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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 909, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of six diagnostic strategies involving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) targeted biopsy for diagnosing prostate cancer in initial and repeat biopsy settings from the Singapore healthcare system perspective. METHODS: A combined decision tree and Markov model was developed. The starting model population was men with mean age of 65 years referred for a first prostate biopsy due to clinical suspicion of prostate cancer. The six diagnostic strategies were selected for their relevance to local clinical practice. They comprised MRI targeted biopsy following a positive pre-biopsy multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) [Prostate Imaging - Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) score ≥ 3], systematic biopsy, or saturation biopsy employed in different testing combinations and sequences. Deterministic base case analyses with sensitivity analyses were performed using costs from the healthcare system perspective and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained as the outcome measure to yield incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). RESULTS: Deterministic base case analyses showed that Strategy 1 (MRI targeted biopsy alone), Strategy 2 (MRI targeted biopsy ➔ systematic biopsy), and Strategy 4 (MRI targeted biopsy ➔ systematic biopsy ➔ saturation biopsy) were cost-effective options at a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of US$20,000, with ICERs ranging from US$18,975 to US$19,458. Strategies involving MRI targeted biopsy in the repeat biopsy setting were dominated. Sensitivity analyses found the ICERs were affected mostly by changes to the annual discounting rate and prevalence of prostate cancer in men referred for first biopsy, ranging between US$15,755 to US$23,022. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses confirmed Strategy 1 to be the least costly, and Strategies 2 and 4 being the preferred strategies when WTP thresholds were US$20,000 and US$30,000, respectively. LIMITATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS: This study found MRI targeted biopsy to be cost-effective in diagnosing prostate cancer in the biopsy-naïve setting in Singapore.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neoplasias da Próstata , Idoso , Biópsia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Singapura/epidemiologia
2.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(9): 1030-1034, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500516

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To find the frequency and significance of extraprostatic incidental findings (ep-IFs) during multiparametric-magnetic prostate resonance imaging (mp-MRI), and compare them with prostate imaging reporting and data system (PI-RADS) outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Analytical study. Place & Duration of Study: Goztepe Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, from June 2019 to January 2020. METHODOLOGY: Images of 185 men, who underwent mp-MRI, were reviewed and ep-IFs were also classified as urologic or non-urologic and benign or malign. The PI-RADS score was also recorded in biopsy-naïve subjects or in whom a sufficient time (which would not impair imaging) was elapsed after the biopsy. The cases were also divided into two groups, according to the PI-RADS score (Group 1: PI-RADS 1 or 2, Group 2: PI-RADS 3 or more) and the incidental findings (IFs) were compared between the groups. RESULTS: Overall, 139 ep-IFs were detected in 88 (47.6%) patients. The remaining 97 (52.4%) cases were free of ep-IFs. The ep-IFs were benign in 85 (96.6%) and malignant in 3 (3.4%) cases. The frequency of total ep-IFs did not differ between groups 1 and 2 (47.8% vs. 47.6%, respectively, p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Extra prostatic incitental findings are frequently encountered during mp-MRI, benign ep-IFs are quite frequent; although rare malignant ep-IFs may be subject to being missed due to focused analysis and interpretation of prostate. PI-RADS scoring system does not contribute to the diagnosis of incidental mp-MRI. Key Words: Incidental findings, Multiparametric prostate MRI, Prostate cancer, MP-MRI.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica , Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4395-4400, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cancer detection rate (CDR) using magnetic resonance imaging-transrectal ultrasound (MRI-TRUS) fusion-guided transperineal targeted biopsy (TB). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included 401 consecutive patients, of which 161 were biopsy-naïve. All underwent prebiopsy bi-parametric MRI; patients with positive MRI [prostate imaging reporting and data system (PI-RADS≥3)] underwent TB. Biopsy-naïve patients with positive MRI underwent TB and systematic biopsies (SBs). MRI-negative patients underwent SBs. Clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) was defined as ISUP ≥2. The added value of SB was defined as an upgrade from a negative biopsy or ISUP of 1 in TB to csPCa in SB. RESULTS: The median (interquartile range) age was 69 (range=63-74) years, and PSA was 6.9 (range=4.5-11) ng/ml. The overall CDR was 65%, with csPCa occurring in 48%. In cases of PI-RADS 5, CDR was 91%, and csPCa was 77%. The added value of SB was 2%. CONCLUSION: Transperineal TB biopsies using MRI-TRUS fusion yield a high CDR.


Assuntos
Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal , Estudos Prospectivos , Antígeno Prostático Específico/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
4.
Hinyokika Kiyo ; 67(8): 395-398, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472323

RESUMO

A 56-year-old man visited a clinic with the chief complaint of frequent micturition and residual sensation of urine. He was referred to our hospital for close examination. Cystoscopy showed a tumor protruding toward the bladder neck from the prostate with stones and debris on the surface. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an encapsulated tumor of iso-intensity in the prostate in T2-weighed images. Prostate specific antigen was 0.88 mg/dl. Transurethral resection of prostate was performed under the diagnosis of benign prostate hyperplasia. During the operation, a solid tumor with mucus deposit was observed. Intraoperative rapid pathological diagnosis was mucinous adenocarcinoma. A radical cystectomy was performed. Pathologically, mucinous adenocarcinoma was distributed in the bladder neck, the prostate and surrounding tissue, but the prostatic urethra was intact. The surgery was assessed to be curative. Neither neoadjuvant nor adjuvant chemotherapy was performed, since the effectiveness of chemotherapy for mucinous adenocarcinoma arising from urothelial epithelium has not been established.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso , Neoplasias da Próstata , Ressecção Transuretral da Próstata , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Bexiga Urinária
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e27144, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477170

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) biomarkers in differentiating prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).A total of 43 cases of prostate diseases verified by pathology were enrolled in the present study. These cases were assigned to the BPH group (n = 20, 68.85±10.81 years old) and PCa group (n = 23, 74.13 ±â€Š7.37 years old). All patients underwent routine prostate magnetic resonance imaging and DKI examinations, and the mean diffusivity (MD), mean kurtosis (MK), and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were calculated. Three serum indicators (PSA, free PSA [fPSA], and f/t PSA) were collected. We used univariate logistic regression to analyze the above quantitative parameters between the 2 groups, and the independent factors were further incorporated into the multivariate logistic regression model. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of the single indicator and combined model.The difference in PSA, f/t PSA, MK, and FA between PCa and BPH was statistically significant (P < .05). The AUC for the combined model (f/t PSA, MK, and FA) of 0.972 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.928, 1.000) was higher than the AUC of 0.902 (95% CI: 0.801, 1.000) for f/t PSA, 0.833 (95% CI: 0.707, 0.958) for MK, and 0.807 (95% CI: 0.679, 0.934) for FA.The MK and FA values for DKI and f/t PSA effectively identify PCa and BPH, compared to the PSA indicators. Combining DKI and PSA derivatives can further improve the diagnosis efficiency and might help in the clinical setting.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Hiperplasia Prostática/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hiperplasia Prostática/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Radiologe ; 61(9): 818-824, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351430

RESUMO

CLINICAL/METHODOLOGICAL ISSUE: Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men. Accurate imaging diagnosis and staging are crucial for patient management and treatment. The role of nuclear medicine in the diagnosis of prostate cancer has evolved rapidly in recent years due to the availability of hybrid imaging with radiopharmaceuticals targeting the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL PROCEDURES: Hybrid imaging provides higher diagnostic accuracy compared to conventional imaging and has a significant impact on clinical management. Numerous radiotracers have been used in clinical applications, with PSMA ligands being the most commonly used. METHODOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS: Hybrid imaging provides higher diagnostic accuracy for lymph node and bone metastases compared to conventional imaging and has a significant impact on clinical management. PERFORMANCE: The high accuracy for primary staging in high-risk prostate cancer using PSMA ligands has led to the inclusion of PSMA positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in the new German S3 guideline for primary staging of prostate cancer. PURPOSE: The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the use of PET imaging in the primary diagnosis of prostate cancer, to present the most commonly used radiotracers, and to highlight the results of recent studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
7.
Eur J Radiol ; 142: 109894, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388625

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the performance of lesion detection and Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) classification between a deep learning-based algorithm (DLA), clinical reports and radiologists with different levels of experience in prostate MRI. METHODS: This retrospective study included 121 patients who underwent prebiopsy MRI and prostate biopsy. More than five radiologists (Reader groups 1, 2: residents; Readers 3, 4: less-experienced radiologists; Reader 5: expert) independently reviewed biparametric MRI (bpMRI). The DLA results were obtained using bpMRI. The reference standard was based on pathologic reports. The diagnostic performance of the PI-RADS classification of DLA, clinical reports, and radiologists was analyzed using AUROC. Dichotomous analysis (PI-RADS cutoff value ≥ 3 or 4) was performed, and the sensitivities and specificities were compared using McNemar's test. RESULTS: Clinically significant cancer [CSC, Gleason score ≥ 7] was confirmed in 43 patients (35.5%). The AUROC of the DLA (0.828) for diagnosing CSC was significantly higher than that of Reader 1 (AUROC, 0.706; p = 0.011), significantly lower than that of Reader 5 (AUROC, 0.914; p = 0.013), and similar to clinical reports and other readers (p = 0.060-0.661). The sensitivity of DLA (76.7%) was comparable to those of all readers and the clinical reports at a PI-RADS cutoff value ≥ 4. The specificity of the DLA (85.9%) was significantly higher than those of clinical reports and Readers 2-3 and comparable to all others at a PI-RADS cutoff value ≥ 4. CONCLUSIONS: The DLA showed moderate diagnostic performance at a level between those of residents and an expert in detecting and classifying according to PI-RADS. The performance of DLA was similar to that of clinical reports from various radiologists in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiologistas , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Eur J Radiol ; 142: 109875, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391057

RESUMO

Combination of radioligand imaging and therapy, so called radiotheranostics, is a novel tool of precision oncology with proven clinical value. In-depth knowledge of functional imaging nuances is critically needed for precise prognostication and guidance of management. Here, we review theranostic applications with up to Phase III type evidence for outcome improvement: Imaging and therapy of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) exploiting high levels of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) expression and radiotheranostics of prostate cancer targeting the prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA). This narrative review focusses on these two applications and elucidates patient selection and response assessment by radioligand scintigraphy and/or positron emission tomography. Furthermore, we provide a brief outlook on future applications for novel targets outside of NEN and prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Medicina de Precisão , Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiologistas , Cintilografia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
9.
Radiol Clin North Am ; 59(5): 801-811, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392920

RESUMO

The role of PET imaging with 11C-choline and 18F-fluciclovine in evaluating patients with prostate cancer (PCa) has become more important over the years and has been incorporated into the NCCN guidelines. A new generation of PET radiotracers targeting the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is widely used outside the United States to evaluate patients with primary PCa and PCa recurrence. PET imaging influences treatment planning and demonstrates a significantly higher disease detection rate than conventional imaging such as computed tomography and MR imaging. Early data indicate that using PET radiotracers such as 18F-fluciclovine and PSMA improves patient outcomes. 68-Ga-PSMA-11 and 18F-DCFPyL-PET/CT were recently approved by the US Food & Drug Administration (FDA) for clinical use. Other PSMA radiotracers, including fluorinated variants, will likely gain FDA approval in the not-too-distant future.


Assuntos
Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/tendências , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Ácidos Carboxílicos , Ciclobutanos , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Antígeno Prostático Específico , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
10.
Theranostics ; 11(16): 8027-8042, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335978

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancies of men in the world. Due to a variety of treatment options in different risk groups, proper diagnostic and risk stratification is pivotal in treatment of PCa. The development of precise medical imaging procedures simultaneously to improvements in big data analysis has led to the establishment of radiomics - a computer-based method of extracting and analyzing image features quantitatively. This approach bears the potential to assess and improve PCa detection, tissue characterization and clinical outcome prediction. This article gives an overview on the current aspects of methodology and systematically reviews available literature on radiomics in PCa patients, showing its potential for personalized therapy approaches. The qualitative synthesis includes all imaging modalities and focuses on validated studies, putting forward future directions.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem/tendências , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/tendências
11.
J Radiol Case Rep ; 15(3): 9-18, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267866

RESUMO

Schwannomas of the prostate are a rare entity and usually diagnosed incidentally following surgical management of presumed benign prostate hyperplasia or prostate adenocarcinoma. We present a case of sporadic periprostatic schwannoma diagnosed in conjunction with multifocal prostate adenocarcinoma on pre-operative multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Neurilemoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Linfadenopatia/diagnóstico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neurilemoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem
12.
Aging Male ; 24(1): 92-94, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319201

RESUMO

Digital rectal examination (DRE) is routinely performed as part of a urology clinical assessment in patients with a clinical suspicion of prostate cancer. An abnormal DRE or a raised prostate specific antigen (PSA) level are part of the criteria for primary care referral to secondary care due to a suspicion of prostate cancer. The current Coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in the rapid adoption of virtual consultations in the form of telephone or video consultations making clinical examination difficult. In the case of prostate cancer diagnostic pathways, often clinicians now rely on PSA measurements and MRI, where radiological services are available, without the requirement for a DRE. We discuss the limited role DRE has in the modern prostate cancer diagnostic pathway due to the widespread adoption of MRI particularly in the COVID-19 era.


Assuntos
Exame Retal Digital , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , COVID-19 , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 22(7): 27-35, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231945

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prostate patients with positive lymph node margins receive an initial course of 45 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV) comprised of prostate, seminal vesicles, and lymph nodes with a 1-cm margin. The prostate is localized via implanted fiducial markers before each fraction is delivered using portal-imaging. However, the pelvic lymph nodes are affixed to the bony anatomy and are not mobile in concert with the prostate. The aim of this study was to determine whether a significant difference in pelvic lymph node coverage exists between planned and delivered external beam therapy treatments for these patients. METHODS: The recorded prostate motions were gathered for 19 patients; conjointly the pelvic lymph node motions were determined by manual registration of the bony anatomy in the kV-images. The difference between the prostate and the bony anatomy coordinates was input into Eclipse as field shifts to represent the deviation in planned vs delivered pelvic lymph node coverage. RESULTS: Structure volume at V(100) was recorded for each patient for two structures: summed pelvic lymph nodes (LN CTV) and pelvic lymph nodes +1 cm margin (LN PTV) to express their contribution to the PTV. For the LN PTV, the average difference between the planned coverage and calculated delivered coverage was 3.5%, with a paired t-test value of P = 0.005. Based upon bony anatomy registration, 26% of patients received less than 95% dose coverage using V(100) criteria for LN PTV. Dose value differences between the two plans at minimum were 6.96 ± 6.23 Gy, at mean were 0.54 ± 0.40 Gy, and at maximum were 0.10 ± 0.29 Gy. For the LN CTV, the average difference between the planned coverage and calculated delivered coverage was 1%, with a paired t-test value of P = 0.53. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate a significant difference exists between the planned coverage and calculated delivered coverage for the LN PTV. There was no significant difference found for the LN CTV. We conclude that lymph node motion must be considered with the prostate motion when aligning patients before each fraction.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Humanos , Linfonodos , Masculino , Pelve/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador
14.
Radiologe ; 61(9): 825-828, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Not only is the evidence for multiparametric magnetic resonance prostatography clearly proven based on current research, the S3 guideline for prostate cancer recommends its use prior to invasive biopsy. Remuneration through the GKV does not occur. OBJECTIVES: The negotiations concerning the inclusion in the EBM (German Uniform Evaluation Standard) Catalogue of statutory health insurance funds take place in a highly politicized environment and under economic priorities. The routes that are possible in the complex registration procedure are described. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Radiology associations (Berufsverband der Deutschen Radiologen [BDR] und Deutsche Röntgengesellschaft [DRG]) have supported their methods with evidence and quality assurance. Special contracts with health insurance funds, coordinated at the level of the federal states, pave the way and accelerate accreditation. RESULTS: The definition of the service according to the EBM, the recommendation concerning remuneration as well as supporting documents and a functional quality assurance system have been made available to the Joint Valuation Committee of physicians & health insurance funds as part of the application for approval. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the nature of the system, the presented evidence and quality assurance, as well as the development of special contracts, have inevitably been transferred to radiology and the unified work of their associations. The imaging modality prostatography shows the advancement of radiological methods for dedicated multiparametric organ diagnostics.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Biópsia , Alemanha , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem
15.
Radiologe ; 61(9): 802-809, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213622

RESUMO

CLINICAL/METHODOLOGICAL ISSUE: The detection of clinically significant prostate cancers while simultaneously avoiding over-diagnosing tumors with low malignant potential is a challenge in clinical practice. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: Multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in accordance with the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) guidelines is accepted as standard-of-care with both urologists and radiologists. METHODOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS: The PI-RADS guidelines have been updated to version 2.1, including revised technical recommendations and changes to the scoring of lesions. PERFORMANCE: The PI-RADS guidelines have had great impact on the standardization of multiparametric prostate MRI and offer templates for structured reporting. This simplifies communication with the referring physician. ACHIEVEMENTS: The new version 2.1 of the guidelines represents an evolutionary improvement of the widely accepted version 2.0. Several aspects of reporting have been revised-however, some pre-known limitations persist, which will require further refinement in the future.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neoplasias da Próstata , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Radiologe ; 61(9): 795-801, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis and treatment of primary prostate cancer (PCA) have undergone significant changes in the last few years due to modern imaging. OBJECTIVES: Established and modern diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for detection and treatment of primary PCA are presented and discussed critically. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Background knowledge and guideline recommendations on primary PCA are summarized and additional information from relevant publications is given. RESULTS: Modern imaging, in particular multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI), has revolutionized the diagnostic work-up of primary PCA. Due to mpMRI, tumors are detected significantly better in both initial and re-biopsy with a significant reduction of overdiagnosis of clinically insignificant PCA. Therapeutic approaches such as active surveillance, radical prostatectomy and focal therapies are increasingly being planned and carried out relying on MR-imaging information concerning tumor extent and tumor aggressiveness. In addition, prostate-specific membrane antigen-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PSMA-PET/CT) has shown superiority in assessing patients with suspected biochemical recurrence and in primary staging of PCA compared to conventional imaging in terms of detection of metastases. CONCLUSIONS: Modern imaging, especially mpMRI and PSMA-PET/CT, has added substantial benefits in modern diagnosis and treatment of primary PCA. Moreover, multiparametric ultrasound is also a promising addition to the radiological armamentarium in the management of primary PCA.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica , Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Masculino , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia
17.
Radiologe ; 61(9): 829-838, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251481

RESUMO

CLINICAL/METHODOLOGICAL ISSUE: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and local staging of primary prostate cancer. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: Image-guided biopsy techniques such as MRI-ultrasound fusion not only allow guidance for targeted tissue sampling of index lesions for diagnostic confirmation, but also improve the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer. METHODOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS: Minimally invasive, focal therapies of localized prostate cancer complement the treatment spectrum, especially for low- and intermediate-risk patients. PERFORMANCE: In patients of low and intermediate risk, MR-guided, minimally invasive therapies could enable local tumor control, improved functional outcomes and possible subsequent therapy escalation. Further study results related to multimodal approaches and the application of artificial intelligence (AI) by machine and deep learning algorithms will help to leverage the full potential of focal therapies for prostate cancer in the upcoming era of precision medicine. ACHIEVEMENTS: Completion of ongoing randomized trials comparing each minimally invasive therapy approach with established whole-gland procedures is needed before minimally invasive therapies can be implemented into existing treatment guidelines. PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS: This review article highlights minimally invasive therapies of prostate cancer and the key role of mpMRI for planning and conducting these therapies.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia
18.
Radiologe ; 61(9): 839-845, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hybrid devices of MR-scanners and linear accelerators (MR-Linacs) represent a new and promising extension of radiotherapeutic options for prostate cancer. The potential advantage of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over computed tomography (CT) for soft tissue contrast is well-known and leads to more consistent and smaller target volumes and improved normal tissue sparing. OBJECTIVES: This article presents an overview of clinical experience, indications, advantages and challenges of utilizing a 1.5 T MR-Linac in the setting of radiotherapy of prostate cancer. RESULTS: All current indications for radiotherapy of prostate cancer can be treated with an MR-Linac. The advantages include daily MR-based imaging in treatment position and daily adaption of the treatment plan on current anatomy (adaptive radiotherapy). Additionally, functional MRI sequences might be exploited to enhance treatment individualization and response assessment. Ultimately treatment on an MR-Linac might further increase the therapeutic window. The limitations of using MR-Linac include treatment complexity and the duration of each session. CONCLUSIONS: MR-Linacs expand the spectrum of radiotherapeutic options for prostate cancer. Increased precision can be reached with daily MRI-based target volume definition and plan adaption. Clinical studies are necessary to identify patient groups who would benefit most from radiotherapy on a MR-Linac.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Aceleradores de Partículas , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador
19.
Radiologe ; 61(9): 810-817, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) v2.1 multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) with gadolinium-(Gd)-based contrast agents is the diagnostic standard of care in the detection of prostate cancer (PCa). Recent data suggest equivalent performance of biparametric MRI (bpMRI) and mpMRI in defined indications. OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the current role of abbreviated or unenhanced protocols in MRI of the prostate in various clinical settings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Evaluation of clinical trials, guidelines and expert opinions. RESULTS: The use of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI sequences is associated with contrast agent-associated risks and has significant impact on the imaging procedure and costs. Arguments for and against the use of contrast agent in prostate protocols as well as equivalence from bpMRI and mpMRI are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Currently, bpMRI can only be performed if very good image quality is available and in the hands of a radiologist with extensive experience in reading prostate MRI. There is a need for prospective studies to qualify bpMRI as the diagnostic method for the primary diagnosis of PCa.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica , Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
N Engl J Med ; 385(10): 908-920, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High rates of overdiagnosis are a critical barrier to organized prostate cancer screening. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with targeted biopsy has shown the potential to address this challenge, but the implications of its use in the context of organized prostate cancer screening are unknown. METHODS: We conducted a population-based noninferiority trial of prostate cancer screening in which men 50 to 74 years of age from the general population were invited by mail to participate; participants with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels of 3 ng per milliliter or higher were randomly assigned, in a 2:3 ratio, to undergo a standard biopsy (standard biopsy group) or to undergo MRI, with targeted and standard biopsy if the MRI results suggested prostate cancer (experimental biopsy group). The primary outcome was the proportion of men in the intention-to-treat population in whom clinically significant cancer (Gleason score ≥7) was diagnosed. A key secondary outcome was the detection of clinically insignificant cancers (Gleason score 6). RESULTS: Of 12,750 men enrolled, 1532 had PSA levels of 3 ng per milliliter or higher and were randomly assigned to undergo biopsy: 603 were assigned to the standard biopsy group and 929 to the experimental biopsy group. In the intention-to-treat analysis, clinically significant cancer was diagnosed in 192 men (21%) in the experimental biopsy group, as compared with 106 men (18%) in the standard biopsy group (difference, 3 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1 to 7; P<0.001 for noninferiority). The percentage of clinically insignificant cancers was lower in the experimental biopsy group than in the standard biopsy group (4% [41 participants] vs. 12% [73 participants]; difference, -8 percentage points; 95% CI, -11 to -5). CONCLUSIONS: MRI with targeted and standard biopsy in men with MRI results suggestive of prostate cancer was noninferior to standard biopsy for detecting clinically significant prostate cancer in a population-based screening-by-invitation trial and resulted in less detection of clinically insignificant cancer. (Funded by the Swedish Research Council and others; STHLM3-MRI ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03377881.).


Assuntos
Biópsia/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Idoso , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem
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