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1.
Urologiia ; (5): 122-126, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185359

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) remains a relevant public health concern and one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Coronary artery disease (CAD) with the underlying coronary artery atherosclerosis is the leading cause of global death. The interaction between modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for these pathological conditions is discussed in the review. Elevated serum cholesterol, a known risk factor for CAD, can be associated with both development and progression of PCa. From this perspective, patients with atherosclerosis may represent a potential target group for PCa screening. Alternatively, patients with PCa should undergo examination for concomitant cardiovascular diseases as well as their risk factors. Statins are supposed to be potentially beneficial in treating atherosclerosis in men and reducing the risk of PCa development and progression.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Neoplasias da Próstata , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Fatores de Risco
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(41): 1473-1480, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056955

RESUMO

Among U.S. men, prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death (1). Past studies documented decreasing incidence of prostate cancer overall since 2000 but increasing incidence of distant stage prostate cancer (i.e., signifying spread to parts of the body remote from the primary tumor) starting in 2010 (2,3). Past studies described disparities in prostate cancer survival by stage, age, and race/ethnicity using data covering ≤80% of the U.S. population (4,5). To provide recent data on incidence and survival of prostate cancer in the United States, CDC analyzed data from population-based cancer registries that contribute to U.S. Cancer Statistics (USCS).* Among 3.1 million new cases of prostate cancer recorded during 2003-2017, localized, regional, distant, and unknown stage prostate cancer accounted for 77%, 11%, 5%, and 7% of cases, respectively, but the incidence of distant stage prostate cancer significantly increased during 2010-2017. During 2001-2016, 10-year relative survival for localized stage prostate cancer was 100%. Overall, 5-year survival for distant stage prostate cancer improved from 28.7% during 2001-2005 to 32.3% during 2011-2016; for the period 2001-2016, 5-year survival was highest among Asian/Pacific Islanders (API) (42.0%), followed by Hispanics (37.2%), American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) (32.2%), Black men (31.6%), and White men (29.1%). Understanding incidence and survival differences by stage, race/ethnicity, and age can guide public health planning related to screening, treatment, and survivor care. Future research into differences by stage, race/ethnicity, and age could inform interventions aimed at improving disparities in outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
N Z Med J ; 133(1523): 87-95, 2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032306

RESUMO

Prostate cancer represents a significant health burden worldwide. The cancer incidence had substantially increased since the introduction of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in cancer screening. This had led to considerable debates among health professionals and epidemiologists, since PSA as a screening tool seemed to be far from perfect. In New Zealand, the controversy was quite prominent in the last three decades, with some advocating the benefits of screening, while others concerned regarding the risk of harms. With the absence of an organised screening programme and the appropriate monitoring and quality assurance procedures, the effects of the PSA testing debate had undoubtedly caused a variability in the opportunistic prostate cancer screening practices in the community. This, in addition to the recent rapid advancements in prostate cancer imaging, and updated results from randomised trials, have made it mandatory to question the validity of continuing with the current approach to prostate cancer screening. However, high-quality local data on these aspects had been lacking, which represents an ongoing challenge to developing robust and sound health policies.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22591, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120746

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is now a global pandemic. Although there are very few studies describing the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infections in patients with prostate cancer, these patients are likely to be more susceptible to COVID-19 than healthy people because of their immunosuppressed state. However, there is no evidence that prostate cancer is a risk factor for COVID-19. METHODS: We searched the Wanfang database, the China Science Journal Citation Report (VIP database), the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Web of Science, EMBASE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library for studies related to the topic. We designed a standardized data extraction sheet and used Epidata software 3.1 for data extraction. In accordance with the Cochrane 5.1.0 standard, both a quality assessment and a risk assessment were carried out for the research meeting the inclusion criteria. The data were analyzed using Revman 5.3 and Stata 13.0 software. RESULTS: The study integrated existing research findings and a meta-analysis of the data to investigate the prevalence of prostate cancer in males infected with SARS-CoV-2 and the adverse clinical outcomes in male patients with or without COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The results of this research may provide a basis for judging if prostate cancer is a risk factor for males infected with SARS-CoV-2, and the findings can effectively help to prevent COVID-19 in patients with prostate cancer. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not required for this systematic review as it will involve the collection and analysis of secondary data. The results of the review will be reported in international peer-reviewed journals PRORPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:: CRD42020194071.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/complicações , Protocolos Clínicos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
6.
BMJ ; 371: m3503, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028540

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess treatment related changes in quality of life up to 15 years after diagnosis of localised prostate cancer. DESIGN: Population based, prospective cohort study with follow-up over 15 years. SETTING: New South Wales, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 1642 men with localised prostate cancer, aged less than 70, and 786 controls randomly recruited from the New South Wales electoral roll into the New South Wales Prostate Cancer Care and Outcomes Study (PCOS). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: General health and disease specific quality of life were self-reported at seven time points over a 15 year period, using the 12-item Short Form Health Survey scale, University of California, Los Angeles prostate cancer index, and expanded prostate cancer index composite short form (EPIC-26). Adjusted mean differences were calculated with controls as the comparison group. Clinical significance of adjusted mean differences was assessed by the minimally important difference, defined as one third of the standard deviation (SD) from the baseline score. RESULTS: At 15 years, all treatment groups reported high levels of erectile dysfunction, depending on treatment (62.3% (active surveillance/watchful waiting, n=33/53) to 83.0% (non-nerve sparing radical prostatectomy, n=117/141)) compared with controls (42.7% (n=44/103)). Men who had external beam radiation therapy or high dose rate brachytherapy or androgen deprivation therapy as primary treatment reported more bowel problems. Self-reported urinary incontinence was particularly prevalent and persistent for men who underwent surgery, and an increase in urinary bother was reported in the group receiving androgen deprivation therapy from 10 to 15 years (year 10: adjusted mean difference -5.3, 95% confidence interval -10.8 to 0.2; year 15: -15.9; -25.1 to -6.7). CONCLUSIONS: Patients receiving initial active treatment for localised prostate cancer had generally worse long term self-reported quality of life than men without a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Men treated with radical prostatectomy faired especially badly, particularly in relation to long term sexual outcomes. Clinicians and patients should consider these long term quality of life outcomes when making treatment decisions.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios , Braquiterapia , Efeitos Adversos de Longa Duração , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Austrália/epidemiologia , Braquiterapia/efeitos adversos , Braquiterapia/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Disfunção Erétil/epidemiologia , Disfunção Erétil/etiologia , Humanos , Efeitos Adversos de Longa Duração/epidemiologia , Efeitos Adversos de Longa Duração/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Prospectivos , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Prostatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/psicologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Risco Ajustado , Incontinência Urinária/epidemiologia , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0236458, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men in Uganda, with over 2086 incident cases in 2018. This study's objective was to report the clinical characteristics and primary management of men diagnosed with prostate cancer at the Uganda Cancer Institute from 1st January 2015 to 31st December 2019. METHODS: Records from all men diagnosed with Prostate cancer at the Uganda Cancer Institute from 1st January 2015 to 31st December 2019 were reviewed. Clinical characteristics and primary treatment were recorded. Risk categorization was done using the European Society for Medical Oncology prostate cancer risk group classification. RESULTS: A total of 874 medical records for men diagnosed with prostate cancer was retrieved. The median age was 70 years (interquartile range 64-77). In this study, 501 (57.32%) patients had localized disease. Among patients with localized disease, 2 (0.23%) were classified as low-risk, 5 (0.53%) as intermediate-risk, and 494 (56.52%) as high-risk. Three hundred seventy-three (373) patients had metastatic disease at diagnosis. Among patients with distant metastases, the most common site of metastases was bone 143 (16.36%), followed by spinal cord 54 (6.18%), abdomen 22 (2.52%), and lungs 14 (1.60%). Regarding the primary treatment options majority of the patients were on chemotherapy 384(43.94%) followed by hormonal therapy 336 (38.44%) and radiotherapy 127 (14.53%). CONCLUSION: The majority of the patients diagnosed with prostate cancer at the Uganda Cancer Institute presented with advanced disease. The primary treatments were mostly chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and radiotherapy. There is a need to improve prostate cancer screening in regional health care facilities and the communities to enhance early detection and management of prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Calicreínas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22441, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019427

RESUMO

It has been suggested that herpes zoster may increase the risk of subsequent prostate cancer (PCa). We aimed to assess the risk of PCa following herpes zoster by the population-based follow-up study.This is a retrospective study and data are from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). The study cohort comprised all patients with a diagnosis of herpes zoster (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification code 053.0-053.9) and followed for PCa from 1997 to 2013 (n = 11,376). Subjects younger than 20 years of age were excluded. The match-control cohort was identified from the Registry of Beneficiaries of the NHIRD and randomly selected by matching with the study cohort at a 3:1 ratio based on age (every 5-year span), and year of herpes zoster diagnosis (n = 34,128). We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) for subsequent PCa, after controlling for potential cormobidities.Men with and without herpes zoster had similar age and comorbidity distributions. Among the 45,504 sampled patients, 1011 (2.22%) developed PCa during the 10 years of follow-up, 276 (2.43%) from the study cohort and 735 (2.15%) from the match-control cohort and the incidence rate was 3.13 and 2.72 per 1000 person years respectively. Patients with herpes zoster were more likely to develop PCa than patients in the match-control cohort (HR = 1.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.00-1.32, P value = .045). After adjusting for age and comorbidities, herpes zoster was associated with a 1.15 increased risk of PCa (adjusted HR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.99-1.32, P value = .054).Our study indicates that preceding herpes zoster infection is a suggestive risk marker for subsequent PCa after controlling for potential confounders. Further prospective studies are needed to determine the relationship between herpes zoster and PCa.


Assuntos
Herpes Zoster/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causalidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238928, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941451

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous evidence has suggested a relationship between male self-reported body size and the risk of developing prostate cancer. In this UK-wide case-control study, we have explored the possible association of prostate cancer risk with male self-reported body size. We also investigated body shape as a surrogate marker for fat deposition around the body. As obesity and excessive adiposity have been linked with increased risk for developing a number of different cancers, further investigation of self-reported body size and shape and their potential relationship with prostate cancer was considered to be appropriate. OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to investigate whether underlying associations exist between prostate cancer risk and male self-reported body size and shape. METHODS: Data were collected from a large case-control study of men (1928 cases and 2043 controls) using self-administered questionnaires. Data from self-reported pictograms of perceived body size relating to three decades of life (20's, 30's and 40's) were recorded and analysed, including the pattern of change. The associations of self-identified body shape with prostate cancer risk were also explored. RESULTS: Self-reported body size for men in their 20's, 30's and 40's did not appear to be associated with prostate cancer risk. More than half of the subjects reported an increase in self-reported body size throughout these three decades of life. Furthermore, no association was observed between self-reported body size changes and prostate cancer risk. Using 'symmetrical' body shape as a reference group, subjects with an 'apple' shape showed a significant 27% reduction in risk (Odds ratio = 0.73, 95% C.I. 0.57-0.92). CONCLUSIONS: Change in self-reported body size throughout early to mid-adulthood in males is not a significant risk factor for the development of prostate cancer. Body shape indicative of body fat distribution suggested that an 'apple' body shape was protective and inversely associated with prostate cancer risk when compared with 'symmetrical' shape. Further studies which investigate prostate cancer risk and possible relationships with genetic factors known to influence body shape may shed further light on any underlying associations.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872503

RESUMO

To analyze the association between prostate cancer (PCa) risk and night shift work, chronotype, and sleep duration in the context of a population-based case-control study of incident prostate cancer in Spain, a total of 465 PCa cases and 410 controls were analyzed. Selection criteria were: (i) age 40-80 years, and (ii) residence in the coverage area of the reference hospitals for ≥6 months before recruitment. Exposure variables were: (i) night shift work (permanent or rotating); (ii) chronotype: morning, neither, or evening (Munich ChronoType Questionnaire) and (iii) sleep duration according to the recommendations of the American National Sleep Foundation. PCa aggressiveness was determined according to the International Society of Urology Pathology classification. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using logistic regression models. Night shift work was associated with PCa, aOR = 1.47 (95% CI 1.02-2.11), especially for rotating night shifts, aOR = 1.73 (95% CI 1.09-2.75). The magnitude of the association between ever night work and PCa was higher in evening subjects with aOR = 3.14 (95% CI 0.91-10.76) than in morning chronotypes with an aOR = 1.25 (95% CI 0.78-2.00). Working night shifts, especially rotating night shifts, could increase PCa risk. This risk may be higher in people with an evening chronotype.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos , Sono , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ritmo Circadiano , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/etiologia , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos/efeitos adversos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236209, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986714

RESUMO

The genetic risk for prostate cancer has been governed by a few rare variants with high penetrance and over 150 commonly occurring variants with lower impact on risk; however, most of these variants have been identified in studies containing exclusively European individuals. People of non-European ancestries make up less than 15% of prostate cancer GWAS subjects. Across the globe, incidence of prostate cancer varies with population due to environmental and genetic factors. The discrepancy between disease incidence and representation in genetics highlights the need for more studies of the genetic risk for prostate cancer across diverse populations. To better understand the genetic risk for prostate cancer across diverse populations, we performed PrediXcan and GWAS in a case-control study of 4,769 self-identified African American (2,463 cases and 2,306 controls), 2,199 Japanese American (1,106 cases and 1,093 controls), and 2,147 Latin American (1,081 cases and 1,066 controls) individuals from the Multiethnic Genome-wide Scan of Prostate Cancer. We used prediction models from 46 tissues in GTEx version 8 and five models from monocyte transcriptomes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Across the three populations, we predicted 19 gene-tissue pairs, including five unique genes, to be significantly (lfsr < 0.05) associated with prostate cancer. One of these genes, NKX3-1, replicated in a larger European study. At the SNP level, 110 SNPs met genome-wide significance in the African American study while 123 SNPs met significance in the Japanese American study. Fine mapping revealed three significant independent loci in the African American study and two significant independent loci in the Japanese American study. These identified loci confirm findings from previous GWAS of prostate cancer in diverse populations while PrediXcan-identified genes suggest potential new directions for prostate cancer research in populations across the globe.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Transcriptoma , Afro-Americanos/genética , Americanos Asiáticos/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22336, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991446

RESUMO

Over the past decades, the incidence of prostate cancer in Taiwan kept rising. Many possible factors including the utility of prostate specific antigen tests, lifestyle remodeling, and patient's comorbidities may contribute to the increasing of incidence or prostate cancer. We aim to use the nationwide Health and Welfare Database (HWD) to investigate possible associated factors.We used HWD, a nationwide database of medical information, to assess the incidence of prostate cancer, utilization of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, and underlying diseases of patients and to evaluate whether there was a common trend among these factors.In total, 32,508 patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer from 2006 to 2013 were identified. The incidence rate of prostate cancer per 100,000 men increased from 35.47 in 2006 to 52.87 in 2012. The number of patients with prostate cancer and underlying diseases related to metabolic syndrome increased every year. The number of total PSA tests and patients undergoing PSA testing, as well as average times of PSA testing per person in the whole population, increased every year. The average PSA test times of patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer within 3 years before the diagnosis of prostate cancer also increased every year. There was a high correlation between the average PSA test times and the number of patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer (r = 0.9734).The trends of incidence of prostate cancer, utilization of PSA testing, and underlying diseases related to metabolic syndrome at the diagnoses of cancer were similar, increasing every year in the study period. The results suggested that increasing use of PSA tests may increase the diagnosis of prostate cancers. Underlying diseases related to metabolic syndrome might also affect the incidence of prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/normas , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade/tendências , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Incidência , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia
13.
N Z Med J ; 133(1521): 69-76, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994638

RESUMO

Maori experience poorer health statistics in terms of cancer incidence and mortality compared to non-Maori. For prostate cancer, Maori men are less likely than non-Maori men to be diagnosed with prostate cancer, but those that are diagnosed are much more likely to die of the disease than non-Maori men resulting in an excess mortality rate in Maori men compared with non-Maori. A review of the literature included a review of the epidemiology of prostate cancer; of screening; of access to healthcare and of treatment modalities. Our conclusion was that there are a number of reasons for the disparity in outcomes for Maori including differences in staging and characteristics at diagnosis; differences in screening and treatment offered to Maori men; and general barriers to healthcare that exist for Maori men in New Zealand. We conclude that there is a need for more culturally appropriate care to be available to Maori men.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata , Adulto , Idoso , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003281, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PC) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in North American men. Pathologists are in critical need of accurate biomarkers to characterize PC, particularly to confirm the presence of intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P), an aggressive histopathological variant for which therapeutic options are now available. Our aim was to identify IDC-P with Raman micro-spectroscopy (RµS) and machine learning technology following a protocol suitable for routine clinical histopathology laboratories. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used RµS to differentiate IDC-P from PC, as well as PC and IDC-P from benign tissue on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded first-line radical prostatectomy specimens (embedded in tissue microarrays [TMAs]) from 483 patients treated in 3 Canadian institutions between 1993 and 2013. The main measures were the presence or absence of IDC-P and of PC, regardless of the clinical outcomes. The median age at radical prostatectomy was 62 years. Most of the specimens from the first cohort (Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal) were of Gleason score 3 + 3 = 6 (51%) while most of the specimens from the 2 other cohorts (University Health Network and Centre hospitalier universitaire de Québec-Université Laval) were of Gleason score 3 + 4 = 7 (51% and 52%, respectively). Most of the 483 patients were pT2 stage (44%-69%), and pT3a (22%-49%) was more frequent than pT3b (9%-12%). To investigate the prostate tissue of each patient, 2 consecutive sections of each TMA block were cut. The first section was transferred onto a glass slide to perform immunohistochemistry with H&E counterstaining for cell identification. The second section was placed on an aluminum slide, dewaxed, and then used to acquire an average of 7 Raman spectra per specimen (between 4 and 24 Raman spectra, 4 acquisitions/TMA core). Raman spectra of each cell type were then analyzed to retrieve tissue-specific molecular information and to generate classification models using machine learning technology. Models were trained and cross-validated using data from 1 institution. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 87% ± 5%, 86% ± 6%, and 89% ± 8%, respectively, to differentiate PC from benign tissue, and 95% ± 2%, 96% ± 4%, and 94% ± 2%, respectively, to differentiate IDC-P from PC. The trained models were then tested on Raman spectra from 2 independent institutions, reaching accuracies, sensitivities, and specificities of 84% and 86%, 84% and 87%, and 81% and 82%, respectively, to diagnose PC, and of 85% and 91%, 85% and 88%, and 86% and 93%, respectively, for the identification of IDC-P. IDC-P could further be differentiated from high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), a pre-malignant intraductal proliferation that can be mistaken as IDC-P, with accuracies, sensitivities, and specificities > 95% in both training and testing cohorts. As we used stringent criteria to diagnose IDC-P, the main limitation of our study is the exclusion of borderline, difficult-to-classify lesions from our datasets. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we developed classification models for the analysis of RµS data to differentiate IDC-P, PC, and benign tissue, including HGPIN. RµS could be a next-generation histopathological technique used to reinforce the identification of high-risk PC patients and lead to more precise diagnosis of IDC-P.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/diagnóstico por imagem , Aprendizado de Máquina/normas , Microscopia Óptica não Linear/normas , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Microscopia Óptica não Linear/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237332, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790761

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neighborhood socioeconomic (nSES) factors have been implicated in prostate cancer (PCa) disparities. In line with the Precision Medicine Initiative that suggests clinical and socioenvironmental factors can impact PCa outcomes, we determined whether nSES variables are associated with time to PCa diagnosis and could inform PCa clinical risk assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample included 358 high risk men (PCa family history and/or Black race), aged 35-69 years, enrolled in an early detection program. Patient variables were linked to 78 nSES variables (employment, income, etc.) from previous literature via geocoding. Patient-level models, including baseline age, prostate specific antigen (PSA), digital rectal exam, as well as combined models (patient plus nSES variables) by race/PCa family history subgroups were built after variable reduction methods using Cox regression and LASSO machine-learning. Model fit of patient and combined models (AIC) were compared; p-values<0.05 were significant. Model-based high/low nSES exposure scores were calculated and the 5-year predicted probability of PCa was plotted against PSA by high/low neighborhood score to preliminarily assess clinical relevance. RESULTS: In combined models, nSES variables were significantly associated with time to PCa diagnosis. Workers mode of transportation and low income were significant in White men with a PCa family history. Homeownership (%owner-occupied houses with >3 bedrooms) and unemployment were significant in Black men with and without a PCa family history, respectively. The 5-year predicted probability of PCa was higher in men with a high neighborhood score (weighted combination of significant nSES variables) compared to a low score (e.g., Baseline PSA level of 4ng/mL for men with PCa family history: White-26.7% vs 7.7%; Black-56.2% vs 29.7%). DISCUSSION: Utilizing neighborhood data during patient risk assessment may be useful for high risk men affected by disparities. However, future studies with larger samples and validation/replication steps are needed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Meio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236553, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756597

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The importance of clinical outcome prediction models using artificial intelligence (AI) is being emphasized owing to the increasing necessity of developing a clinical decision support system (CDSS) employing AI. Therefore, in this study, we proposed a "Dr. Answer" AI software based on the clinical outcome prediction model for prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy. METHODS: The Dr. Answer AI was developed based on a clinical outcome prediction model, with a user-friendly interface. We used 7,128 clinical data of prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy from three hospitals. An outcome prediction model was developed to calculate the probability of occurrence of 1) tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM) staging, 2) extracapsular extension, 3) seminal vesicle invasion, and 4) lymph node metastasis. Random forest and k-nearest neighbors algorithms were used, and the proposed system was compared with previous algorithms. RESULTS: Random forest exhibited good performance for TNM staging (recall value: 76.98%), while k-nearest neighbors exhibited good performance for extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, and lymph node metastasis (80.24%, 98.67%, and 95.45%, respectively). The Dr. Answer AI software consisted of three primary service structures: 1) patient information, 2) clinical outcome prediction, and outcomes according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guideline. CONCLUSION: The proposed clinical outcome prediction model could function as an effective CDSS, supporting the decisions of the physicians, while enabling the patients to understand their treatment outcomes. The Dr. Answer AI software for prostate cancer helps the doctors to explain the treatment outcomes to the patients, allowing the patients to be more confident about their treatment plans.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Probabilidade , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/cirurgia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Glândulas Seminais/patologia , Glândulas Seminais/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 374, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641750

RESUMO

The recent outbreak of infections and the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 represent one of the most severe threats to human health in more than a century. Emerging data from the United States and elsewhere suggest that the disease is more severe in men. Knowledge gained, and lessons learned, from studies of the biological interactions and molecular links that may explain the reasons for the greater severity of disease in men, and specifically in the age group at risk for prostate cancer, will lead to better management of COVID-19 in prostate cancer patients. Such information will be indispensable in the current and post-pandemic scenarios.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Betacoronavirus/ultraestrutura , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Feminino , Previsões , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Proteínas de Neoplasias/fisiologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , Receptores Virais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Virais/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Serina Endopeptidases/biossíntese , Serina Endopeptidases/fisiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Internalização do Vírus
19.
Arch Osteoporos ; 15(1): 110, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700143

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We analyzed the risk of fracture in prostate cancer (PC) survivors compared to that in the general population in South Korea and according to the primary treatment. METHODS: From 2007 to 2013, a total of 41,733 PC survivors newly diagnosed with PC in South Korea were identified and matched to non-cancer controls. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to determine the relative risk of fracture. RESULTS: Compared to the matched controls, PC survivors had a higher risk of fracture (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-1.45). Compared to the matched controls, the active surveillance/watchful waiting and radiotherapy group showed a similar risk of fracture (aHR 1.08; 95% CI 0.98-1.20, and aHR 1.04; 95% CI 0.63-1.73, respectively). PC survivors who underwent surgery showed a lower risk of fracture (aHR 0.89; 95% CI 0.82-0.96), while those who underwent surgery + androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) (aHR 1.41; 95% CI 1.26-1.57), radiotherapy + ADT (aHR 1.86; 95% CI 1.50-2.32), and only ADT (aHR 1.92; 95% CI 1.82-2.02) showed a higher risk of fracture than the control group. CONCLUSION: The risk of fracture differed according to the primary treatment method for PC; survivors who underwent surgery had a lower risk of fracture compared to that of the general population. However, PC survivors treated with ADT showed a higher risk of fracture than the other PC treatment groups or the general population. Therefore, more attention and preventive bone care are required for PC survivors who receive ADT.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias da Próstata , Antagonistas de Androgênios , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes
20.
Oncology (Williston Park) ; 34(5): 156-162, 2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32644174

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has rapidly placed tremendous stress on health systems around the world. In response, multiple health systems have postponed elective surgeries in order to conserve hospital beds and personal protective equipment, minimize patient traffic, and prevent unnecessary utilization and exposure of healthcare workers. The American College of Surgeons released the following statement on March 13, 2020: "Each hospital, health system and surgeon should thoughtfully review all scheduled elective procedures with a plan to minimize, postpone, or cancel electively scheduled operations, endoscopes, or other invasive procedures until we have passed the predicted inflection point in the exposure graph and can be confident that our health care infrastructure can support a potentially rapid and overwhelming uptick in critical patient care needs." In our state, North Carolina, Governor Roy Cooper requested that all hospitals postpone elective and non-urgent procedures and surgeries effective March 23, 2020.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/métodos , Excisão de Linfonodo/métodos , Serviço Hospitalar de Oncologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Prostatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata , Risco Ajustado/métodos , Gestão de Riscos , Betacoronavirus , Gestão de Mudança , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , North Carolina , Serviço Hospitalar de Oncologia/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Oncologia/tendências , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Seleção de Pacientes , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Gestão de Riscos/métodos , Gestão de Riscos/tendências
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