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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207220

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a pandemic respiratory disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. The worldwide epidemiologic data showed higher mortality in males compared to females, suggesting a hypothesis about the protective effect of estrogens against severe disease progression with the ultimate end being patient's death. This article summarizes the current knowledge regarding the potential effect of estrogens and other modulators of estrogen receptors on COVID-19. While estrogen receptor activation shows complex effects on the patient's organism, such as an influence on the cardiovascular/pulmonary/immune system which includes lower production of cytokines responsible for the cytokine storm, the receptor-independent effects directly inhibits viral replication. Furthermore, it inhibits the interaction of IL-6 with its receptor complex. Interestingly, in addition to natural hormones, phytestrogens and even synthetic molecules are able to interact with the estrogen receptor and exhibit some anti-COVID-19 activity. From this point of view, estrogen receptor modulators have the potential to be included in the anti-COVID-19 therapeutic arsenal.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Moduladores de Receptor Estrogênico/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/virologia , Moduladores de Receptor Estrogênico/metabolismo , Moduladores de Receptor Estrogênico/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Receptores de Estrogênio/química , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 13(1): e1-e8, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The responsibility of caring for patients with advanced cancer in sub-Saharan Africa is mostly shouldered by family members because of paucity of institutional facilities. There is a growing concern that the number of women needing treatment for advanced breast cancer is rising at an unprecedented rate in Nigeria. AIM: To assess the caregiver burden and its associated factors amongst family caregivers of women with advanced breast cancer. SETTING: The study was conducted at the radiation oncology clinic of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted amongst 157 eligible family caregivers of women with advanced breast cancer. The family caregivers completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire, which included the socio-demographic data, the caregiving process and the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI). Logistic regression was used to identify factors, and ethical approval was obtained. RESULTS: Over half (53%) of the respondents were males with spousal caregivers dominantly constituting 27.4% of all respondents, closely followed by daughters (25.5%) of the care recipients. The mean ZBI score was 29.84 ± 13.9. Most (72%) of the caregivers experienced burden. Factors associated with caregiver burden were previous hospitalisation of the care recipient (odds ratio [OR] = 3.74, confidence interval [CI]: 1.67 to 8.38) and perceived dysfunction in patients activities of daily living (OR = 2.57, CI: 1.14 to 5.78). CONCLUSION: Family caregivers of women with advanced breast cancer experience burden of care. Recognition of this vulnerable population and the care recipient as a dyad is a sine qua non in mitigating the burden associated with their caregiving role.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Fardo do Cuidador , Cuidadores/psicologia , Radioterapia (Especialidade) , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
3.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 127: 112249, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225888

RESUMO

Optical biosensors show attractive performance in medical sensing in the event of using different nanoparticles in their design. Owing to their unique optical characteristics and biological compatibility, gold nanoparticles (GNPs), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), bimetallic nanoparticles and magnetic nanoparticles have been broadly implemented in making sensing tools. The functionalization of these nanoparticles with different components provides an excellent opportunity to assemble selective and sensitive sensing materials to detect various biological molecules related to breast cancer. This review summarizes the recent application of optical biosensing devices based on nanomaterials and discusses their pros and cons to improve breast cancer detection in real samples. In particular, the main constituent elements of these optical biosensors including recognition and transducer elements, types of applied nanostructures, analytical sensing procedures, sensor detection ranges and limit of detection (LOD), are expressed in detail.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Neoplasias da Mama , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas Multifuncionais , Nanoestruturas , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Ouro , Humanos , Prata
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198497

RESUMO

Breast-conserving surgery requires supportive radiotherapy to prevent cancer recurrence. However, the task of localizing the tumor bed to be irradiated is not trivial. The automatic image registration could significantly aid the tumor bed localization and lower the radiation dose delivered to the surrounding healthy tissues. This study proposes a novel image registration method dedicated to breast tumor bed localization addressing the problem of missing data due to tumor resection that may be applied to real-time radiotherapy planning. We propose a deep learning-based nonrigid image registration method based on a modified U-Net architecture. The algorithm works simultaneously on several image resolutions to handle large deformations. Moreover, we propose a dedicated volume penalty that introduces the medical knowledge about tumor resection into the registration process. The proposed method may be useful for improving real-time radiation therapy planning after the tumor resection and, thus, lower the surrounding healthy tissues' irradiation. The data used in this study consist of 30 computed tomography scans acquired in patients with diagnosed breast cancer, before and after tumor surgery. The method is evaluated using the target registration error between manually annotated landmarks, the ratio of tumor volume, and the subjective visual assessment. We compare the proposed method to several other approaches and show that both the multilevel approach and the volume regularization improve the registration results. The mean target registration error is below 6.5 mm, and the relative volume ratio is close to zero. The registration time below 1 s enables the real-time processing. These results show improvements compared to the classical, iterative methods or other learning-based approaches that do not introduce the knowledge about tumor resection into the registration process. In future research, we plan to propose a method dedicated to automatic localization of missing regions that may be used to automatically segment tumors in the source image and scars in the target image.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Aprendizado Profundo , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204158

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) is the most predominant type of cancer among women. The aim of this study is to find new biomarkers that can help in early detection of BC, especially for those who are too young to be screened using mammography as per guidelines. Using microRNA microarray, we previously showed dysregulation of 74 microRNAs in tumors from early BC patients as compared with normal adjacent tissues, which we were interested in studying in blood circulation. In this study, we investigated the expression of 12 microRNA (miR-21/miR-155/miR-23a/miR-130a/miR-145/miR-425-5p/miR-139-5p/miR-451/miR-195/miR-125b/miR-100, and miR-182) in the plasma of 41 newly diagnosed Lebanese BC patients with early invasive ductal carcinoma as compared with 32 healthy controls. Total RNA was extracted from plasma, and expression levels of miRNA of interest were measured using RT-qPCR followed by statistical analysis; miR-21, miR-155, miR-23a, miR-130a, miR-145, miR-425-5p, and miR-139-5p were significantly upregulated and miR-451 was significantly downregulated, in the plasma of BC patients as compared with healthy controls. The positively correlated miR-23a, miR-21, and miR-130a had a high diagnostic accuracy (86%). Importantly, the combination of miR-145/miR-425-5p/miR-139-5p/miR-130a scored the highest diagnostic accuracy of 95% with AUC = 0.97 (sensitivity 97% and specificity 91%). MicroRNAs are promising non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers for early-stage BC with the panel of miR-145/miR-425-5p/miR-139-5p/miR-130a having the highest diagnostic accuracy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , MicroRNA Circulante/sangue , MicroRNA Circulante/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198491

RESUMO

Rare germline pathogenic TP53 missense variants often predispose to a wide spectrum of tumors characterized by Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) but a subset of variants is also seen in families with exclusively hereditary breast cancer (HBC) outcomes. We have developed a logistic regression model with the aim of predicting LFS and HBC outcomes, based on the predicted effects of individual TP53 variants on aspects of protein conformation. A total of 48 missense variants either unique for LFS (n = 24) or exclusively reported in HBC (n = 24) were included. LFS-variants were over-represented in residues tending to be buried in the core of the tertiary structure of TP53 (p = 0.0014). The favored logistic regression model describes disease outcome in terms of explanatory variables related to the surface or buried status of residues as well as their propensity to contribute to protein compactness or protein-protein interactions. Reduced, internally validated models discriminated well between LFS and HBC (C-statistic = 0.78-0.84; equivalent to the area under the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve), had a low risk for over-fitting and were well calibrated in relation to the known outcome risk. In conclusion, this study presents a phenotypic prediction model of LFS and HBC risk for germline TP53 missense variants, in an attempt to provide a complementary tool for future decision making and clinical handling.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/química , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Análise Multivariada , Fenótipo , Conformação Proteica
7.
Gene ; 796-797: 145805, 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197949

RESUMO

Breast Cancer Stem Cells has become the toast of many breast cancer investigators in the past two decades owing to their crucial roles in tumourigenesis, progression, differentiation, survival and chemoresistance. Despite the growing list of research data in this field, racial or ethnic comparison studies on these stem cells remain scanty. This study is a comparative racial analysis of putative breast cancer stem cells. Research articles on the clinicopathological significance of breast cancer stem cells within a period of 17 years (2003-2020) were reviewed across 5 major races (African/Black American, Asian, Caucasian/White, Hispanic/Latino, and American). The associations between the stem cells markers (CD44+/CD24-/low, BMI1, ALDH1, CD133, and GD2) and clinicopathological and clinical outcomes were analysed. A total of 40 studies were included in this study with 50% Asian, 25% Caucasian, 10% African, 5% American and 2.5% Hispanic/Latino, and 7.5% other mixed races. CD44+/CD24-/low has been associated with TNBC/Basal like phenotype across all races. It is generally associated with poor clinicopathological features such as age, tumour size, lymph node metastasis and lymphovascular invasion. In Asians, CD44+/CD24-/low was associated with DFS and OS but not in Caucasians. ALDH1 was the most studied breast CSC marker (40% of all studies on breast cancer stem cell markers) also associated with poor clinicopathological features including size, age, stage, lymph node metastasis and Nottingham Prognostic Index. ALDH1 was also associated with DFS and OS in Asians but not Caucasians. Racial variations exist in breast cancer stem cell pattern and functions but ill-defined due to multiple factors. Further research is required to better understand the role of breast CSC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Antígeno AC133/genética , Família Aldeído Desidrogenase 1/genética , Antígeno CD24/genética , Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/genética , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/genética , Fatores Raciais
8.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 127: 112200, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225853

RESUMO

Self-assembling peptide hydrogels (SAPH) are a popular biomaterial due to their biocompatibility with a wide range of cell types, synthetic design, structural properties that provide a more accurate 3D microenvironment, and potential for cell- and/or drug-delivery system. Mimicking solid tumors in vitro using hydrogels is one method of testing anti-cancer drug efficacy and observing cancerous cell-ECM interactions within a 3D system. In this study, a SAPH, PeptiGel®Alpha1, was used to model in vitro the 3D breast tumor microenvironment. PeptiGel®Alpha1 is composed of entangled nanofibers with consistent diameter and mechanical properties similar to breast cancer that more accurately mimic the stiffness of breast tumor tissue than Matrigel® or collagen type I. PeptiGel®Alpha1 supported the viability and growth of the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 and recapitulated key features of solid tumors such as hypoxia and invasion. MCF-7 cells in the hydrogels formed large spheroids resembling acini, while MDA-MB-231 remained dispersed. When treated with tamoxifen, PeptiGel®Alpha1 acted as a barrier, providing drug penetration geometry similar to that in vivo, providing better prediction of the drug effect. Finally, it was observed that MCF-7 cells engulfed the peptide matrix after 14 days, highlighting a potential use in drug delivery. PeptiGel®Alpha1 is a suitable platform for in vitro modeling of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Hidrogéis , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Colágeno Tipo I , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Peptídeos , Microambiente Tumoral
9.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 190: 113470, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229191

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are promising biomarkers for the early diagnosis of breast cancer. Yet, simultaneous achievement of rapid, sensitive and accurate detection of diverse miRNAs in clinical samples is still challenging due to the low abundance of miRNAs and the complex procedures of RNA extraction and separation. Herein, we develop an innovative three-dimensional (3D) surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) holography sensing strategy for rapid, sensitive and multiplexed detection of human breast cancer-associated miRNAs. To establish a proof of concept, nine kinds of human breast cancer-associated miRNAs are isothermally amplified by Exonuclease (Exo) III enzyme, and the products could be spatially separated to corresponding sensing region on silicon SERS substrates. Each region has been modified with corresponding hairpin DNA probes, which are used to identify and quantify the miRNAs. Different DNA probes are labeled with different Raman reporters, which serve as "SERS tags" to incorporate spectroscopic information into computer-generated 3D SERS hologram within ~9 min. We demonstrate that 3D SERS holography chip not only achieves an ultrahigh sensitivity down to ~1 aM but also feature a high correlation with RT-qPCR in the detection of nine miRNAs in 30 clinical serum samples. This work provides a feasible tool to improve the diagnosis of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Neoplasias da Mama , Holografia , Nanopartículas Metálicas , MicroRNAs , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Análise Espectral Raman
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283105

RESUMO

Ultrasound breast imaging is a promising alternative to conventional mammography because it does not expose women to harmful ionising radiation and it can successfully image dense breast tissue. However, conventional ultrasound imaging only provides morphological information with limited diagnostic value. Ultrasound computed tomography (USCT) uses energy in both transmission and reflection when imaging the breast to provide more diagnostically relevant quantitative tissue properties, but it is often based on time-of-flight tomography or similar ray approximations of the wave equation, resulting in reconstructed images with low resolution. Full-waveform inversion (FWI) is based on a more accurate approximation of wave-propagation phenomena and can consequently produce very high resolution images using frequencies below 1 megahertz. These low frequencies, however, are not available in most USCT acquisition systems, as they use transducers with central frequencies well above those required in FWI. To circumvent this problem, we designed, trained, and implemented a two-dimensional convolutional neural network to artificially generate missing low frequencies in USCT data. Our results show that FWI reconstructions using experiment data after the application of the proposed method successfully converged, showing good agreement with X-ray CT and reflection ultrasound-tomography images.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Aprendizado Profundo , Densidade da Mama , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Mamografia , Imagens de Fantasmas , Ultrassonografia Mamária
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285035

RESUMO

A 52-year-old man presented with a recurrent right side breast lump. He had undergone excision of a lump on the right breast followed by adjuvant chemoradiotherapy 1 year ago for a diagnosis of pleomorphic liposarcoma. Imaging revealed a 47×36 mm lesion on the right side of the chest wall involving the pectoralis muscle. The patient underwent right radical mastectomy. Histology of the specimen showed an undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma infiltrating into the underlying skeletal muscle. Therefore, he was planned for chemoradiotherapy. But due to lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic, he was lost to follow-up and later presented with malignant pleural effusion. This case emphasises the impact of COVID-19 pandemic over such rare malignancies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , COVID-19 , Lipossarcoma , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Lipossarcoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Lipossarcoma/cirurgia , Masculino , Mastectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208878

RESUMO

The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) has had multilevel effects on non-COVID-19 health and health care, including deferral of routine cancer prevention and screening and delays in surgical and other procedures. Health and health care use has also been affected by pandemic-related loss of employer-based health insurance, food and housing disruptions, and heightened stress, sleep disruptions and social isolation. These disruptions are projected to contribute to excess non-COVID-19 deaths over the coming decades. At the same time municipalities, health systems and individuals are making changes in response to the pandemic, including modifications in the environmental to promote health, implementation of telehealth platforms, and shifts towards greater self-care and using remote platforms to maintain social connections. We used a multi-level biopsychosocial model to examine the available literature on the relationship between COVID-19-related changes and breast cancer prevention to identify current gaps in knowledge and identify potential opportunities for future research. We found that COVID-19 has impacted several aspects of social and economic life, through a variety of mechanisms, including unemployment, changes in health care delivery, changes in eating and activity, and changes in mental health. Some of these changes should be reduced, while others should be explored and enhanced.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , COVID-19 , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199096

RESUMO

Integrins participate in the pathogenesis and progression of tumors at many stages during the metastatic cascade. However, current evidence for the role of integrins in breast cancer progression is contradictory and seems to be dependent on tumor stage, differentiation status, and microenvironmental influences. While some studies suggest that loss of α2ß1 enhances cancer metastasis, other studies suggest that this integrin is pro-tumorigenic. However, few studies have looked at α2ß1 in the context of bone metastasis. In this study, we aimed to understand the role of α2ß1 integrin in breast cancer metastasis to bone. To address this, we utilized in vivo models of breast cancer metastasis to bone using MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with an α2 expression plasmid (MDA-OEα2). MDA cells overexpressing the α2 integrin subunit had increased primary tumor growth and dissemination to bone but had no change in tumor establishment and bone destruction. Further in vitro analysis revealed that tumors in the bone have decreased α2ß1 expression and increased osteolytic signaling compared to primary tumors. Taken together, these data suggest an inverse correlation between α2ß1 expression and bone-metastatic potential. Inhibiting α2ß1 expression may be beneficial to limit the expansion of primary tumors but could be harmful once tumors have established in bone.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Expressão Gênica , Integrina alfa2beta1/genética , Animais , Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Osteólise/genética , Osteólise/metabolismo , Fenótipo
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. The Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) is a large cohort study that is available to the public. Using this large cohort study, we aimed to unravel the relationship between breast cancer development and a family history of breast cancer in Korea. METHODS: This cohort study relied on data from the KoGES from 2001 through 2013. A total of 211,725 participants were screened. Of these, 129,374 women were evaluated. They were divided into two groups, including participants with and without breast cancer. A logistic regression model was used to retrospectively analyze the odds ratio of breast cancer history in families of women with and without breast cancer. RESULTS: Of 129,374 women, 981 had breast cancer. The breast cancer group had more mothers and siblings with histories of breast cancer (p < 0.001). A history of breast cancer in the participant's mother resulted in an odds ratio of 3.12 (1.75-5.59), and a history of breast cancer in the participant's sibling resulted in an odds ratio of 2.63 (1.85-3.74). There was no interaction between the history of maternal breast cancer and the history of sibling breast cancer. Based on the subgroup analysis, family history was a stronger factor in premenopausal women than in menopausal and postmenopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: A family history of breast cancer is a significant risk factor for breast cancer in Korea. Premenopausal women with a maternal history of breast cancer are of particular concern. Intensive screening and risk-reducing strategies should be considered for this vulnerable subpopulation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Menopausa , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199288

RESUMO

Breast cancer remains significantly distressing and produces profound changes in women's lives. Spirituality is an important resource at the time of diagnosis and treatment decisions. This qualitative study aimed to explore the spiritual experience of women diagnosed with breast cancer and the considerations of spirituality in health care using the existential phenomenology approach. The sampling procedure was intentional, based on the study's exclusion and inclusion criteria. Forty women participated in individual interviews. The research was conducted in the outpatient clinic of a reference federal university hospital in South-Eastern Brazil. Throughout the research process, ethical principles were carefully followed. Five themes were identified: (1) meaning of spirituality-source of spiritual strength, (2) well-being in the relationship with God, (3) well-being in religious fellowship, (4) values and purpose of life-meaning in life, and (5) spirituality as a foundation to continue. Respect for patient's spiritual values was recognised as a fundamental principle in health care. Spirituality was revealed as a source of support during the complex process of being diagnosed with breast cancer. Thus, health care professionals that value and encourage spirituality are needed, favouring better patient response to the diagnosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Espiritualidade , Brasil , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199302

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) management care requires an increment in quality. An initiative to improve the BC quality care is registered, and quality indicators (QIs) are studied. We appraised the appearance of QIs and their standards systematically in Spain. A prospective systematic search (Prospero no: CRD42021228867) for clinical pathways and integrated breast cancer care processes was conducted through databases and the World Wide Web in February 2021. Duplicate data extraction was performed with 98% reviewer agreement. Seventy-four QIs (QI per document mean: 11; standard deviation: 10.59) were found in 15 documents. The Catalonian document had the highest number of QIs (n = 30). No QI appeared in all the documents. There were 9/74 QIs covering structure (12.16%), 53/74 covering process (71.62%), and 12/74 covering outcome (16.22%). A total of 22/66 (33.33%) process and outcome QIs did not set a minimum standard of care. QIs related to primary care, patient satisfaction, and shared decision making were deficient. Most of the documents established a BC QI standard for compliance, but the high variability hinders the comparison of outcomes. Establishing a consensus-based set of QIs needs urgent attention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Espanha
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200484

RESUMO

Breast cancer is one of the most commonly occurring cancers in women globally and is the primary cause of cancer mortality in females. BC is highly heterogeneous with various phenotypic expressions. The overexpression of HER2 is responsible for 15-30% of all invasive BC and is strongly associated with malignant behaviours, poor prognosis and decline in overall survival. Molecular imaging offers advantages over conventional imaging modalities, as it provides more sensitive and specific detection of tumours, as these techniques measure the biological and physiological processes at the cellular level to visualise the disease. Early detection and diagnosis of BC is crucial to improving clinical outcomes and prognosis. While HER2-specific antibodies and nanobodies may improve the sensitivity and specificity of molecular imaging, the radioisotope conjugation process may interfere with and may compromise their binding functionalities. Aptamers are single-stranded oligonucleotides capable of targeting biomarkers with remarkable binding specificity and affinity. Aptamers can be functionalised with radioisotopes without compromising target specificity. The attachment of different radioisotopes can determine the aptamer's functionality in the treatment of HER2(+) BC. Several HER2 aptamers and investigations of them have been described and evaluated in this paper. We also provide recommendations for future studies with HER2 aptamers to target HER2(+) BC.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Prognóstico
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200503

RESUMO

The interaction of tumor cells with blood vessels is one of the key steps during cancer metastasis. Metastatic cancer cells exhibit phenotypic state changes during this interaction: (1) they form tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) with endothelial cells, which act as a conduit for intercellular communication; and (2) metastatic cancer cells change in order to acquire an elongated phenotype, instead of the classical cellular aggregates or mammosphere-like structures, which it forms in three-dimensional cultures. Here, we demonstrate mechanistically that a siRNA-based knockdown of the exocyst complex protein Sec3 inhibits TNT formation. Furthermore, a set of pharmacological inhibitors for Rho GTPase-exocyst complex-mediated cytoskeletal remodeling is introduced, which inhibits TNT formation, and induces the reversal of the more invasive phenotype of cancer cell (spindle-like) into a less invasive phenotype (cellular aggregates or mammosphere). Our results offer mechanistic insights into this nanoscale communication and shift of phenotypic state during cancer-endothelial interactions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Comunicação Celular , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Nanotubos/química , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Neoplásica , Fenótipo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP/genética
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200807

RESUMO

Protein kinase CK2 has been considered as an attractive drug target for anti-cancer therapy. The synthesis of N-hydroxypropyl TBBi and 2MeTBBi derivatives as well as their respective esters was carried out by using chemoenzymatic methods. Concomitantly with kinetic studies toward recombinant CK2, the influence of the obtained compounds on the viability of two human breast carcinoma cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) was evaluated using MTT assay. Additionally, an intracellular inhibition of CK2 as well as an induction of apoptosis in the examined cells after the treatment with the most active compounds were studied by Western blot analysis, phase-contrast microscopy and flow cytometry method. The results of the MTT test revealed potent cytotoxic activities for most of the newly synthesized compounds (EC50 4.90 to 32.77 µM), corresponding to their solubility in biological media. We concluded that derivatives with the methyl group decrease the viability of both cell lines more efficiently than their non-methylated analogs. Furthermore, inhibition of CK2 in breast cancer cells treated with the tested compounds at the concentrations equal to their EC50 values correlates well with their lipophilicity since derivatives with higher values of logP are more potent intracellular inhibitors of CK2 with better proapoptotic properties than their parental hydroxyl compounds.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Benzimidazóis/química , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Caseína Quinase II/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199510

RESUMO

During aggressive cancer progression, cancer cells adapt to unique microenvironments by withstanding various cellular stresses, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, the mechanism whereby cancer cells overcome the ER stress to survive remains to be elucidated. Herein, we demonstrated that microtubule acetylation in cancer cells grown on a stiff matrix promotes cancer progression by preventing excessive ER stress. Downregulation of microtubule acetylation using shRNA or CRSIPR/Cas9 techniques targeting ATAT1, which encodes α-tubulin N-acetyltransferase (αTAT1), resulted in the upregulation of ER stress markers, changes in ER morphology, and enhanced tunicamycin-induced UPR signaling in cancer cells. A set of genes involved in cancer progression, especially focal adhesion genes, were downregulated in both ATAT1-knockout and tunicamycin-treated cells, whereas ATAT1 overexpression restored the gene expression inhibited by tunicamycin. Finally, the expression of ATAT1 and ER stress marker genes were negatively correlated in various breast cancer types. Taken together, our results suggest that disruption of microtubule acetylation is a potent therapeutic tool for preventing breast cancer progression through the upregulation of ER stress. Moreover, ATAT1 and ER stress marker genes may be useful diagnostic markers in various breast cancer types.


Assuntos
Acetiltransferases/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Proteínas dos Microtúbulos/genética , Tunicamicina/farmacologia , Acetilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Proteínas dos Microtúbulos/antagonistas & inibidores , Microtúbulos/efeitos dos fármacos , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
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