN1 and genes of the ECM remodeling pathway (MMP1, MMP2). Conclusion: VCAN expression might be included in the process of carcinogenesis and prognosis. Hence, VCAN could be a reliable biomarker of the clinical prognosis on BLCA.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Versicanas , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Prognóstico , Regulação para Cima/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Versicanas/genética , Versicanas/metabolismo
18.
World J Surg Oncol ; 19(1): 42, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Xpert Bladder Cancer is a detection method developed in recent years, designed with the functions of integrating sample automatically, nucleic acid amplification, and target sequence detection. It is a urine assay targeting five mRNAs (CRH, IGF2, UPK1B, ANXA10, and ABL1). The purpose of this article is to review the accuracy of Xpert Bladder Cancer in the follow-up diagnosis of bladder cancer and evaluate the role of Xpert Bladder Cancer in detecting the recurrence of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer in the round. METHODS: In the database of Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library, the articles published up to October 13, 2020, were searched and screened based on the exclusion and inclusion criteria, and data were extracted from the included studies. The sensitivity, specificity, negative likelihood ratio, positive likelihood ratio summary of receiver operating characteristic curves, and diagnostic odds ratio were combined by the Meta-DiSc 1.4 software. The Stata 12.0 software was used to obtain the assessment of publication bias. RESULTS: A total of 8 articles involving eight fourfold tables were finally identified. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of Xpert Bladder Cancer in the diagnosis of bladder cancer were 0.71 and 0.81, respectively. The positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio were 3.74 and 0.34, respectively. The area under the curve was 0.8407. The diagnostic odds ratio was 11.99. Deeks' funnel plot asymmetry test manifested no publication bias. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, Xpert Bladder Cancer presents high accuracy and specificity in monitoring bladder cancer compared with cystoscopy. More researches are still required to further confirm this conclusion.


Assuntos
Carcinoma , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Prognóstico , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567779

RESUMO

Bladder cancer (BCa) is the most prevalent neoplasia of the urinary tract. Unfortunately, limited improvements in effective BCa management have meant that it remains a challenging disease. Cystoscopy has been the gold standard for BCa diagnosis and surveillance for over two centuries but is an invasive and expensive approach. Recently, liquid biopsy has been identified as a promising field of cancer research, due to its noninvasiveness and ease of sampling. Liquid biopsy samples could provide comprehensive information regarding the genetic landscape of cancer and could track genomic evolution of the disease over time. Exosomes, which contain RNAs, DNAs, and proteins, are a potential source of tumor biomarkers in liquid biopsy samples. In particular, exosomal miRNAs (exomiRs) hold great promise as biomarkers for tumor development and progression. In this review, we provide an overview of liquid biopsy biomarkers, with a particular focus on the use of exomiRs as biomarkers of cancer, and summarize their clinical implications for BCa. Finally, we discuss the future perspectives of these biomarkers in cancer research.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Exossomos/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética
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