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1.
Yonsei Med J ; 62(8): 679-690, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296545

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Eph receptors are differentially expressed in numerous malignant tumors. This study intended to analyze the roles of EphB receptors (EphB2, B3, and B4) in urinary bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tissue microarray-based immunohistochemical analysis was used to investigate the expression patterns of EphB2, EphB3, and EphB4 in 154 bladder cancer specimens. Immunohistochemical staining was conducted examining the extent of stained cells and staining intensity. EphB was considered to be highly expressed when the intensity of staining was more than moderate in >25% of cells in the tissue section. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to knock down EphB expression in bladder cancer cell lines (T24, 5637) to determine the effects of EphB on tumor cell invasion, proliferation, and migration. RESULTS: EphB receptors (B2, B3, and B4) were detected in 40.9% (EphB2, 63/154), 71.4% (EphB3, 110/154), and 53.2% (EphB4, 82/154) of bladder cancer specimens. Low expression of EphB2, B3, and B4 receptors were significantly associated with higher tumor grade (EphB2, p<0.001; EphB3, p=0.032; EphB4, p<0.001) and muscular invasion (EphB2, p=0.002; EphB3, p=0.009; EphB4, p<0.001). No obvious correlation was observed with other clinicopathological variables, such as age, sex, recurrence, lymph node involvement, metastasis, and overall survival. Inactivation of EphB receptors by siRNA transfection increased cell viability, tumor cell invasion, proliferation, and migration in comparison with untransfected cancer cells. CONCLUSION: Low expression of EphB receptors (B2, B3, and B4) can be a predictive marker for muscular invasion of bladder cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Efrina-B2 , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Receptor EphB2/genética , Receptor EphB4/genética , Receptores da Família Eph , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética
2.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 41(7): 995-1001, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308848

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of human short stature homeobox 2 (SHOX2) in regulating the migration, invasion and stemness of human bladder cancer cells. METHODS: We analyzed SHOX2 gene expression in bladder cancer and adjacent tissues based on TCGA database. Univariate survival analysis of SHOX2 gene expression in TCGA-BLCA data was performed using GEPIA. The probable function of SHOX2 was predicted using GSEA. Human bladder cancer T24 cell models of SHOX2 knockdown or overexpression were assessed for changes in migration and invasion abilities using wound healing assay and Transwell assay, and their cancer stem cell-like characteristics were evaluated using tumorsphere formation assay and colony formation assay. Western blotting was used to detect the expressions of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers Ecadherin and vimentin and the TGF-ß signaling network component TßR-I in the cells. RESULTS: SHOX2 expression was significantly higher in bladder cancer tissues than in the adjacent tissues (P < 0.05), especially in paired tissue specimens (P < 0.01), and was negatively correlated with the overall survival of the patients (P < 0.05). SHOX2 gene expression was correlated positively with EMT-related (P < 0.05) and stemness-related gene signatures (P < 0.01). In T24 cells, SHOX2 knockdown significantly suppressed cell migration and invasion, which was significantly enhanced by SHOX2 overexpression (P < 0.01). The cancer stem cell-like characteristics of T24 cells was repressed by SHOX2 knockdown but significantly enhanced by SHOX2 overexpression (P < 0.01). SHOX2 knockdown induced morphological changes of the cells into epithelioid cells, whereas SHOX2 overexpression induced a mesenchymal morphology of the cells. SHOX2 knockdown increased E-cadherin expression and decreased vimentin and TßR-I expression, while SHOX2 overexpression increased the expressions of vimentin and TßR-I in the cells. CONCLUSION: SHOX2 promotes the migration, invasion and stemness of human bladder cancer cells possibly by regulating EMT via the TGF-ß signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Vimentina/genética , Vimentina/metabolismo
3.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 41(7): 1022-1029, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308851

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether miR-let-7c-5p inhibits invasion and migration of bladder cancer cells by regulating HMGA2. METHODS: We used bioinformatics methods to determine the key genes of miR-let-7c-5p. RT-qPCR and Western blotting were used to detect the expressions of miR-let-7c-5p mRNA and HMGA2 protein in bladder cancer and adjacent tissues. With human normal bladder SV-HUC-1 cells as the control, we detected the expression levels of miR-let-7c-5p mRNA and HMGA2 protein in bladder cancer cell lines T24, UM-UC-3 and 5637 with RT-qPCR and Western blotting. We observed the effects of miR-let-7c-5p upregulation (by transfection with a miR-let-7c-5p mimic), miR-let-7c-5p downregulation (using a miR-let-7c-5p inhibitor), and knockdown of both HMGA2 and miR-let-7c-5p on invasion, migration and expressions of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins (E-cadherin, N-cadherin, vimentin, and Snail) in UM-UC-3 cells. Dual luciferase assay, RT-qPCR and Western blotting were used to verify the targeting relationship between miR-let-7c-5p and HMGA2. RESULTS: HMGA2 was identified as one of the target genes of miR-let-7c-5p. Compared with the adjacent tissues, bladder cancer tissues showed a significantly decreased expression of miR-let-7c-5p and an increased expression of HMGA2 protein (P < 0.05). In UM-UC-3 cells, the expression of miR-let-7c-5p was significantly reduced and that of HMGA2 was significantly increased as compared with those in SV-HUC-1 cells (P=0.001). Up-regulating miR-let-7c-5p expression significantly lowered the invasion and migration abilities of UM-UC-3 cells, and down-regulating miR-let-7c-5p expression obviously promoted the invasion and migration of UM-UC-3 cells (P < 0.05). Knockdown of both miR-let-7c-5p and HMGA2 expression significantly lowered the invasion and migration (P < 0.05) and inhibited the expressions of EMT-related proteins of UM-UC-3 cells (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: miR-let-7c-5p inhibits EMT of bladder cancer UM-UC-3 cells by targeting HMGA2, thereby inhibiting the cell invasion and migration.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteína HMGA2/genética , Proteína HMGA2/metabolismo , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The interleukin-1-receptor antagonist IL1RA (encoded by the IL1RN gene) is a potent competitive antagonist to interleukin-1 (IL1) and thereby is mainly involved in the regulation of inflammation. Previous data indicated a role of IL1RA in muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) as well as an IL1-dependent decrease in tissue barrier function, potentially contributing to cancer cell invasion. OBJECTIVE: Based on these observations, here we investigated the potential roles of IL1RA, IL1A, and IL1B in bladder cancer cell invasion in vitro. METHODS: Cell culture, real-time impedance sensing, invasion assays (Boyden chamber, pig bladder model), qPCR, Western blot, ELISA, gene overexpression. RESULTS: We observed a loss of IL1RA expression in invasive, high-grade bladder cancer cell lines T24, UMUC-3, and HT1197 while IL1RA expression was readily detectable in the immortalized UROtsa cells, the non-invasive bladder cancer cell line RT4, and in benign patient urothelium. Thus, we modified the invasive human bladder cancer cell line T24 to ectopically express IL1RA, and measured changes in cell migration/invasion using the xCELLigence Real-Time-Cell-Analysis (RTCA) system and the Boyden chamber assay. The real-time observation data showed a significant decrease of cell migration and invasion in T24 cells overexpressing IL1RA (T24-IL1RA), compared to cells harboring an empty vector (T24-EV). Concurrently, tumor cytokines, e.g., IL1B, attenuated the vascular endothelial barrier, which resulted in a reduction of the Cell Index (CI), an impedance-based dimensionless unit. This reduction could be reverted by the simultaneous incubation with IL1RA. Moreover, we used an ex vivo porcine organ culture system to evaluate cell invasion capacity and showed that T24-IL1RA cells showed significantly less invasive capacity compared to parental T24 cells or T24-EV. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results indicate an inverse correlation between IL1RA expression and tumor cell invasive capacity and migration, suggesting that IL1RA plays a role in bladder carcinogenesis, while the exact mechanisms by which IL1RA influences tumor cells migration/invasion remain to be clarified in future studies. Furthermore, we confirmed that real-time impedance sensing and the porcine ex vivo organ culture methods are powerful tools to discover differences in cancer cell migration and invasion.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/genética , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/genética , Interleucina-1alfa/genética , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Animais , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/metabolismo , Interleucina-1alfa/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Invasividade Neoplásica , Transdução de Sinais , Suínos , Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
5.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 147(8): 2309-2322, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080067

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our study was aimed to understand the importance of LIMD1-VHL-HIF1α pathway in development of bladder carcinoma (BlCa) in association with arsenic prevalence. METHODS: At first, the mRNA expression pattern of the genes of this pathway (LIMD1, VHL and HIF1α) was checked in GEO datasets and in our samples. Next, genetic and epigenetic profiling of LIMD1 and VHL was done in our sample pool, validated in T24 BlCa cell line. The results were next correlated with various clinico-pathological parameters. RESULTS: Differential under-expression of LIMD1 and VHL genes was found in muscle-invasive BlCa (MIBC) in comparison to non-muscle-invasive BlCa (NMIBC). However, HIF1α protein, but mRNA, was found to be overexpressed among the MIBC samples; depicting the probability of HIF1α protein stabilization. Analysis of genetic and epigenetic profiles of LIMD1 and VHL exposed a frequent promoter methylation of LIMD1 gene in MIBC samples. Further, in-depth look into the results unveiled that the high nuclear expression of HIF1α was significantly correlated with genetic alterations of LIMD1, alone or in combination with VHL. Moreover, treating the T24 cells with a de-methylating agent (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine) re-expressed the methylated LIMD1 and VHL genes, which in turn, reduced the HIF1α protein level significantly. Additionally, patients with high arsenic content (> 112 ng/g, AsH) seemed to have recurrent promoter methylation in LIMD1, as well as co-methylation/alteration of LIMD1 and VHL gene. Lastly, high nuclear expression of HIF1α in association with co-alteration of VHL and LIMD1 showed the worst overall survival (OS) among the patients. CONCLUSION: To conclude, MIBC samples portrayed higher alterations in VHL and LIMD1, thereby, stabilizing HIF1α protein and lowering the OS of patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição/diagnóstico , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Proteína Supressora de Tumor Von Hippel-Lindau/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intoxicação por Arsênico/diagnóstico , Intoxicação por Arsênico/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/genética , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Núcleo Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/patologia , Comorbidade , Metilação de DNA , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor Von Hippel-Lindau/metabolismo
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3969, 2021 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172722

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis lead to durable clinical responses in subsets of cancer patients across multiple indications, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), urothelial carcinoma (UC) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Herein, we complement PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and tumor mutation burden (TMB) with RNA-seq in 366 patients to identify unifying and indication-specific molecular profiles that can predict response to checkpoint blockade across these tumor types. Multiple machine learning approaches failed to identify a baseline transcriptional signature highly predictive of response across these indications. Signatures described previously for immune checkpoint inhibitors also failed to validate. At the pathway level, significant heterogeneity is observed between indications, in particular within the PD-L1+ tumors. mUC and NSCLC are molecularly aligned, with cell cycle and DNA damage repair genes associated with response in PD-L1- tumors. At the gene level, the CDK4/6 inhibitor CDKN2A is identified as a significant transcriptional correlate of response, highlighting the association of non-immune pathways to the outcome of checkpoint blockade. This cross-indication analysis reveals molecular heterogeneity between mUC, NSCLC and RCC tumors, suggesting that indication-specific molecular approaches should be prioritized to formulate treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3427, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103518

RESUMO

Partially unfolded alpha-lactalbumin forms the oleic acid complex HAMLET, with potent tumoricidal activity. Here we define a peptide-based molecular approach for targeting and killing tumor cells, and evidence of its clinical potential (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03560479). A 39-residue alpha-helical peptide from alpha-lactalbumin is shown to gain lethality for tumor cells by forming oleic acid complexes (alpha1-oleate). Nuclear magnetic resonance measurements and computational simulations reveal a lipid core surrounded by conformationally fluid, alpha-helical peptide motifs. In a single center, placebo controlled, double blinded Phase I/II interventional clinical trial of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, all primary end points of safety and efficacy of alpha1-oleate treatment are reached, as evaluated in an interim analysis. Intra-vesical instillations of alpha1-oleate triggers massive shedding of tumor cells and the tumor size is reduced but no drug-related side effects are detected (primary endpoints). Shed cells contain alpha1-oleate, treated tumors show evidence of apoptosis and the expression of cancer-related genes is inhibited (secondary endpoints). The results are especially encouraging for bladder cancer, where therapeutic failures and high recurrence rates create a great, unmet medical need.


Assuntos
Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Determinação de Ponto Final , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Ácidos Oleicos/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Placebos , Conformação Proteica , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Termodinâmica , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947152

RESUMO

Previously, we have revealed that the miR-130 family (miR-130b, miR-301a, and miR-301b) functions as an oncomiR in bladder cancer. The pharmacological inhibition of the miR-130 family molecules by the seed-targeting strategy with an 8-mer tiny locked nucleic acid (LNA) inhibits the growth, migration, and invasion of bladder cancer cells by repressing stress fiber formation. Here, we searched for a functionally advanced target sequence with LNA for the miR-130 family with low cytotoxicity and found LNA #9 (A(L)^i^i^A(L)^T(L)^T(L)^G(L)^5(L)^A(L)^5(L)^T(L)^G) as a candidate LNA. LNA #9 inhibited cell growth in vitro and in an in vivo orthotopic bladder cancer model. Proteome-wide tyrosine phosphorylation analysis suggested that the miR-130 family upregulates a wide range of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) signaling via the expression of phosphorylated Src (pSrcTyr416). SILAC-based proteome analysis and a luciferase assay identified protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 1 (PTPN1), which is implicated as a negative regulator of multiple signaling pathways downstream of RTKs as a target gene of the miR-130 family. The miR-130-targeted LNA increased and decreased PTPN1 and pSrcTyr416 expressions, respectively. PTPN1 knockdown led to increased tumor properties (cell growth, invasion, and migration) and increased pSrcTyr416 expression in bladder cancer cells, suggesting that the miR-130 family upregulates multiple RTK signaling by targeting PTPN1 and subsequent Src activation in bladder cancer. Thus, our newly designed miR-130 family targeting LNA could be a promising nucleic acid therapeutic agent for bladder cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/fisiologia , Oligonucleotídeos/uso terapêutico , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 1/fisiologia , RNA Neoplásico/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/genética , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Humanos , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Neoplásico/genética , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/biossíntese , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5546612, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33937395

RESUMO

Background: Neurovascular-related genes have been implicated in the development of cancer. Studies have shown that a high expression of neuropilins (NRPs) promotes tumourigenesis and tumour malignancy. Method: A multidimensional bioinformatics analysis was performed to examine the relationship between NRP genes and prognostic and pathological features, tumour mutational burden (TMB), microsatellite instability (MSI), and immunological features based on public databases and find the potential prognostic value of NRPs in pancancer. Results: Survival analysis revealed that a low NRP1 expression in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), cervical squamous cell carcinoma and endocervical adenocarcinoma (CESC), low-grade glioma (LGG), and stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD) was associated with poor prognosis. A high NRP2 expression in bladder urothelial carcinoma (BLCA), kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma (KIRP), and mesothelioma (MESO) was associated with poor prognosis. Moreover, NRP1 and NRP2 were associated with TMB and MSI. Subsequent analyses showed that NRP1 and NRP2 were correlated with immune infiltration and immune checkpoints. Genome-wide association analysis revealed that the NRP1 expression was strongly associated with kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC), whereas the NRP2 expression was closely associated with BLCA. Ultimately, NRP2 was found to be involved in the development of BLCA. Conclusions: Neurovascular-related NRP family genes are significantly correlated with cancer prognosis, TME, and immune infiltration, particularly in BLCA.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neuropilinas , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neuropilinas/genética , Neuropilinas/imunologia , Neuropilinas/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Transcriptoma/genética , Transcriptoma/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/imunologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/mortalidade
10.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 205, 2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, no molecular classification is established for bladder cancer based on metabolic characteristics. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of bladder cancer metabolism-related genes using multiple publicly available datasets and aimed to identify subtypes according to distinctive metabolic characteristics. METHODS: RNA-sequencing data of The Cancer Genome Atlas were subjected to non-negative matrix fractionation to classify bladder cancer according to metabolism-related gene expression; Gene Expression Omnibus and ArrayExpress datasets were used as validation cohorts. The sensitivity of metabolic types to predicted immunotherapy and chemotherapy was assessed. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted to assess patient survival. Differentially expressed genes between subtypes were identified using edgeR. The differences among identified subtypes were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test. To better clarify the subtypes of bladder cancer, their relationship with clinical characteristics was examined using the Fisher's test. We also constructed a risk prediction model using the random survival forest method to analyze right-censored survival data based on key metabolic genes. To identify genes of prognostic significance, univariate Cox regression, lasso analysis, and multivariate regression were performed sequentially. RESULTS: Three bladder cancer subtypes were identified according to the expression of metabolism-related genes. The M1 subtype was characterized by high metabolic activity, low immunogenicity, and better prognosis. M2 exhibited moderate metabolic activity, high immunogenicity, and the worst prognosis. M3 was associated with low metabolic activity, low immunogenicity, and poor prognosis. M1 showed the best predicted response to immunotherapy, whereas patients with M1 were predicted to be the least sensitive to cisplatin. By contrast, M2 showed the worst predicted response to immunotherapy but was predicted to be more sensitive to cisplatin, doxorubicin, and other first-line anticancer drugs. M3 was the most sensitive to gemcitabine. The risk model based on metabolic genes effectively predicted the prognosis of bladder cancer patients. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic classification of bladder cancer has potential clinical value and therapeutic feasibility by inhibiting the associated pathways. This classification can provide valuable insights for developing precise bladder cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/terapia
12.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(10): 13876-13897, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962392

RESUMO

Bladder cancer (BLCA) is one of the common malignant tumors of the urinary system. The poor prognosis of BLCA patients is due to the lack of early diagnosis and disease recurrence after treatment. Increasing evidence suggests that gene products of the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) family are involved in BLCA progression and subsequent interaction(s) with immune surveillance. In this study, we carried out a pan-cancer analysis of the NFAT family and found that NFAT2 is an independent prognostic factor for BLCA. We then screened for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and further analyzed such candidate gene loci using gene ontology enrichment to curate the KEGG database. We then used Lasso and multivariate Cox regression to identify 4 gene loci (FER1L4, RNF128, EPHB6, and FN1) which were screened together with NFAT2 to construct a prognostic model based on using Kaplan-Meier analysis to predict the overall survival of BLCA patients. Moreover, the accuracy of our proposed model is supported by deposited datasets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Finally, a nomogram of this prognosis model for BLCA was established which could help to provide better disease management and treatment.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/genética , Oncogenes , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
13.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(9): 13023-13038, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962398

RESUMO

Bladder cancer (BC) is a commonly occurring malignant tumor affecting the urinary tract. Zinc finger proteins (ZNFs) constitute the largest transcription factor family in the human genome and are therefore attractive biomarker candidates for BC prognosis. In this study, we profiled the expression of ZNFs in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) BC cohort and developed a novel prognostic signature based on 7 ZNF-coding genes. After external validation of the model in the GSE48276 dataset, we integrated the 7-ZNF-gene signature with patient clinicopathological data to construct a nomogram that forecasted 1-, 2-, and 3-year OS with good predictive accuracy. We then accessed The Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer database to predict the therapeutic drug responses of signature-defined high- and low-risk BC patients in the TCGA cohort. Greater sensitivity to chemotherapy was revealed in the low-risk group. Finally, we conducted gene set enrichment analysis of the signature genes and established, by applying the ESTIMATE algorithm, distinct correlations between the two risk groups and the presence of stromal and immune cell types in the tumor microenvironment. By allowing effective risk stratification of BC patients, our novel ZNF gene signature may enable tailoring more intensive treatment for high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Dedos de Zinco/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802702

RESUMO

Our previous study demonstrated that the glutathione S-transferase Mu 5 (GSTM5) gene is highly CpG-methylated in bladder cancer cells and that demethylation by 5-aza-dC activates GSTM5 gene expression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of GSTM5 in bladder cancer. The levels of GSTM5 gene expression and DNA methylation were analyzed in patients with bladder cancer, and functional studies of GSTM5 were conducted using GSTM5 overexpression in cultured bladder cancer cells. Clinical analysis revealed that the GSTM5 mRNA expression was lower in bladder cancer tissues than in normal tissues and that the level of GSTM5 DNA methylation was higher in bladder cancer tissues than in normal urine pellets. Overexpression of GSTM5 decreased cell proliferation, migration and colony formation capacity. Glutathione (GSH) assay results indicated that cellular GSH concentration was decreased by GSTM5 expression and that GSH supplementation reversed the decrease in proliferation and migration of cells overexpressing GSTM5. By contrast, a GSH synthesis inhibitor significantly decreased 5637 cell GSH levels, survival and migration. Furthermore, GSTM5 overexpression inhibited the adhesion of cells to the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin. To elucidate the effect of GSTM5 on anticancer drugs used to treat bladder cancer, cellular viability was compared between cells with or without GSTM5 overexpression. GSTM5-overexpressed cells showed no significant change in the cytotoxicity of cisplatin or mitomycin C in 5637, RT4 and BFTC 905 cells. Though a degree of resistance to doxorubicin was noted in 5637 cells overexpressing GSTM5, no such resistance was observed in RT4 and BFTC 905 cells. In summary, GSTM5 plays a tumor suppressor role in bladder cancer cells without significantly affecting chemoresistance to cisplatin and mitomycin C, and the cellular GSH levels highlight a key mechanism underlying the cancer inhibition effect of GSTM5. These findings suggest that low gene expression and high DNA methylation levels of GSTM5 may act as tumor markers for bladder cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/enzimologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Butionina Sulfoximina/farmacologia , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Metilação de DNA/genética , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitomicina/farmacologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Caracteres Sexuais , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799514

RESUMO

Treatment of patients with urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder or renal cancer has changed significantly during recent years and efforts towards biomarker-directed therapy are being investigated. Immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) or fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) directed therapy are being evaluated for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients, as well as muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) patients. Meanwhile, efforts to predict tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) are still ongoing, and genomic biomarkers are being evaluated in prospective clinical trials. Currently, patients with metastatic UC (mUC) are usually treated with second-line ICI, while cisplatin-ineligible patients with programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) positive tumors can benefit from first-line ICI. Platinum-relapsed UC patients harboring FGFR2/3 mutations can be treated with erdafitinib, while enfortumab vedotin has emerged as a novel third-line treatment option for mUC. In metastatic (clear cell) renal cell carcinoma (RCC), ICI was first introduced as second-line treatment after vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibition (VEGFR-TKI). Currently, ICIs have also been introduced as first-line treatment in metastatic RCC. Although there is no evidence up to now for beneficial adjuvant treatment after surgery with VEGFR-TKIs in high-risk non-metastatic RCC, several trials are underway investigating the potential beneficial effect of ICIs in this setting.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/imunologia , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Metástase Linfática , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Quinoxalinas/uso terapêutico , Receptor Tipo 2 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor Tipo 2 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Receptor Tipo 2 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/imunologia , Receptor Tipo 3 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor Tipo 3 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Receptor Tipo 3 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/imunologia , Recidiva , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/imunologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806327

RESUMO

Personalised medicine is the future and hope for many patients, including those with cancers. Early detection, as well as rapid, well-selected treatment, are key factors leading to a good prognosis. MicroRNA mediated gene regulation is a promising area of development for new diagnostic and therapeutic methods, crucial for better prospects for patients. Bladder cancer is a frequent neoplasm, with high lethality and lacking modern, advanced therapeutic modalities, such as immunotherapy. MicroRNAs are involved in bladder cancer pathogenesis, proliferation, control and response to treatment, which we summarise in this perspective in response to lack of recent review publications in this field. We further performed a correlation-based analysis of microRNA and gene expression data in bladder cancer (BLCA) TCGA dataset. We identified 27 microRNAs hits with opposite expression profiles to genes involved in immune response in bladder cancer, and 24 microRNAs hits with similar expression profiles. We discuss previous studies linking the functions of these microRNAs to bladder cancer and assess if they are good candidates for personalised medicine therapeutics and diagnostics. The discussed functions include regulation of gene expression, interplay with transcription factors, response to treatment, apoptosis, cell proliferation and angiogenesis, initiation and development of cancer, genome instability and tumour-associated inflammatory reaction.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Checkpoint Imunológico/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Sinapses Imunológicas/genética , Modelos Genéticos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Neoplásico/genética
18.
Pol Merkur Lekarski ; 49(290): 103-107, 2021 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895754

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNA) are short, single stranded, non-coding RNAs that play an important role in controlling gene expression at the posttranscriptional stage. There is no bladder cancer marker that has been approved as an alternative for diagnostic cystoscopy and urine cytology so far, thus research for alternative, more sensitive, and less invasive methods of bladder cancer detection are being made. AIM: The aim of the study was to compare the relative expression levels of miRNAs in patients with bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urine and serum samples were collected from patients with the diagnosis of bladder cancer (NMIBC 71%, MIBC 29%). We assessed expression of 4 miRNAs (106b-3p, 130b-3, 145- 3p and 199a-5p) using real-time PCR and double delta (ΔΔCt) method. The analysis was performed with the Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: miRNA 145-3p was significantly underexpressed in urine (p=0,0111) compared with control group, whereas in serum we did not find relevant differences between groups (p=0,0903). Overexpression was observed for miRNA 199a-5p tested in urine (p=0,0262) and for miRNA 106b-3p for both urine and serum (p=0,0262 and p=0,0149 respectively). For miR-130b-3 we did not find statistically significant differences neither for urine (p=0,6335) nor serum (p=0,2443). CONCLUSIONS: A correlation between the relative levels of expression for miRNA 106b-3p, 199a-5p and miRNA 145-3p was detected. We also observed differences between the results obtained for urine and serum. In the context of urinary cancers diagnosis urine seems to be more useful material than serum. We plan to continue our studies assessing expression levels of miRNA 106b-3 and miRNA 145-3p.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Biomarcadores , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803949

RESUMO

Invasive urothelial carcinomas of the bladder (UCB) characteristically show a loss of differentiation markers. The transcription factor Grainyhead-like 3 (GRHL3) plays an important role in the development and differentiation of normal urothelium. The contribution to UCB progression is still elusive. Differential expression of GRHL3 was assessed in normal human urothelium and in non-invasive and invasive bladder cancer cell lines. The contribution of GRHL3 to cell proliferation, viability and invasion in UCB cell lines was determined by gain- and loss-of-function assays in vitro and in an organ culture model using de-epithelialized porcine bladders. GRHL3 expression was detectable in normal human urothelial cells and showed significantly higher mRNA and protein levels in well-differentiated, non-invasive RT4 urothelial carcinoma cells compared to moderately differentiated RT112 cells. GRHL3 expression was absent in anaplastic and invasive T24 cells. Ectopic de novo expression of GRHL3 in T24 cells significantly impaired their migration and invasion properties in vitro and in organ culture. Its downregulation improved the invasive capacity of RT4 cells. The results indicate that GRHL3 may play a role in progression and metastasis in UCB. In addition, this work demonstrates that de-epithelialized porcine bladder organ culture can be a useful, standardized tool to assess the invasive capacity of cancer cells.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Urotélio/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinoma/patologia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Suínos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Urotélio/patologia
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924142

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can be secreted into body fluids and have thus been reported as a new type of cancer biomarker. This study aimed to determine whether urinary miRNAs act as noninvasive biomarkers for diagnosing bladder cancer. Small RNA profiles from urine were generated for 10 patients with bladder cancer and 10 healthy controls by using next-generation sequencing. We identified 50 urinary miRNAs that were differentially expressed in bladder cancer compared with controls, comprising 44 upregulated and six downregulated miRNAs. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that the biological role of these differentially expressed miRNAs might be involved in cancer-associated signaling pathways. Further analysis of the public database revealed that let-7b-5p, miR-149-5p, miR-146a-5p, miR-193a-5p, and miR-423-5p were significantly increased in bladder cancer compared with corresponding adjacent normal tissues. Furthermore, high miR-149-5p and miR-193a-5p expression was significantly correlated with poor overall survival in patients with bladder cancer. The qRT-PCR approach revealed that the expression levels of let-7b-5p, miR-149-5p, miR-146a-5p and miR-423-5p were significantly increased in the urine of patients with bladder cancer compared with those of controls. Although our results indicated that urinary miRNAs are promising biomarkers for diagnosing bladder cancer, this must be validated in larger cohorts in the future.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , MicroRNA Circulante , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/urina
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