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1.
Chem Biol Interact ; 331: 109273, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002460

RESUMO

Artesunate is a kind of derivative of artemisinin, which possesses potent anti-cancer effect in addition to its anti-malarial property. And autophagy was a highly conserved process, exerting a double-edged effect in cancer cell survival. Besides, apoptosis is a programmed cell death program, crucial to cell homeostasis. However, the relations between autophagy and apoptosis, and the role of artesunate in this interaction have not been elucidated in bladder cancer. In present study, we used human bladder cancer cells (T24 and EJ cell lines) to investigate that how artesunate would influence autophagy and apoptosis processes. We found that artesunate could inhibit the viability, proliferation and migration of bladder cancer cells, as well as induce autophagy in a time and dose dependent manner, in addition, the artesunate induced autophagy subsequently activated cells apoptosis. Furthermore, we pretreated T24 and EJ cells with 3-Methyladenine or Rapamycin to inhibit or promote autophagy, respectively, leading to inhibited or increased apoptosis. Moreover, pretreatment of these cell lines with Acadesine or Dorsomorphin to activate or inhibit the AMPK-mTOR-ULK1 pathway, respectively, also resulting in promotion or suppression in both autophagy and apoptosis. In the upstream, ROS upregulation triggered by ART initiated AMPK-mTOR-ULK1 axis. However, this initiative effect of ROS can be reversed by N-Acetyl-l-cysteine. Therefore, this study indicated that Artesunate induces autophagy dependent apoptosis through upregulating ROS and activating AMPK-mTOR-ULK1 pathway in human bladder cancer cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Artesunato/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Artesunato/química , Proteína Homóloga à Proteína-1 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5485, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127883

RESUMO

Cancer patient classification using predictive biomarkers for anti-cancer drug responses is essential for improving therapeutic outcomes. However, current machine-learning-based predictions of drug response often fail to identify robust translational biomarkers from preclinical models. Here, we present a machine-learning framework to identify robust drug biomarkers by taking advantage of network-based analyses using pharmacogenomic data derived from three-dimensional organoid culture models. The biomarkers identified by our approach accurately predict the drug responses of 114 colorectal cancer patients treated with 5-fluorouracil and 77 bladder cancer patients treated with cisplatin. We further confirm our biomarkers using external transcriptomic datasets of drug-sensitive and -resistant isogenic cancer cell lines. Finally, concordance analysis between the transcriptomic biomarkers and independent somatic mutation-based biomarkers further validate our method. This work presents a method to predict cancer patient drug responses using pharmacogenomic data derived from organoid models by combining the application of gene modules and network-based approaches.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Aprendizado de Máquina , Organoides/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma , Bexiga Urinária/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo
3.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5221-5227, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Bladder cancer (BLCA, urothelial bladder cancer) is one of the most common malignancies with increasing incidence and mortality worldwide. Poor diagnosis and the limitation of treatment is still an unmet need in clinical practice. γδ T-Cells have been paid increasing attention because of their potent cytotoxicity against tumors. Herein, we investigated the cytolytic effect of γδ T-cells in combination with the chemotherapeutic drug, carboplatin, against BLCA cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The standard protocol for the induction and expansion of peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived γδ T-cells was a zoledronic acid/interleukin-2-based medium system for 2 weeks. The cytotoxicity of γδ T-cells with and without carboplatin against BLCA cells was examined. RESULTS: After incubation, T-cell receptor-positive γδ T-cells showed a natural killer cell-like phenotypic characteristic and dose-dependently increased cytotoxicity against BLCA cells. Interestingly, we found that in advanced BLCA cells, which were more resistant to carboplatin, the cell viability was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in the presence of γδ T-cells. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that γδ T-cell therapy has potent benefit in cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carboplatina/farmacologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/imunologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4858, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978382

RESUMO

Overtreatment with cisplatin-based chemotherapy is a major issue in the management of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), and currently none of the reported biomarkers for predicting response have been implemented in the clinic. Here we perform a comprehensive multi-omics analysis (genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics and proteomics) of 300 MIBC patients treated with chemotherapy (neoadjuvant or first-line) to identify molecular changes associated with treatment response. DNA-based associations with response converge on genomic instability driven by a high number of chromosomal alterations, indels, signature 5 mutations and/or BRCA2 mutations. Expression data identifies the basal/squamous gene expression subtype to be associated with poor response. Immune cell infiltration and high PD-1 protein expression are associated with treatment response. Through integration of genomic and transcriptomic data, we demonstrate patient stratification to groups of low and high likelihood of cisplatin-based response. This could pave the way for future patient selection following validation in prospective clinical trials.


Assuntos
Cisplatino/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Metilação de DNA , Tratamento Farmacológico , Instabilidade Genômica , Humanos , Mutação , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
5.
Life Sci ; 258: 118154, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735882

RESUMO

AIMS: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) facilitates cell migration and invasion, and contributes to metastasis in bladder cancer. Within the perioperative period, anesthetic such as isoflurane have been found to affect cancer prognosis. In the study, we reported the tumor-promoting effect of isoflurane in bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human bladder cancer cell lines T24 and BIU-87 were exposed to isoflurane at different concentrations. The immunofluorescent staining of Ki67, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, Transwell invasion assays and wound-healing assays were performed to assess cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and migration. Expressions of EMT markers (E-cadherin, N-cadherin and Vimentin) and metastatic markers (Snail-1, Slug-1 and MMP-2/9) were determined by immunoblotting. Orthotopic tumor models and mice given tail vein injection of T24 cells were developed with or without 4-h exposure to 2% isoflurane. KEY FINDINGS: We found isoflurane promoted bladder cancer cell proliferation, invasion and migration but reduce apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, isoflurane was shown to increase HIF-1α and its nuclear accumulation in bladder cancer cells. HIF-1α knockdown inhibited bladder cancer cell proliferation and delayed EMT, which was reversed in the presence of 4-h exposure to 2% isoflurane. Likewise, we found isoflurane modulated ß-catenin/Notch1 pathways via HIF-1α. In vivo studies showed that isoflurane exposure accelerated formation of orthotopic bladder tumor and promoted hepatic metastases from carcinoma of the bladder. SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our study demonstrates that a frequently used anesthetic can exert a protumorigenic effect on bladder cancer. Isoflurane may serve as an important contributory factor to high recurrence following surgery.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Inalatórios/efeitos adversos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoflurano/efeitos adversos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , beta Catenina/metabolismo
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237976, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822399

RESUMO

Environmental exposure to arsenite (As3+) has a strong association with the development of human urothelial cancer (UC) and is the 5th most common cancer in men and the 12th most common cancer in women. Muscle invasive urothelial cancer (MIUC) are grouped into basal or luminal molecular subtypes based on their gene expression profile. The basal subtype is more aggressive and can be associated with squamous differentiation, characterized by high expression of keratins (KRT1, 5, 6, 14, and 16) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) within the tumors. The luminal subtype is less aggressive and is predominately characterized by elevated gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- gamma (PPARγ) and forkhead box protein A1 (FOXA1). We have previously shown that As3+-transformed urothelial cells (As-T) exhibit a basal subtype of UC expressing genes associated with squamous differentiation. We hypothesized that the molecular subtype of the As-T cells could be altered by inducing the expression of PPARγ and/or inhibiting the proliferation of the cells. Non-transformed and As-T cells were treated with Troglitazone (TG, PPARG agonist, 10 µM), PD153035 (PD, an EGFR inhibitor, 1 µM) or a combination of TG and PD for 3 days. The results obtained demonstrate that treatment of the As-T cells with TG upregulated the expression of PPARγ and FOXA1 whereas treatment with PD decreased the expression of some of the basal keratins. However, a combined treatment of TG and PD resulted in a consistent decrease of several proteins associated with the basal subtype of bladder cancers (KRT1, KRT14, KRT16, P63, and TFAP2A). Our data suggests that activation of PPARγ while inhibiting cell proliferation facilitates the regulation of genes involved in maintaining the luminal subtype of UC. In vivo animal studies are needed to address the efficacy of using PPARγ agonists and/or proliferation inhibitors to reduce tumor grade/stage of MIUC.


Assuntos
Arsenitos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Troglitazona/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Fator 3-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 3-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Humanos , Queratinas/genética , Queratinas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , PPAR gama/agonistas , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Transplante Heterólogo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
7.
Cancer Sci ; 111(9): 3397-3400, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678492

RESUMO

We found that FOXO1-shRNA sublines or FOXO1-positive cells co-treated with a FOXO1 inhibitor were significantly more resistant to cisplatin treatment at pharmacological concentrations, compared with respective control sublines or those with mock treatment. Western blot demonstrated considerable increases in the expression levels of a phosphorylated inactive form of FOXO1 (p-FOXO1) in cisplatin-resistant sublines established by long-term culture with low/increasing doses of cisplatin, compared with respective controls. Immunohistochemistry in surgical specimens from patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer undergoing cisplatin-based neoadjuvant therapy further showed a strong trend to associate between p-FOXO1 positivity and unfavorable response to chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/genética , Inativação Gênica , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo
8.
Mol Carcinog ; 59(9): 1017-1027, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529781

RESUMO

Bladder cancer (BCa) is an exophytic tumor that presents as either noninvasive confined to the mucosa (NMIBC) or invading the detrusor muscle (MIBC), and was recently further subgrouped into molecular subtypes. Arylamines, major BCa environmental and occupational risk factors, are mainly metabolized by the genetically polymorphic N-acetyltransferases 1, NAT1 and NAT2. In this study, we investigated the association between N-acetyltransferases genetic polymorphism and key MIBC and NMIBC tumor biomarkers and subtypes. A cohort of 250 males with histologically confirmed urothelial BCa was identified. Tumors were genotyped for NAT1 and NAT2 using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and characterized for mutations in TP53, RB1, and FGFR3 by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Pathology data and patients' smoking status were obtained from medical records. Pearson χ2 and Fisher exact tests were used to check for associations and interactions. Results show that NAT1 G560 A polymorphism is significantly associated with higher muscle-invasiveness (MIBC vs NMIBC; P = .001), higher tumor grade (high grade vs low grade; P = .011), and higher FGFR3 mutation frequency within the MIBC subgroup (P = .042; .027). NAT2 G857 A polymorphism is also found to be significantly associated with higher muscle-invasiveness (MIBC vs NMIBC; P = .041). Our results indicate that slow N-acetylation is a contributor to bladder carcinogenesis and muscle-invasiveness. These findings highlight NAT1 as a biomarker candidate in BCa and a potential target for drug development.


Assuntos
Arilamina N-Acetiltransferase/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Isoenzimas/genética , Neoplasias Musculares/patologia , Mutação , Polimorfismo Genético , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Arilamina N-Acetiltransferase/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Humanos , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Musculares/genética , Neoplasias Musculares/metabolismo , Invasividade Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo
9.
Mol Immunol ; 124: 35-41, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer (BC) can be successfully treated by manipulating immune responses with intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin instillation or targeting the PD-1/PD-L signaling pathway. In the present study we investigated the prognostic significance of the immune checkpoint inhibitor PD-1 and its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2 on tumor cells and infiltrating lymphocytes, in the tumor microenvironment and draining lymph nodes in patients with non-metastatic BC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cells were mechanically isolated from tissues and draining lymph nodes from 58 patients, and surface-stained for CD45, PD-1, PD-L1 and PD-L2. The cells were then analyzed with a flow cytometric method. RESULTS: Approximately 2% of CD45-negative tumor and stromal cells expressed PD-L1. Expression was not associated with the main clinicopathological characteristics of the disease or with survival. However, as tumors progressed the frequency of PD-L1+CD45hi cells and the mean expression of PD-1 on CD45hi cells increased remarkably on immune cells in tumor tissues and draining lymph nodes. In addition, frequency analysis showed that cell percentages as well as mean expression of PD-L2 on total CD45+ lymphocytes and their CD45hi subpopulation in tumor-draining lymph nodes was significantly associated with cancer-related death (P < 0.05). Multiple Cox regression also revealed that while CD45+ (hazard ratio: 0.596, 95 % CI 0.439-0.809, P = 0.001) was associated with improved survival, CD45neg (HR: 0.615, 95 % CI 0.454-0.831, P = 0.002), and PD-L2+CD45+ cells (hazard ratio: 1.472, 95 % CI 1.023-2.120, P = 0.038) in draining lymph nodes were associated with lower survival. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that in patients with BC, PD-1 and PD-L expression on immune cells, especially in draining lymph nodes, is valuable for predicting prognosis and survival, and possibly responsiveness to immunotherapy. However, expression of the inhibitor molecule or its ligands on tumor cells was not associated with prognosis. The results highlight the significance of PD-L2 as a second important suppressive molecule in tumors.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/patologia , Proteína 2 Ligante de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/imunologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo
10.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 401: 115109, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544403

RESUMO

Bladder cancer (BCa) is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide due to its aggressiveness and resistance against therapies. Intricate interactions between cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME) are essential for both disease progression and regression. Thus, interrupting molecular communications within the TME could potentially provide improved therapeutic efficacies. M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophages (M2 TAMs) were shown to contribute to BCa progression and drug resistance. We attempted to provide evidence for ovatodiolide (OV) as a potential therapeutic agent that targets both TME and BCa cells. First, tumor-suppressing functions of OV were determined by cell viability, colony, and tumor-sphere formation assays using a coculture system composed of M2 TAMs/BCa cells. Subsequently, we demonstrated that extracellular vesicles (EVs) isolated from M2 TAMs containing oncomiR-21 and mRNAs, including Akt, STAT3, mTOR, and ß-catenin, promoted cisplatin (CDDP) resistance, migration, and tumor-sphere generation in BCa cells, through increasing CDK6, mTOR, STAT3, and ß-catenin expression. OV treatment also prevented M2 polarization and reduced EV cargos from M2 TAMs. Finally, in vivo data demonstrated that OV treatment overcame CDDP resistance. OV only and the OV + CDDP combination both resulted in significant reductions in mTOR, ß-catenin, CDK6, and miR-21 expression in tumor samples and EVs isolated from serum. Collectively, we demonstrated that M2 TAMs induced malignant properties in BCa cells, in part via oncogenic EVs. OV treatment prevented M2 TAM polarization, reduced EV cargos derived from M2 TAMs, and suppressed ß-catenin/mTOR/CDK6 signaling. These findings provide preclinical evidence for OV as a single or adjuvant agent for treating drug-resistant BCa.


Assuntos
Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Diterpenos/uso terapêutico , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Técnicas de Cocultura , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Exossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Exossomos/metabolismo , Exossomos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , Plantas Medicinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , beta Catenina/antagonistas & inibidores
11.
Am J Pathol ; 190(9): 1960-1970, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585158

RESUMO

Tumor-associated blood vessels differ from normal vessels and play key roles in tumor progression. We aimed to identify biomolecules that are expressed differentially in human bladder cancer-associated blood vessels to find novel biomarkers and mechanisms involved in tumor-associated angiogenesis. The transcriptome of tumor blood vasculature from human invasive bladder carcinoma (I-BLCA) and normal bladder tissue vasculature was compared using differential expression and unsupervised hierarchical clustering analyses. Pathway analysis identified up-regulation of genes involved in the proliferation, cell cycle, angiogenesis, inflammation, and transforming growth factor-ß signaling in tumor blood vasculature. A common consensus gene expression signature was identified between bladder cancer tumor blood vasculature with tumor blood vasculature of other solid cancers, which correlated with the overall survival of patients with several of the solid cancers investigated in The Cancer Genome Atlas data set. In bladder tumor blood vasculature, the secreted factor angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2), was confirmed to be up-regulated by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining. The up-regulation of ANGPTL2 in plasma was also observed in non-invasive bladder carcinoma and I-BLCA. We semiquantitatively analyzed expression of ANGPTL2 in tissue microarrays from I-BLCA and surprisingly found an opposite correlation between staining intensity and progression-free survival. Our results indicate that ANGPTL2 might serve as a potential biomarker to predict progression-free survival in I-BLCA.


Assuntos
Proteínas Semelhantes a Angiopoietina/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Microdissecção e Captura a Laser , Transcriptoma , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo
12.
Urologe A ; 59(7): 810-816, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Great advances have been made for the treatment of urothelial carcinoma by the introduction of checkpoint inhibitors (CPI). Single-agent immunotherapy with CPIs has been approved for patients with metastatic or locally advanced inoperable urothelial carcinoma who have either progressed during or after platinum-based chemotherapy or who are cisplatin-ineligible. For cisplatin-ineligible patients, approval is restricted to patients with high programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression. For patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) or patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) who receive curative therapy, no CPIs have received approval in Germany. OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the current landscape of immunotherapy in patients with urothelial carcinoma. METHODS: Summary of the therapeutic landscape and resulting challenges based on currently published data using a PubMed search. RESULTS: In the treatment of metastatic or inoperable urothelial carcinoma, CPIs represent standard treatment. Depending on the results of currently performed trials, an extension of its use to the perioperative setting (neoadjuvant/adjuvant) and to patients with Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) unresponsive NMIBC in the near future is currently being discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Immuno-oncologic treatment using CPIs has become an integral part of the management of patients with advanced bladder cancer. For biomarker-based patient selection and combination therapies, there is an urgent need for further investigations within clinical trial protocols.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/terapia , Imunoterapia/tendências , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/terapia , Neoplasias Urológicas/terapia , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/patologia , Alemanha , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/imunologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Neoplasias Urológicas/imunologia , Neoplasias Urológicas/patologia
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2540, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439865

RESUMO

Tumor heterogeneity is common in cancer, however recent studies have applied single gene expression signatures to classify bladder cancers into distinct subtypes. Such stratification assumes that a predominant transcriptomic signature is sufficient to predict progression kinetics, patient survival and treatment response. We hypothesize that such static classification ignores intra-tumoral heterogeneity and the potential for cellular plasticity occurring during disease development. We have conducted single cell transcriptome analyses of mouse and human model systems of bladder cancer and show that tumor cells with multiple lineage subtypes not only cluster closely together at the transcriptional level but can maintain concomitant gene expression of at least one mRNA subtype. Functional studies reveal that tumor initiation and cellular plasticity can initiate from multiple lineage subtypes. Collectively, these data suggest that lineage plasticity may contribute to innate tumor heterogeneity, which in turn carry clinical implications regarding the classification and treatment of bladder cancer.


Assuntos
Linhagem da Célula/genética , Plasticidade Celular/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Integrina alfa6/genética , Integrina alfa6/metabolismo , Queratina-5/genética , Queratina-5/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Análise de Célula Única , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo
14.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(9): 1833-1840, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer is diagnosed by the use of several biomarkers, including survivin. This protein has an important role in the cancer progression by controlling the rate of cell apoptosis. Findings show that there is no survivin in normal tissues, whereas the level of survivin expression increases in tumor cells. DESIGN: The purpose of this study was to specify the reactive antibodies to survivin protein as a biomarker to determine the bladder cancer stage with ELISA method and using GNPs conjugated with survivin antibody. The serum and urine samples of patients with bladder cancer were collected among those referred to Sina Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The survivin protein level was measured in the serum and urine by ELISA technique and in the urine by GNPs conjugated with survivin. RESULTS: Based on the results of ELISA, the serum and urinary levels of survivin increased significantly in T3 and T4 stages of the disease (high grades), compared with the healthy individuals. Also, using conjugated GNPs, survivin protein was detected in the urine specimens of patients at all grades (low and high grades). CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that using the ELISA technique, the increased level of survivin could be identified in high grades of bladder cancer, but using anti-survivin antibody-conjugated GNPs, bladder cancer can be detected in early stages. The applied method was found to be a rapid tool, dependent on visible color changes and colorimetric detection, without any need for reader devices.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/metabolismo , Ouro/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Survivina/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/métodos
15.
Cancer Sci ; 111(7): 2423-2430, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350965

RESUMO

The transmembrane receptors integrins are the bridges for cell-cell or cell-ECM interaction, which is strictly correlated to cancer development in several tumor types. Here, we revealed that integrin ß8 serves as a driver to mediate sustained growth of bladder cancer and development of drug resistance. The elevated expression of integrin ß8 was observed in highly malignant bladder tumor tissues from patients. The in vitro and in vivo results further indicated that integrin ß8 overexpression in Biu87/T24 bladder cancer could mediate and strengthen cell proliferation and resistance to mitomycin C and hydroxycamptothecin. Mechanistically, integrin ß8 on the cellular surface might recruit phosphorylated Y-box binding protein 1, leading to the activation of c-Myc and nuclear factor-κB signals. Pharmacological targeting of integrin ß8 by Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser efficiently suppressed sustained growth and drug resistance in bladder cancer cells. Our findings identified integrin ß8 as a marker of bladder cancer diagnosis and development, and provides an innovative approach for clinical bladder cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Cadeias beta de Integrinas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Y-Box/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Humanos , Cadeias beta de Integrinas/genética , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Y-Box/genética
16.
Cancer Sci ; 111(7): 2349-2360, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449280

RESUMO

Solute carrier family 12 member 5 (SLC12A5) has an oncogenic role in bladder urothelial carcinoma. The present study aimed to characterize the molecular mechanisms of SLC12A5 in bladder urothelial carcinoma pathogenesis. Functional assays identified that in bladder urothelial carcinoma SLC12A5 interacts with and stabilizes SOX18, and then upregulates matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7). In vivo and in vitro assays were performed to confirm the effect of SLC12A5's interaction with SOX18 on MMP7-mediated bladder urothelial carcinoma progression. SLC12A5 was upregulated in human bladder tumors, and correlated with the poor survival of patients with bladder urothelial carcinoma tumor invasion and metastasis, promoted by SLC12A5 overexpression. We demonstrated that SLC12A5 interacted with SOX18, and then upregulated MMP7, thus enhancing tumor progression. Importantly, SLC12A5 expression correlated positively with SOX18 and MMP7 expression in bladder urothelial carcinoma. Furthermore, SLC12A5 expression was suppressed by miR-133a-3p. Ectopic expression of SLC12A5 partly abolished miR-133a-3p-mediated suppression of cell migration. SLC12A5-SOX18 complex-mediated upregulation on MMP7 was important in bladder urothelial carcinoma progression. The miR-133a-3p/SLC12A5/SOX18/MMP7 signaling axis was critical for progression, and provided an effective therapeutic approach against bladder urothelial carcinoma.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Metaloproteinase 7 da Matriz/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXF/metabolismo , Simportadores/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 7 da Matriz/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Ligação Proteica , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
17.
Cancer Res ; 80(13): 2833-2847, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312834

RESUMO

ΔNp63 is a transcription factor of the p53 family and has crucial functions in normal development and disease. The expression pattern of ΔNp63 in human cancer suggests dynamic regulation of this isoform during cancer progression and metastasis. Many primary and metastatic tumors express high levels of ΔNp63, while ΔNp63 loss is crucial for tumor dissemination, indicating an oscillatory expression of ΔNp63 during cancer progression. Here, we use genetically engineered orthotopic mouse models of breast cancer to show that while depletion of ΔNp63 inhibits primary mammary adenocarcinoma development, oscillatory expression of ΔNp63 in established tumors is crucial for metastatic dissemination in breast cancer. A TGFß-regulated miRNA network acted as upstream regulators of this oscillatory expression of ΔNp63 during cancer progression. This work sheds light on the pleiotropic roles of ΔNp63 in cancer and unveils critical functions of TGFß in the metastatic process. SIGNIFICANCE: This study unveils TGFß signaling and a network of four miRNAs as upstream regulators of ΔNp63, providing key information for the development of therapeutic strategies to treat cancers that commonly overexpress ΔNp63.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , MicroRNAs/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Animais , Apoptose , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Mutação , Prognóstico , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Am J Pathol ; 190(8): 1752-1762, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339497

RESUMO

The biological processes of urothelial carcinogenesis are not fully understood, particularly regarding the relationship between specific genetic events, cell of origin, and molecular subtypes of subsequent tumors. N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (BBN)-induced mouse bladder cancer is widely accepted as a useful model that recapitulates the pathway of human bladder tumorigenesis from dysplasia to invasive cancer via carcinoma in situ. However, the long and variable time of tumorigenesis often hinders efficient preclinical or translational research. We hypothesized that Trp53 mutation in specific types of urothelial cells facilitates efficient development of clinically relevant bladder cancer. Using lineage tracing, we showed that Trp53 mutation in Krt5-expressing cells resulted in more efficient tumorigenesis of mouse muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) with squamous differentiation compared with Trp53 mutation in Upk2-expressing cells, or wild-type or hemizygous Trp53 in the entire urothelium. Mouse MIBC that developed at 24 weeks of BBN treatment showed morphologic and genetic similarities to the basal squamous subtypes of human MIBC, irrespective of pre-induction of Trp53 mutation or whether the cell of origin was Krt5- or Upk2-expressing cells. Our findings suggest that intermediate cells as well as basal cells also can give rise to basal-like MIBC, with pre-induction of Trp53 mutation accelerating MIBC. Thus, in BBN chemical carcinogenesis, pre-induction of Trp53 mutation in basal cells facilitates efficient modeling of the basal squamous subtype of human MIBC.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/genética , Queratina-5/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Animais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/patologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Queratina-5/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mutação , Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
19.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(8): 2099-2108, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239282

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: After transurethral resection of a bladder tumor, patients frequently have a recurrence of the disease, thereby requiring adjuvant therapy. PURPOSE: The study aimed to determine the prognostic value of expression levels of p53, Ki-67, and survivin, and to develop a new prognostic model for patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) after transurethral resection of a bladder tumor. METHODS: The study group consisted of 101 patients with primary NMIBC. Univariate followed by multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed to obtain a model including the smallest possible number of descriptive variables with the highest statistical significance and impact on risk. RESULTS: The RECINT model (RECurrence In Not Treated) including factors independently associated with cancer recurrence (tumor size [HR 1.148; p = 0.034], intensity of the color reaction for p53 [HR 1.716; p = 0.008], Ki-67 [HR 3.001; p = 0.022], and survivin [HR 1.461; p = 0.021]) adequately stratified recurrence free-survival (R2 = 0.341, p < 0.001) in patients with primary NMIBC. Patients with the lowest RECINT score (0-6) had the lowest probability of cancer recurrence (1- and 5-year recurrence of 16%) in comparison with other groups (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The RECINT model may be useful for stratifying the risk of recurrence in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer and may allow for identification of those who may benefit the most from adjuvant BCG immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Antígeno Ki-67/biossíntese , Modelos Estatísticos , Survivina/biossíntese , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/biossíntese , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Invasividade Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia
20.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 230, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are an integral part of bladder cancer therapy, however, the relevance of ICI treatment for mixed and pure squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder remains poorly studied. Therefore, we analysed the expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in urothelial carcinomas with squamous differentiation (UC/SCC) and pure squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bladder and studied a UC/SCC patient with ICI therapy. METHODS: Tissue microarrays of 45 UC/SCC and 63 SCC samples were immunohistochemically stained with four anti-PD-L1 antibodies (28-8, 22C3, SP142 and SP263). PD-L1 expression was determined for tumour cells (TP-Score), immune cells (IC-Score) and combined (CPS, combined positive score). In addition, we present clinical and histological data of an UC/SCC patient with nivolumab therapy. RESULTS: Overall, positive PD-L1 staining ranged between 4.8 and 61.9% for IC and 0 and 51.2% for TC depending on the used antibody. There were no significant differences between UC/SCC and SCC. According to current FDA guidelines for example for first line therapy of urothelial cancer with pembrolizumab (CPS ≥ 10), a subset of SCC patients up to 20% would be eligible. Finally, our UC/SCC index patient revealed excellent therapy response regarding his lung metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: Our data reveal a PD-L1 expression in squamous differentiated carcinomas comparable with current data shown for urothelial tumours. In accordance with the encouraging clinical data of the index patient we suggest ICI treatment also for mixed and pure SCC of the urinary bladder.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígeno B7-H1/análise , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo
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