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1.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 37(9): 781-787, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533124

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the effect of RS102895, a specific C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) antagonist, on the biological behavior of prostate cancer (PCa) cells with different degrees of malignancy. Methods Non-androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells PC-3 and androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells 22RV1 were cultured in vitro. A control group, a recombinant C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (rCCL2) treatment group, and a rCCL2 combined with RS102895 treatment group were established. Cell proliferation ability was detected by CCK-8 assay, cell invasion and migration abilities were detected by TranswellTM assay, mRNA expressions of cell antigen KI-67 (ki67) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) were detected by real-time quantitative PCR, and protein expression levels of ki67 and MMP2 were detected by Western blotting. Results The proliferation, invasion, and migration abilities of PC-3 cells were significantly enhanced by rCCL2, and the proliferation ability of 22RV1 cells was significantly increased as well. Meanwhile, the mRNA and protein expression levels of ki67 and MMP2 in PC-3 cells were significantly up-regulated by rCCL2. After RS102895 treatment, the above effects of rCCL2 were reversed. Conclusion RS102895 can inhibit the proliferation, invasion, and migration of PC-3 prostate cancer cells by specifically blocking the CCL2/CCR2 pathway and down-regulating the expressions of ki67 and MMP2.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CCL2 , Neoplasias da Próstata , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica , Células PC-3 , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Receptores CCR2/genética , Receptores de Quimiocinas
2.
Tumour Biol ; 43(1): 197-207, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of isoforms of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and other kallikrein-related markers in early detection of biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP) is not well known and serum PSA is currently used in preoperative risk nomograms. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research was to study pre- and early postoperative levels of important PSA isoforms and human kallikrein-2 to determine their ability to predict BCR and identify disease persistence (DP). METHODS: This study included 128 consecutive patients who underwent RP for clinically localized prostate cancer. PSA, fPSA, %fPSA, [-2]proPSA, PHI and hK2 were measured preoperatively, at 1 and 3 months after RP. We determined the ability of these markers to predict BCR and identify DP. RESULTS: The DP and BCR rate were 11.7%and 20.3%respectively and the median follow up was 64 months (range 3-76 months). Preoperatively, the independent predictors of BCR were PSA (p-value 0.029), [-2]proPSA (p-value 0.002) and PHI (p-value 0.0003). Post-RP, PSA was the single marker correlating with BCR, both at one (p-value 0.0047) and 3 months (p-value 0.0004). PSA, fPSA, [-2]proPSA and PHI significantly correlated to DP at 1 and 3 months post-RP (p-value <  0.05), although PSA had the most significant existing correlation (p-value <  0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: [-2]proPSA and PHI are preoperative predictors of BCR and DP that outperform the currently used serum PSA. At the early postoperative period there is no additional benefit of the other markers tested.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Calicreínas Teciduais/sangue , Idoso , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/sangue , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Nomogramas , Período Pós-Operatório , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/cirurgia , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Isoformas de Proteínas/sangue , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética
3.
Nanoscale ; 13(34): 14525-14537, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473816

RESUMO

Radiotherapy (RT) is one of the main treatments for men with prostate cancer (PCa). To date, numerous sophisticated nano-formulations as radiosensitizers have been synthesized with inspiring therapeutic effects both in vitro and in vivo; however, almost all the attention has been paid on the enhanced dose deposition effect by secondary electrons of nanomaterials with high atomic numbers (Z); despite this, cell-cycle arrest, DNA damage, and also reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are critical working mechanisms that account for radiosensitization. Herein, an 'all-purpose' nanostrategy based on dose deposition enhancement, cell cycle arrest, and ROS production as prostate cancer radiosensitizer for potential clinical translation was proposed. The rather simple structure of docetaxel-loaded Au nanoparticles (NPs) with prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) ligand conjugation have been successfully synthesized. Enhanced cellular uptake achieved via the selective internalization of the NPs by PCa cells with positive PSMA expression could guarantee enhanced dose deposition. Moreover, the as-synthesized nanosystem could effectively arrest the cell cycle at G2/M phases, which would reduce the ability of DNA damage repair for more irradiation sensitive of the PCa cells. Moreover, the G2/M phase arrest would further promote cascade retention and the enrichment of NPs within the cells. Furthermore, ROS generation and double strand breaks greatly promoted by NPs under irradiation (IR) could also provide an underlying basis for effective radiosensitizers. In vitro and in vivo investigations confirmed the as-synthesized NPs as an effective nano-radiosensitizer with ideal safety. More importantly, all moieties within the present nanosystem have been approved by FDA for the purpose of PCa treatment, thus making it highly attractive for clinical translation.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Neoplasias da Próstata , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Dano ao DNA , Ouro , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
4.
J Egypt Natl Canc Inst ; 33(1): 24, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomere dysfunction is one of the hallmarks of cancer and is crucial to prostate carcinogenesis. TERF1 is a gene essential to telomere maintenance, and its dysfunction has already been associates with several cancers. TERF1 is a target of miR-155, and this microRNA can inhibit its expression and promotes carcinogenesis in breast cancer. We aim to analyze TERF1, in gene and mRNA level, involvement in prostate cancer progression. RESULTS: Alterations in TERF1 DNA were evaluated using datasets of primary tumor and castration-resistant tumors (CRPC) deposited in cBioportal. The expression of TERF1 mRNA levels was assessed utilizing TCGA datasets, clinical specimens, and metastatic prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, DU145, and PC3). Six percent of localized prostate cancer presents alterations in TERF1 (the majority of that was amplifications). In the CRPC cohort, 26% of samples had TERF1 amplification. Patients with TERF1 alterations had the worst overall survival only on localized cancer cohort (p = 0.0027). In the TCGA cohort, mRNA levels of TERF1 were downregulated in comparison with normal tissue (p = 0.0013) and upregulated in tumors that invade lymph nodes (p = 0.0059). The upregulation of TERF1 is also associated with worst overall survival (p = 0.0028) and disease-free survival (p = 0.0023). There is a positive correlation between TERF1 and androgen receptor expression in cancer tissue (r = 0.53, p < 0.00001) but not on normal tissue (r = - 0.16, p = 0.12). In the clinical specimens, there is no detectable expression of TERF1 and upregulation of miR-155 (p = 0.0348). In cell lines, TERF1 expression was higher in LNCaP and was progressively lower in DU145 and PC3 (p = 0.0327) with no differences in miR-155 expression. CONCLUSION: Amplification/upregulation of TERF1 was associated with the worst prognostic in localized prostate cancer. Our results corroborate that miR-155 regulates TERF1 expression in prostate cancer. TERF1 has the potential to become a biomarker in prostate cancer.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Neoplasias da Próstata , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética
5.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371827

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine the association between coffee and prostate cancer. Firstly, we conducted an observational study using data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2010. Coffee intake was derived from 24 h dietary recalls. Weighted multivariable-adjusted logistic regression was applied to evaluate the association. Then, we performed Mendelian randomization (MR) to explore the possible causal effect of coffee on prostate cancer risk. Primary and secondary genetic instruments were obtained from genome-wide association studies among 375,833 and 91,462 individuals separately. Prostate cancer summary statistics were extracted from Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer-Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) (79,194 cases and 61,112 controls) and FinnGen project (4754 cases and 63,465 controls). Inverse variance weighted (IVW) was the primary analytical method. Through selection, we enrolled 8336 individuals (weighted number = 58,796,070) for our observational study in NHANES. Results suggested that there was no association between coffee and prostate cancer. MR analyses with primary genetic instruments also did not support a causal association between coffee intake and prostate cancer risk, whether using summary data from PRACTICAL (IVW: OR 1.001, 95% CI 0.997-1.005) or FinnGen (IVW: OR 1.005, 95% CI 0.998-1.012). Similar results were observed when using secondary genetic instruments. Therefore, our study did not support a causal association between coffee intake and prostate cancer risk. Further studies with a larger sample size are needed to examine if an association exists by different coffee bean types, roasting procedures, and brewing methods.


Assuntos
Café/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/etiologia , Causalidade , Estudos Transversais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5066, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417456

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) shows strong dependence on the androgen receptor (AR) pathway. Here, we show that squalene epoxidase (SQLE), an enzyme of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, is overexpressed in advanced PCa and its expression correlates with poor survival. SQLE expression is controlled by micro-RNA 205 (miR-205), which is significantly downregulated in advanced PCa. Restoration of miR-205 expression or competitive inhibition of SQLE led to inhibition of de novo cholesterol biosynthesis. Furthermore, SQLE was essential for proliferation of AR-positive PCa cell lines, including abiraterone or enzalutamide resistant derivatives, and blocked transactivation of the AR pathway. Inhibition of SQLE with the FDA approved antifungal drug terbinafine also efficiently blocked orthotopic tumour growth in mice. Finally, terbinafine reduced levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in three out of four late-stage PCa patients. These results highlight SQLE as a therapeutic target for the treatment of advanced PCa.


Assuntos
Colesterol/biossíntese , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Esqualeno Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Sobrevivência Celular , Estudos de Coortes , Simulação por Computador , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Antígeno Prostático Específico/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Esqualeno Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Esqualeno Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Terbinafina/farmacologia , Ativação Transcricional/genética
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112589, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358932

RESUMO

In recent years, organophosphate ester flame retardants (OPFRs), which have been regarded as alternatives for brominated flame retardants (BFRs), have become widely used in building materials, textiles, and electric equipment. Elucidating the relationship between OPFRs and tumors holds great significance for the treatment and prevention of diseases. In this work, we found a new method for predicting the correlation between the interactive genes of OPFRs and tumors. Transcriptome profiles and OPFR information were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas and the Genotype-Tissue Expression, Comparative Toxicogenomics, and PharmMapper databases. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis showed that interactive genes were mainly enriched in prostate cancer, steroid metabolic process, and steroid hormone regulation. Furthermore, protein-protein interaction network analysis revealed 33 biological hub genes. The operating characteristic curves and survival analysis showed the role of key genes in predicting the prognosis of prostate cancer. Gene target prediction and gene set variation analysis proved that OPFRs and their metabolites exert potential effects on prostate cancer. Colony formation assay showed that the cells with AR, mTOR and DDIT3 knockdown could remarkably mitigate the cell proliferation ability in both PC-3 and LNCap cells. Transwell assay demonstrated that the silencing of AR, mTOR and DDIT3 could significantly inhibit the cell invasion capacity of prostate cells. Triphenyl phosphate (TPP) significantly increase the cell proliferation ability and promote cell invasion capacity. AR, mTOR and DDIT3 in the PC-3 and LNCap cells were significantly upregulated with 10-6 M TPP treated.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Neoplasias da Próstata , Compreensão , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Organofosfatos/toxicidade , Compostos Organofosforados , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética
8.
Tumour Biol ; 43(1): 159-176, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420994

RESUMO

The human TMPRSS2 gene is pathogenetically implicated in both coronaviral lung infection and prostate cancer, suggesting its potential as a drug target in both contexts. SARS-COV-2 spike polypeptides are primed by the host transmembrane TMPRSS2 protease, triggering virus fusion with epithelial cell membranes followed by an endocytotic internalisation process that bypasses normal endosomal activation of cathepsin-mediated innate immunity; viral co-opting of TMPRSS2 thus favors microbial survivability by attenuating host inflammatory responses. In contrast, most early hormone-dependent prostate cancers express TMPRSS2:ERG fusion genes arising from deletions that eliminate the TMPRSS2 coding region while juxtaposing its androgen-inducible promoter and the open reading frame of ERG, upregulating pro-inflammatory ERG while functionally disabling TMPRSS2. Moreover, inflammatory oxidative DNA damage selects for TMPRSS2:ERG-fused cancers, whereas patients treated with antiinflammatory drugs develop fewer of these fusion-dependent tumors. These findings imply that TMPRSS2 protects the prostate by enabling endosomal bypass of pathogens which could otherwise trigger inflammation-induced DNA damage that predisposes to TMPRSS2:ERG fusions. Hence, the high oncogenic selectability of TMPRSS2:ERG fusions may reflect a unique pro-inflammatory synergy between androgenic ERG gain-of-function and fusogenic TMPRSS2 loss-of-function, cautioning against the use of TMPRSS2-inhibitory drugs to prevent or treat early prostate cancer.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Fertilidade , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Inflamação/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/prevenção & controle , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Serina Endopeptidases/genética
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445492

RESUMO

Functional characterization of cancer risk-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has become a big challenge. To identify the regulatory risk SNPs that can lead to transcriptional misregulation, we performed parallel reporter gene assays with both alleles of 213 prostate cancer risk-associated GWAS SNPs in 22Rv1 cells. We disclosed 32 regulatory SNPs that exhibited different regulatory activities with two alleles. For one of the regulatory SNPs, rs684232, we found that the variation altered chromatin binding of transcription factor FOXA1 on the DNA region and led to aberrant gene expression of VPS53, FAM57A, and GEMIN4, which play vital roles in prostate cancer malignancy. Our findings reveal the roles and underlying mechanism of rs684232 in prostate cancer progression and hold great promise in benefiting prostate cancer patients with prognostic prediction and target therapies.


Assuntos
Fator 3-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Pequenas/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatina/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Análise de Sobrevida
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5049, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413304

RESUMO

Preclinical testing is a crucial step in evaluating cancer therapeutics. We aimed to establish a significant resource of patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) of prostate cancer for rapid and systematic evaluation of candidate therapies. The PDX collection comprises 59 tumors collected from 30 patients between 2012-2020, coinciding with availability of abiraterone and enzalutamide. The PDXs represent the clinico-pathological and genomic spectrum of prostate cancer, from treatment-naïve primary tumors to castration-resistant metastases. Inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity in adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine phenotypes is evident from bulk and single-cell RNA sequencing data. Organoids can be cultured from PDXs, providing further capabilities for preclinical studies. Using a 1 x 1 x 1 design, we rapidly identify tumors with exceptional responses to combination treatments. To govern the distribution of PDXs, we formed the Melbourne Urological Research Alliance (MURAL). This PDX collection is a substantial resource, expanding the capacity to test and prioritize effective treatments for prospective clinical trials in prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Organoides/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Genoma , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica , Organoides/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Bancos de Tecidos , Transcriptoma , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445387

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in men, and new biomarkers are still needed. The expression pattern and protein tissue localization of proteoglycans of the syndecan family (SDC 1-4) and syntenin-1 (SDCBP) were determined in normal and prostatic tumor tissue from two genetically engineered mouse models and human prostate tumors. Studies were validated using SDC 1-4 and SDCBP mRNA levels and patient survival data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and CamCAP databases. RNAseq showed increased expression of Sdc1 in Pb-Cre4/Ptenf/f mouse Pca and upregulation of Sdc3 expression and downregulation of Sdc2 and Sdc4 when compared to the normal prostatic tissue in Pb-Cre4/Trp53f/f-;Rb1f/f mouse tumors. These changes were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. In human PCa, SDC 1-4 and SDCBP immunostaining showed variable localization. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients expressing SDC3 had shorter prostate-specific survival than those without SDC3 expression (log-rank test, p = 0.0047). Analysis of the MSKCC-derived expression showed that SDC1 and SDC3 overexpression is predictive of decreased biochemical recurrence-free survival (p = 0.0099 and p = 0.045, respectively), and SDC4 overexpression is predictive of increased biochemical recurrence-free survival (p = 0.035). SDC4 overexpression was associated with a better prognosis, while SDC1 and SDC3 were associated with more aggressive tumors and a worse prognosis.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Sindecana-1/genética , Sindecana-3/genética , Sindecana-4/genética , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Transplante de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Análise Serial de Proteínas , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Análise de Sobrevida , Sindecana-1/metabolismo , Sindecana-3/metabolismo , Sindecana-4/metabolismo , Sinteninas/genética , Sinteninas/metabolismo
12.
World J Surg Oncol ; 19(1): 250, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is one of the malignant tumors of the urinary system and ranks second among the fatal cancers in men. And with age, the incidence of prostate cancer will increase linearly. METHODS: In this study, we measured the expression of Ubiquitin Conjugating Enzyme E2 V2 (UBE2V2) in prostate cancer tissues and cell lines by WB and explored the effect of UBE2V2 on the proliferation characteristics of prostate cancer by MTT and colony formation test. RESULTS: In our research, we found that the UBE2V2 protein level in prostate cancer cell lines was significantly higher than the UBE2V2 protein level in normal prostate cells, and the mRNA expression level did not change significantly compared with normal prostate tissue cells. At the same time, we found that miR-499a combined with UBE2V2 inhibited the expression of UBE2V2 in prostate cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our results indicate that miR-499a inhibits the proliferation of human prostate cancer cells by targeting UBE2V2, which will provide a potential target for the treatment of prostate cancer.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Neoplasias da Próstata , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética
13.
Theranostics ; 11(16): 7640-7657, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335955

RESUMO

Background: Since primary prostate cancer (PCa) can advance to the life-threatening metastatic PCa, exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying PCa metastasis is crucial for developing the novel targeted preventive strategies for decreasing the mortality of PCa. RNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is an emerging regulatory mechanism for gene expression and its specific roles in PCa progression remains elusive. Methods: Western blotting, quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemical analyses were used to detect target gene expression in PCa cells in vitro and prostate tissues from patients. RNA immunoprecipitation was conducted to analyze the specific binding of mRNA to the target protein. Migration and invasion assays were used to assess the migratory capacities of cancer cells. The correlation between target gene expression and survival rate of PCa patients was analyzed based the TCGA database. Results: We found that total RNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification levels were markedly upregulated in human PCa tissues due to increased expression of methyltransferase like 3 (METTL3). Further studies revealed that the migratory and invasive capacities of PCa cells were markedly suppressed upon METTL3 knockdown. Mechanistically, METTL3 mediates m6A modification of USP4 mRNA at A2696, and m6A reader protein YTHDF2 binds to and induces degradation of USP4 mRNA by recruiting RNA-binding protein HNRNPD to the mRNA. Decrease of USP4 fails to remove the ubiquitin group from ELAVL1 protein, resulting in a reduction of ELAVL1 protein. Lastly, downregulation of ELAVL1 in turn increases ARHGDIA expression, promoting migration and invasion of PCa cells. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the role of METTL3 in modulating invasion and metastasis of PCa cells, providing insight into promising therapeutic strategies for hindering PCa progressing to deadly metastases.


Assuntos
Metiltransferases/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Inativação Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Próstata/metabolismo , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/genética
14.
Theranostics ; 11(16): 7779-7796, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335964

RESUMO

Rationale: The progression of prostate cancer (PCa) to castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) despite continuous androgen deprivation therapy is a major clinical challenge. Over 90% of patients with CRPC exhibit sustained androgen receptor (AR) signaling. KDM4B that removes the repressive mark H3K9me3/2 is a transcriptional activator of AR and has been implicated in the development of CRPC. However, the mechanisms of KDM4B involvement in CRPC remain largely unknown. Here, we sought to demonstrate the molecular pathway mediated by KDM4B in CRPC and to provide proof-of-concept evidence that KDM4B is a potential CRPC target. Methods: CRPC cells (C4-2B or CWR22Rv1) depleted with KDM4B followed by cell proliferation (in vitro and xenograft), microarray, qRT-PCR, Seahorse Flux, and metabolomic analyses were employed to identify the expression and metabolic profiles mediated by KDM4B. Immunoprecipitation was used to determine the KDM4B-c-Myc interaction region. Reporter activity assay and ChIP analysis were used to characterize the KDM4B-c-Myc complex-mediated mechanistic actions. The clinical relevance between KDM4B and c-Myc was determined using UCSC Xena analysis and immunohistochemistry. Results: We showed that KDM4B knockdown impaired CRPC proliferation, switched Warburg to OXPHOS metabolism, and suppressed gene expressions including those targeted by c-Myc. We further demonstrated that KDM4B physically interacted with c-Myc and they were co-recruited to the c-Myc-binding sequence on the promoters of metabolic genes (LDHA, ENO1, and PFK). Importantly, KDM4B and c-Myc synergistically promoted the transactivation of the LDHA promoter in a demethylase-dependent manner. We also provided evidence that KDM4B and c-Myc are co-expressed in PCa tissue and that high expression of both is associated with worse clinical outcome. Conclusions: KDM4B partners with c-Myc and serves as a coactivator of c-Myc to directly enhance c-Myc-mediated metabolism, hence promoting CRPC progression. Targeting KDM4B is thus an alternative therapeutic strategy for advanced prostate cancers driven by c-Myc and AR.


Assuntos
Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Antagonistas de Androgênios , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4217, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244513

RESUMO

The functional consequences of genetic variants within 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) on a genome-wide scale are poorly understood in disease. Here we develop a high-throughput multi-layer functional genomics method called PLUMAGE (Pooled full-length UTR Multiplex Assay on Gene Expression) to quantify the molecular consequences of somatic 5' UTR mutations in human prostate cancer. We show that 5' UTR mutations can control transcript levels and mRNA translation rates through the creation of DNA binding elements or RNA-based cis-regulatory motifs. We discover that point mutations can simultaneously impact transcript and translation levels of the same gene. We provide evidence that functional 5' UTR mutations in the MAP kinase signaling pathway can upregulate pathway-specific gene expression and are associated with clinical outcomes. Our study reveals the diverse mechanisms by which the mutational landscape of 5' UTRs can co-opt gene expression and demonstrates that single nucleotide alterations within 5' UTRs are functional in cancer.


Assuntos
Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genômica/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células HEK293 , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação Puntual , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , RNA-Seq
16.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(15): 8471-8487, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313777

RESUMO

There is a pressing need today to mechanistically interpret sets of genomic variants associated with diseases. Here we present a tool called 'VarSAn' that uses a network analysis algorithm to identify pathways relevant to a given set of variants. VarSAn analyzes a configurable network whose nodes represent variants, genes and pathways, using a Random Walk with Restarts algorithm to rank pathways for relevance to the given variants, and reports P-values for pathway relevance. It treats non-coding and coding variants differently, properly accounts for the number of pathways impacted by each variant and identifies relevant pathways even if many variants do not directly impact genes of the pathway. We use VarSAn to identify pathways relevant to variants related to cancer and several other diseases, as well as drug response variation. We find VarSAn's pathway ranking to be complementary to the standard approach of enrichment tests on genes related to the query set. We adopt a novel benchmarking strategy to quantify its advantage over this baseline approach. Finally, we use VarSAn to discover key pathways, including the VEGFA-VEGFR2 pathway, related to de novo variants in patients of Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome, a rare and severe congenital heart defect.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Software , Algoritmos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Feminino , Genes , Humanos , Síndrome do Coração Esquerdo Hipoplásico/genética , Síndrome do Coração Esquerdo Hipoplásico/metabolismo , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética
17.
Andrologia ; 53(9): e14174, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231241

RESUMO

Growing evidence indicating the critical modulator roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in prostate cancer (PCa) metastasis that holds great promise as therapeutic targets. Herein, we transfected the miR-622 mimic into PC3 cells and evaluated the effects of this interference on these tumour cells' growth and the expression of specific metastatic genes. Transfecting of miR-622 mimic and inhibitor, negative control (NC) inhibitor and NC was established using Lipofectamine 2000. The mRNA levels of miR-622 and metastatic genes were evaluated using the qRT-PCR and Western blot. Cytotoxic effects of miR-622 were assessed by MTT. Apoptosis was detected using an ELISA cell death assay kit. miR-622 is down-regulated in PC3 cells. As expected, cell viability effects after transfection were described as miR-622 inhibitor >NC and NC inhibitor >miR-622 mimic (p < .01). Importantly, we showed that transfected miR-622 mimic could enhance the apoptosis of PC3 cells, while transfected miR-622 inhibitor could decrease cell apoptosis (p < .01). Furthermore, miR-622 overexpression could increase significantly down-regulated the MMP2, MMP9, CXCR-4, c-Myc and K-Ras expression levels. Findings demonstrate a novel mechanism by which miR-622 modulates PCa cells' metastasis by targeting metastatic genes. These data confirm the tumour-suppressive function of miR-622 in PCa cells by enhancing apoptosis and reducing metastasis.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Neoplasias da Próstata , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética
18.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279409

RESUMO

Cancer is one of the most serious public health issues worldwide, ranking second only to cardiovascular diseases as a cause of death. Numerous plant extracts have extraordinary health benefits and have been used for centuries to treat a variety of ailments with few side effects. Olive leaves have a long history of medicinal and therapeutic use. In this study, the anti-cancer properties of an olive leaf extract were investigated in vitro using colorectal and prostate cancer cell lines (HT29 and PC3, respectively). A high-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the olive leaf extract contained a high chlorogenic acid content. Accordingly, chlorogenic acid may be related to the observed effects of the aqueous extract on cancer cells, including increased inhibition of cancer cell growth, migration, DNA fragmentation, cell cycle arrest at the S phase, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and altered gene expression. The effects of the extracts were greater in HT29 than in PC3 cells. These results suggest that chlorogenic acid, the main constituent in the olive extract, is a promising new anti-cancer agent. Further analyses should focus on its in vivo effects on colorectal tumor models, both alone and in combination with established agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Olea/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose , Ciclo Celular , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4601, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326322

RESUMO

Genomic sequencing of thousands of tumors has revealed many genes associated with specific types of cancer. Similarly, large scale CRISPR functional genomics efforts have mapped genes required for cancer cell proliferation or survival in hundreds of cell lines. Despite this, for specific disease subtypes, such as metastatic prostate cancer, there are likely a number of undiscovered tumor specific driver genes that may represent potential drug targets. To identify such genetic dependencies, we performed genome-scale CRISPRi screens in metastatic prostate cancer models. We then created a pipeline in which we integrated pan-cancer functional genomics data with our metastatic prostate cancer functional and clinical genomics data to identify genes that can drive aggressive prostate cancer phenotypes. Our integrative analysis of these data reveals known prostate cancer specific driver genes, such as AR and HOXB13, as well as a number of top hits that are poorly characterized. In this study we highlight the strength of an integrated clinical and functional genomics pipeline and focus on two top hit genes, KIF4A and WDR62. We demonstrate that both KIF4A and WDR62 drive aggressive prostate cancer phenotypes in vitro and in vivo in multiple models, irrespective of AR-status, and are also associated with poor patient outcome.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Cinesina/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Cinesina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 192: 113504, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298498

RESUMO

Although urinary exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as potential biomarkers, clinical applications are still limited due to their low concentration in small volumes of clinical samples. Therefore, the development of a non-invasive, specific diagnostic tool, along with profiling exosomal miRNA markers from urine, remains a significant challenge. Here, we present hydrogel-based hybridization chain reaction (HCR) for multiplex signal amplification to detect urinary exosomal miRNAs from human clinical samples. We succeeded in identifying small amounts (~amol) of exosomal miRNAs from 600 µL of urine with up to ~35-fold amplification and enhanced detection limits by over an order of magnitude for two miRNA biomarker candidates, hsa-miR-6090 and hsa-miR-3665. Furthermore, we proposed ratiometric analysis without requiring normalization to a reference miRNA and validated the clinical diagnostic potential toward differentiating prostate cancer patients from healthy controls. Our hydrogel-based HCR could serve as a new diagnostic platform for a non-invasive liquid biopsy before burdensome tissue biopsy of various diseases, including prostate cancer screening, complementing the PSA test.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Exossomos , MicroRNAs , Neoplasias da Próstata , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Exossomos/genética , Humanos , Hidrogéis , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Antígeno Prostático Específico , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética
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